Joseph Cheshire Cotten, Jr. was an American film, stage and television actor. Cotten achieved prominence on Broadway, starring in the stage productions of The Philadelphia Story. He first gained fame in the Orson Welles film Citizen Kane, The Magnificent Ambersons. He went on to one of the leading Hollywood actors of the 1940s, appearing in films such as Shadow of a Doubt, Love Letters, Duel in the Sun, Portrait of Jennie, The Third Man. One of his films was Michael Ciminos Heavens Gate. Joseph Cotten was born in 1905 in Petersburg, the first of three born to Joseph Cheshire Cotten, Sr. an assistant postmaster, and Sally Willson Cotten. He grew up in the Tidewater region and showed an aptitude for drama, in 1923, when Cotten was 18, his family arranged for him to receive private lessons at the Hickman School of Expression in Washington, D. C. and underwrote his expenses. He earned spending money playing professional football on Sundays, for $25 a quarter, after graduation, he earned enough money as a lifeguard at Wilcox Lake to pay back his familys loan, with interest.
He worked as an agent, and his work as a theatre critic inspired him to become involved in theatre productions, first in Virginia. Cotten made his Broadway debut in 1930, in 1934 Cotten met and became friends with Orson Welles, a fellow cast member on CBS Radios The American School of the Air. Welles regarded Cotten as a brilliant comic actor, and gave him the role in his Federal Theatre Project farce. Cotten was sure that Horse Eats Hat won him the notice of his future Broadway costar, Cotten made his film debut in the Welles-directed short, Too Much Johnson, a comedy that was intended to complement the aborted 1938 Mercury stage production of William Gillettes 1890 play. The film was never screened in public and was lost until 2013, Cotten returned to Broadway in 1939, creating the role of C. K. Dexter Haven opposite Katharine Hepburns Tracy Lord in the original production of Philip Barrys The Philadelphia Story. The play ran for a year at the Shubert Theatre, Hayward suggested that they call Cottens good pal, Orson Welles.
Hes been making big waves out here, Hayward said, maybe nobody in Hollywood ever heard of the Shubert Theatre in New York, but everybody certainly knows about the Mercury Theatre in New York. After the success of Welless War of the Worlds 1938 Halloween radio broadcast, the two-picture deal promised full creative control for the young director below an agreed budget limit, and Welless intention was to feature the Mercury Players in his productions. Shooting had still not begun on a Welles film after a year, in mid-1940 filming began on Citizen Kane, portraying the life of a press magnate who starts out as an idealist but eventually turns into a corrupt, lonely old man. The film featured Cotten prominently in the role of Kanes best friend Jedediah Leland, nominated for nine Academy Awards in 1942, the film won only for Best Screenplay, for Mankiewicz and Welles
William Randolph Hearst
Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 after being given control of The San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst created a chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities at its peak and he expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. Politically he espoused the Progressive Movement, speaking on behalf of the working class and he controlled the editorial positions and coverage of political news in all his papers and magazines and thereby exercised enormous political influence. He called for war in 1898 against Spain—as did many other newspaper editors—but he did it in sensational fashion, after 1918, he called for an isolationist foreign policy to avoid any more entanglement in what he regarded as corrupt European affairs. He was at once a militant nationalist, a fierce anti-communist, and deeply suspicious of the League of Nations and of the British, French and Russians. He was a supporter of Franklin Roosevelt in 1932–34, but broke with FDR.
His life story was the inspiration for Charles Foster Kane. His famous mansion, Hearst Castle, on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean near San Simeon, is now a State Historical Monument and a National Historic Landmark. William R. Hearst was born in San Francisco, to mining engineer, goldmine owner and U. S. senator George Hearst. His paternal great-grandfather was John Hearst, of Ulster Protestant origin and he migrated to America from Ballybay, County Monaghan as part of the Cahans Exodus with his wife and six children in 1766 and settled in South Carolina. Their immigration to South Carolina was spurred in part by the governments policy that encouraged the immigration of Irish Protestants. The names John Hearse and John Hearse Jr, the Hearse spelling of the family name never was used afterward by the family members themselves, or any family of any size. Hearsts mother, née Phoebe Elizabeth Apperson, was of Irish ancestry and she was the first woman regent of University of California, funded many anthropological expeditions and founded the Phoebe A.
Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Following preparation at St. Pauls School in Concord, New Hampshire, while there he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the A. D. Searching for an occupation, in 1887, Hearst took over management of a newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, a self-proclaimed populist, Hearst went on to publish stories of municipal and financial corruption, often attacking companies in which his own family held an interest. Within a few years, his paper dominated the San Francisco market, the inventor of color comics, and all of Pulitzers Sunday staff as well. Another prominent hire was James J. Montague, who came from the Portland Oregonian, Hearst imported his best managers from the San Francisco Examiner and quickly established himself as the most attractive employer among New York newspapers. Hearsts activist approach to journalism can be summarized by the motto, While others Talk, the New York Journal and its chief rival, the New York World, mastered a style of popular journalism that came to be derided as yellow journalism, after Outcaults Yellow Kid comic
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
Keith Rupert Murdoch /ˈmɜːrdɒk/, AC, KCSG is an Australian-born American media mogul. His father, Keith Murdoch, had been a reporter, after his fathers death in 1952, Murdoch declined to join his late fathers registered public company and created his own private company, News Limited. Murdoch moved to New York City in 1974, to expand into the U. S. market, however, he retained interests in Australia and Britain. In 1981, Murdoch bought The Times, his first British broadsheet, in 1986, keen to adopt newer electronic publishing technologies, Murdoch consolidated his UK printing operations in Wapping, causing bitter industrial disputes. Murdochs News Corporation acquired Twentieth Century Fox, HarperCollins, and The Wall Street Journal, Murdoch formed the British broadcaster BSkyB in 1990, and during the 1990s expanded into Asian networks and South American television. By 2000, Murdochs News Corporation owned over 800 companies in more than 50 countries, Murdoch faces police and government investigations into bribery and corruption by the British government and FBI investigations in the U. S.
On 21 July 2012, Murdoch resigned as a director of News International, on 1 July 2015, Murdoch left his post as CEO of 21st Century Fox. Murdoch and his own both 21st Century Fox and News Corp through the Murdoch Family Trust. In July 2016, after the resignation of Roger Ailes due to accusations of sexual harassment, Keith Rupert Murdoch was born on 11 March 1931 in Melbourne to Sir Keith Murdoch and Dame Elisabeth Murdoch. He is of English and Scottish ancestry, Murdochs parents were born in Melbourne. Keith Murdoch was a war correspondent and a newspaper magnate owning two newspapers in Adelaide, South Australia, and a radio station in a faraway mining town. Later in life, Keith Rupert chose to use Rupert, the first name of his maternal grandfather. Keith Murdoch the elder asked to meet with his wife after seeing her debutante photograph in one of his own newspapers and they married in 1928. In addition to Rupert, the couple had three daughters, Janet Calvert-Jones, Anne Kantor and Helen Handbury, Murdoch attended Geelong Grammar School, where he was co-editor of the schools official journal The Corian and editor of the student journal If Revived.
He took his schools cricket team to the National Junior Finals and he worked part-time at the Melbourne Herald and was groomed by his father to take over the family business. After her husbands death from cancer in 1952, Elisabeth Murdoch did charity work, as governor of the Royal Womens Hospital in Melbourne. At the age of 102, she had 74 descendants, Murdoch completed an MA before working as a sub-editor with the Daily Express for two years. Following his fathers death, when he was 21, Murdoch returned from Oxford to take charge of the family business News Limited, Rupert Murdoch turned its newspaper, Adelaide News, its main asset, into a major success
Most commonly sleds are used on snow or ice, however in certain cases they may be used on any surfaces, especially on ones with relatively low friction, such as sand or wet grass. They may be used to transport passengers, cargo, or both, shades of meaning differentiating the three terms often reflect regional variations depending on historical uses and prevailing climate. In Britain sledge is the term, and more common than sled. Toboggan is sometimes used synonymously with sledge but more often to refer to a type of sledge without runners. Sleigh refers to a moderate to large-sized, usually open-topped vehicle to carry passengers or goods, in Scandinavia particularly a sleigh may be drawn by reindeer, as for Father Christmas. In American usage sled remains the term but often implies a smaller device. Sledge implies a heavier sled used for moving freight or massive objects, in Australia, where there is limited snow and sledge are given equal preference in local parlance. The people of Ancient Egypt are thought to have used sledges extensively in the construction of their public works and sledges were found in the Oseberg Viking ship excavation.
