Hungerford Market was a produce market in London, at Charing Cross on the Strand. It existed in two different buildings on the same site, the first built in 1682, the second in 1832; the market was first built on the site of Hungerford House, next to Durham Yard, the town house of the Hungerford family. The house had burned down in 1669, it was replaced by a new Italianate market building by Charles Fowler, which opened in 1833. The new market was unsuccessful, it was damaged when the adjoining Hungerford Hall burned down in 1854, was sold to the South Eastern Railway in 1862. Charing Cross railway station was built on the site and opened in 1864; the site became the property of the Hungerford family of Farleigh Hungerford Castle near Bath in Somerset in 1425, when it was acquired from Sir Robert Chalons and his wife Blanche by Sir Walter Hungerford, Speaker of the House of Commons and Steward of the Household of King Henry V. By 1444, it was known as "Hungerford Inn". Walter Hungerford's grandson, Robert Hungerford, 3rd Baron Hungerford, great-grandson, Thomas Hungerford, Speaker of the Commons, were both attainted for supporting the Lancastrian cause during the Wars of the Roses, in 1461 and 1469 respectively.
King Henry VII granted the land back to Walter Hungerford. His daughter-in law, Agnes Hungerford, was hanged at Tyburn in 1523, for the murder of her first husband John Cotell, his grandson Walter, was accused in 1540 of treason and perversion, King Henry VIII had him executed alongside his patron Thomas Cromwell. His son, another Walter, was regranted the property in 1544, it passed down the family to Sir Edward Hungerford, created a Knight of the Order of the Bath at the coronation of Charles II. Sir Edward Hungerford obtained permission to hold a market on the site for three days a week. Hungerford Inn, or the burned-out remains of it, was subdivided into shops and with a covered piazza, formed the market; the market never prospered and Hungerford sold the site in parcels to the politician Sir Stephen Fox between 1681 and 1684, Sir Christopher Wren bought a quarter of the property, a quarter of the rents. In 1685 Fox and Wren achieved little increase in trade. A market house was built in the centre of the site designed by Wren himself.
Hungerford squandered his money, dying a poor Knight of Windsor in 1711. In 1718 the market was sold to the royal gardener Henry Wise and remained in his family until 1830, when it was bought by the newly formed Hungerford Market Company. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the old market had become dilapidated. In 1830 an Act of Parliament was obtained to incorporate a company to re-establish the market; the company acquired the site of the old market, together with the adjoining houses in Hungerford street, a few in the Strand. All the existing buildings were demolished, a new structure was built in 1831-3 to an Italianate design by Charles Fowler, the architect of Covent Garden Market; the building contract was the first undertaken by the partnership of Grissell and Peto, who went on to build Nelson's Column, the Reform Club, the Lyceum Theatre, The buildings were of granite. The area occupied by the new market was a strip 126 feet wide, extending 465 feet northward towards the Strand.
In addition, next to the river, was a wharf, about 200 feet long, with steps down to the water. The market itself was divided into three sections; the lower level of the site was occupied by a fish market, consisting of an open court, 130 feet long, with two tiers of colonnaded galleries on each side. By 1830 the replacement of Old London Bridge meant that fishing boats could come further upstream to deliver their catch, the company hoped to break the monopoly of Billingsgate Market by providing a more convenient supply of fish for the West End. Fowler built an iron roof over the open court to protect the fishmongers' stalls and two end pavilions towards the river were used as taverns. At the northern end of this lower court a flight of steps led to the upper level, elevated over storage vaults; the Great Hall, an aisled timber-roofed building 160 feet long, housed a vegetable market. To the north of, another open court, flanked by colonnades and butchers' shops. New Hungerford Street led from there into the Strand.
Fowler exploited the complexities of the site for dramatic effect, leading Thomas Leverton Donaldson to talk of "the playful picturesqueness of the group, where court rose above court, galleries above galleries, where the series of roofs outtopped each other." A suspension bridge leading to the market from Lambeth on the south bank of the River Thames was built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1845, a hall for lectures, named Hungerford Hall, was built next-door in 1851. In the same year of 1851, the Swiss-Italian entrepreneur Carlo Gatti opened a stand at the market selling pastries and ice cream, priced at one penny and served in a shell; this was the first time that ice cream was made available to the paying general public. The market found itself unable to challenge more specialist markets, such as Billingsgate, Covent Garden, was badly damaged when Hungerford Hall burned down in 1854, it was sold to the South Eastern Railway in 1862 which demolished it to make way for Charing Cross railway station, which opened on 11 January 1864.
Brunel's suspension bridge was replaced with the new nine-span Hungerford Railway Bridge, its chains were re-used to complete the Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol. The Hungerford family are commemorated in the name of the Hungerford Bridge, which leads into Charing Cross from the south
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour; that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat. In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles.
