Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, was an English naturalist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now accepted, considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey. Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations which gave only a minor role to natural selection, it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.

Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life. Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science, his five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's conception of gradual geological change, publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority, he was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.

Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, his research on plants was published in a series of books, in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil. Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount, he was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin. His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists. Both families were Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself a freethinker, had baby Charles baptised in November 1809 in the Anglican St Chad's Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother.

The eight-year-old Charles had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School with his brother Erasmus in October 1825. Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies, he learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest. In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science, he assisted Robert Edmond Grant's investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine invertebrates in the Firth of Forth, on 27 March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech.

One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals. Darwin was rather bored by Robert Jameson's natural-history course, which covered geology—including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism, he learned the classification of plants, assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time. Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson; as Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos, he joined the ordinary degree course in January 1828. He preferred shooting to studying, his cousin William Darwin Fox introduced him to the popular craze for beetle collecting. He became a close friend and follower of botany professor John Stevens Henslow and met other leadin

Rochester Midland Corporation

Rochester Midland Corporation is a closely-held specialty chemical manufacturing company headquartered in Ogden, New York. It has sales and operations in nearly seventy countries, production facilities in Ogden, New York, Aurora and Oakville, Ontario. Founded as Rochester Germicide in 1888, Rochester Midland Corporation is one of only four companies still in business in Rochester since 1900. Family owned since its founding, Rochester Midland Corp is a leading global provider of sustainable commercial cleaning and hygiene solutions for facility maintenance, restroom care, water treatment, food sanitation and industrial end markets. Rochester Midland is recognized as the leaders in Green Housekeeping technology—co-recipients of the White House Closing the Circle awards and manufacturers of the first Green Seal-certified janitorial cleaning product line in the world. With manufacturing sites in North America and strategically positioned distribution centers, the range of the RMC product portfolio provides, superior cleaning and maintenance solutions to a broad customer base—sold in over 70 countries—including education, manufacturers, food processors and preparers, government organizations, building services contractors


Jacor Communications was a media corporation, existing between 1987 and 1999, which owned many radio stations in the United States. In 1998, Jacor was purchased by Clear Channel Communications, now iHeartMedia, for $2.8 billion. Jacor Communications began with three religious stations and went on to acquire dozens of radio stations between 1992 and its sale to Clear Channel in 1999, it owned a few television stations, including WKRC-TV in Cincinnati. Jacor Communicatiosn was founded by Terry Jacobs. Jacobs incorporated Jacor Communications in 1979 and purchased three religious stations in 1981. In June 1989, Jacor purchased Telesat Cable, a Northern Kentucky cable provider, for $5 million, which it sold in May 1994. In 1993, an investor named Sam Zell paid $80 million from the Zell Chillmark fund to purchase controlling interest in Jacor. In 1992, the Federal Communications Commission increased the number of radio stations a single company could own in one city to 3AMS and 3FMs. After this change, Jacor began purchasing stations, including WKRC Radio in Cincinnati in 1993.

On February 6, 1996, Jacor announced plans to acquire Noble Broadcast Group Inc for $152 million. After the passing of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Jacor began buying more radio stations. On February 13, 1996, Jacor announced; as part of the merger, Jacor acquired WKRC-TV, a Cincinnati CBS-affiliate television station, WTSP, a television station in Tampa, Florida. In September, Jacor announced WTSP would be sold to Gannett Co. in exchange for three radio stations. In May 1993, founder and CEO Terry Jacobs left Jacor; the VP of Programming and COO, Randy Michaels, was named President of the company that year, in 1996, he was promoted to CEO. Jacor's corporate headquarters were in downtown Cincinnati from the mid-1980s through 1996 when they moved across the Ohio River to Covington, Kentucky. In 1997, Jacor acquired the assets of Nationwide Communications. In 1999, Jacor was sold to Clear Channel Communications for $3.4 billion in stock. Clear Channel assumed $1.2 billion of Jacor's debt. At the time of its acquisition, Jacor was the third-largest provider of syndicated radio programming, owning 230 radio stations and Premiere Radio networks, as well as disseminating The Rush Limbaugh Show and the Dr. Laura Schlessinger show.

Clear Channel named Randy Michaels CEO and chairman of Clear Channel Radio in 2000. In 2008, private equity firms Thomas H. Lee and Bain Capital Partners completed a buyout of Clear Channel Communications. Clear Channel Overview