The sledge was prized, because – unlike wheeled vehicles – it was exempt from tolls. Until the late 19th century, a closed winter sled, or vozok and it was a means of transport preferred by royals and boyars of Muscovy. Several royal vozoks of historical importance have been preserved in the Kremlin Armoury, man-hauled sledges were the traditional means of transport on British exploring expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic regions in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Dog sleds were used by most others, such as Roald Amundsen, today some people use kites to tow exploration sleds in such climes. The word sled comes from Middle English sledde, which itself has the origins in Old Dutch word slee, the same word shares common ancestry with both sleigh and sledge. North Americas Horse Drawn Sleigh Rides
Atlantic City, New Jersey
Atlantic City is a resort city in New Jersey, United States, known for its casinos and beach. In 2010, it had a population of 39,558, incorporated on May 1,1854, from portions of Egg Harbor Township and Galloway Township, the city borders Absecon, Pleasantville, Ventnor City, West Atlantic City and the Atlantic Ocean. Atlantic City inspired the American version of the board game Monopoly, especially the street names, since 1921, Atlantic City has been the home of the Miss America pageant. Because of its location in South Jersey, hugging the Atlantic Ocean between marshlands and islands, Atlantic City was viewed by developers as prime real estate and a resort town. In 1853, the first commercial hotel, the Belloe House, was built at the intersection of Massachusetts, the city was incorporated in 1854, the same year in which the Camden and Atlantic Railroad train service began. Built on the edge of the bay, this served as the link of this remote parcel of land with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. That same year, construction of the Absecon Lighthouse, designed by George Meade of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, was approved, by 1874, almost 500,000 passengers a year were coming to Atlantic City by rail.
In Boardwalk Empire, The Birth, High Times, and Corruption of Atlantic City, the hotel was owned by the railroad. It was a sprawling, four-story structure built to house 2,000 guests and it opened while it was still under construction, with only one wing standing, and even that wasnt completed. By years end, when it was constructed, the United States Hotel was not only the first hotel in Atlantic City. Its rooms totaled more than 600, and its grounds covered some 14 acres, the first boardwalk was built in 1870 along a portion of the beach in an effort to help hotel owners keep sand out of their lobbies. Businesses were restricted and the boardwalk was removed each year at the end of the peak season, because of its effectiveness and popularity, the boardwalk was expanded in length and width, and modified several times in subsequent years. The historic length of the boardwalk, before the destructive 1944 Great Atlantic Hurricane, was about 7 miles and it extended from Atlantic City to Longport, through Ventnor, the first road connecting the city to the mainland at Pleasantville was completed in 1870 and charged a 30-cent toll.
Albany Avenue was the first road to the mainland available without a toll, by 1878, because of the growing popularity of the city, one railroad line could no longer keep up with demand. Soon, the Philadelphia and Atlantic City Railway was constructed to transport tourists to Atlantic City, at this point massive hotels like The United States and Surf House, as well as smaller rooming houses, had sprung up all over town. The United States Hotel took up a city block between Atlantic, Pacific and Maryland Avenues. These hotels were not only impressive in size, but featured the most updated amenities, in the early part of the 20th century, Atlantic City went through a radical building boom. Many of the modest boarding houses dotted the boardwalk were replaced with large hotels
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet.
Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparent
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Academy awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Writers, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze
Yellow journalism, or the yellow press, is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering or sensationalism, by extension, the term yellow journalism is used today as a pejorative to decry any journalism that treats news in an unprofessional or unethical fashion. The term was used to describe certain major New York City newspapers around 1900 as they battled for circulation. The battle peaked from 1895 to about 1898, and historical usage often refers specifically to this period, both papers were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order to drive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well. An English magazine in 1898 noted, All American journalism is not ‘yellow’, the term was coined by Erwin Wardman, the editor of the New York Press. Wardman was the first to publish the term but there is evidence that such as yellow journalism.
Wardman never defined the term exactly, possibly it was a mutation from earlier slander where Wardman twisted new journalism into nude journalism. Wardman had used the yellow kid journalism referring to the then-popular comic strip which was published by both Pulitzer and Hearst during a circulation war. In 1898 the paper simply elaborated, We called them Yellow because they are Yellow, joseph Pulitzer purchased the New York World in 1883 after making the St. Louis Post-Dispatch the dominant daily in that city. Pulitzer strove to make the New York World an entertaining read, crime stories filled many of the pages, with headlines like Was He a Suicide. and Screaming for Mercy. In addition, Pulitzer only charged two cents per issue but gave readers eight and sometimes 12 pages of information. While there were many stories in the New York World, they were by no means the only pieces. Pulitzer believed that newspapers were public institutions with a duty to improve society, just two years after Pulitzer took it over, the World became the highest circulation newspaper in New York, aided in part by its strong ties to the Democratic Party.
Charles Dana, editor of the New York Sun, attacked The World and said Pulitzer was deficient in judgment, Pulitzers approach made an impression on William Randolph Hearst, a mining heir who acquired the San Francisco Examiner from his father in 1887. Hearst read the World while studying at Harvard University and resolved to make the Examiner as bright as Pulitzers paper. Under his leadership, the Examiner devoted 24 percent of its space to crime, presenting the stories as morality plays, a month after Hearst took over the paper, the Examiner ran this headline about a hotel fire, HUNGRY, FRANTIC FLAMES. They Leap Madly Upon the Splendid Pleasure Palace by the Bay of Monterey, leaping Higher, Higher, With Desperate Desire. Running Madly Riotous Through Cornice and Facade, rushing in Upon the Trembling Guests with Savage Fury
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building. While some venues are constructed specifically for operas, other houses are part of larger performing arts centers. In contrast, there was no house in London when Henry Purcell was composing. Early United States opera houses served a variety of functions in towns and cities, hosting community dances, plays, with the rise of bourgeois and capitalist social forms in the 19th century, European culture moved away from its patronage system to a publicly supported system. In the 2000s, most opera and theatre companies raise funds from a combination of government and institutional grants, ticket sales, the Teatro San Carlo in Naples introduces the plant horseshoe, the oldest in the world, a model for the Italian theater. On this model were built following theaters of Italy and Europe, among others, the theater of the Palace of Caserta.
Given the popularity of opera in 18th and 19th century Europe, opera houses are large, with generally more than 1,000 seats. Modern opera houses of the century such as New Yorks Metropolitan Opera. Many operas are better suited to being presented in smaller theatres, in a traditional opera house, the auditorium is U-shaped, with the length of the sides determining the audience capacity. Around this are tiers of balconies, and often, nearer to the stage, are boxes and this is especially true of Wagners Bayreuth Festspielhaus where the pit is almost completely covered. The size of an opera orchestra varies, but for some operas and other works, it may be large, for some romantic period works. Similarly, an opera may have a large cast of characters, dancers, therefore, a major opera house will have extensive dressing room facilities. Opera houses often have on-premises set and costume building shops and facilities for storage of costumes, make-up, and stage properties, major opera houses throughout the world often have highly mechanized stages, with large stage elevators permitting heavy sets to be changed rapidly.
At the Metropolitan Opera, for instance, sets are changed during the action, as the audience watches. This occurs in the Mets productions of such as Aida. Much the same happened in the remodeling of Milans La Scala opera house between 2002 and 2004, since the 1990s, many opera houses have begun using a subtle form of sound reinforcement called acoustic enhancement. Often, operas are presented in their languages, which may be different from the first language of the audience. For example, a Wagnerian opera presented in London may be in German, since the 1980s modern opera houses have assisted the audience by providing translated supertitles, projections of the words above or near to the stage