In December 2017, WorldCat contained over 400 million bibliographic records in 491 languages, representing over 2.6 billion physical and digital library assets, the WorldCat persons dataset included over 100 million people. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status.
However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library. Copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Open Library Research Libraries UK Blackman, Cathy. "WorldCat and SkyRiver: a comparison of record quantity and fullness". Library Resources & Technical Services. 58: 178–186. Doi:10.5860/lrts.58n3.178. Breeding, Marshall. "Library services platforms: a maturing genre of products". Library Technology Reports. 51: 1–38. Doi:10.5860/ltr.51n4. Matthews, Joseph R.. "An environmental scan of OCLC alternatives: a management perspective". Public Library Quarterly. 35: 175–187. Doi:10.1080/01616846.2016.1210440. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston: Suffolk University Law School.
Research paper 12-06. What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 1997. ISBN 1556532237. OCLC 37492023. Wilson, Kristen. "The knowledge base at the center of the universe". Library Technology Reports. 52: 1–35. Doi:10.5860/ltr.52n6. "WorldCat data licensing". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. See also: "Data licenses & attribution". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information about licensing of WorldCat records and some other OCLC data. Official website "WorldCat". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. Information on the OCLC website about WorldCat. "Bibliographic Formats and Standards". Oclc.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31. "WorldCat Identities". Worldcat.org. Retrieved 2018-12-31
Bickleigh, South Hams
Bickleigh is a small village on the southern edge of Dartmoor in Devon, England. It has a population of about 50 people, it is in the South Hams district, is about 7 miles north of Plymouth city centre. The village is part of the electoral ward called Shaugh. At the 2011 census the ward population was 4,72342 Commando is based at Bickleigh Barracks; the village church has a tower of the 15th century but the rest of the building is the work of Charles Fowler, 1838, one of the church's two baptismal fonts is 15th century. There is a fine monument to Sir Manasseh Masseh Lopes of Maristow House
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Syon House, its 200-acre park, Syon Park, is in west London within the parish of Isleworth, in the county of Middlesex. It is now his family's London residence; the family's traditional central London residence had been Northumberland House, now demolished. The eclectic interior of Syon House was designed by the architect Robert Adam in the 1760s. Syon House derives its name from Syon Abbey, a medieval monastery of the Bridgettine Order, founded in 1415 on a nearby site by King Henry V; the abbey moved to the site now occupied by Syon House in 1431. It was one of the wealthiest nunneries in the country and a local legend recites that the monks of Sheen had a ley tunnel running to the nunnery at Syon. In 1539, the abbey was closed by royal agents during the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the monastic community was expelled. On the closure of the abbey on the dissolution of the monasteries Syon became the property of the Crown for a short time before long lease to the 1st Duke of Somerset, who had the site rebuilt as Syon House in the Italian Renaissance style before his death in 1552.
In 1541 and part of the following year Henry VIII's fifth wife Catherine Howard faced her long imprisonment at Syon. In February 1542, the King's men took her to the Tower of London and executed her on charges of adultery. Five years when King Henry VIII died, his coffin surmounted by jewelled effigy rested at Syon House for its one night rest before the procession reached his burial place in St George's Chapel, Windsor. In 1557 it was proposed to convert the new building to the earlier Catholic use but Elizabeth I of England acceded to the throne before this change was effected. Syon was acquired in 1594 by Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland since when it has remained in his family. In the late 17th century, Syon was in the possession of Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, through his wife, Elizabeth Seymour. After the future Queen Anne had a disagreement with her sister, Mary II, over her friendship with Sarah Churchill, Countess of Marlborough, Queen Mary evicted Princess Anne from her court residence at Whitehall and Hampton Court.
Princess Anne came to live at Syon with her close friends, the Somersets, in 1692. Anne gave birth to a stillborn child there. Shortly after the birth, Queen Mary came to visit her, again demanding that Anne dismiss the Countess of Marlborough and stormed out again when Anne flatly refused. In the 18th century, Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, commissioned architect and interior designer Robert Adam and landscape designer Lancelot "Capability" Brown to redesign the house and estate. Work began on the interior reconstruction project in 1762. Five large rooms on the west and east sides of the House, were completed before work ceased in 1769. A central rotunda, which Adam had intended for the interior courtyard space, was not implemented, due to cost. In 1951, Syon House was opened to the public for the first time under Duchess. In 1995 under the 12th Duke, the family rooms became open to the public as well; as the Percy family continues to live there, they continue to enhance the house. Most the Duchess added a new central courtyard with the design of Marchioness of Salisbury.
A £600K restoration was undertaken in late 2007 involving work to the roof area. In 2008 restoration work commenced on the Great Hall and a current long-term project is to restore the Adam Rooms. Syon House's exterior was erected in 1547 while under the ownership of the 1st Duke of Somerset. Syon's current interior was designed by Robert Adam in 1762 under the commission of the 1st Duke and Duchess of Northumberland; the well known "Adam style" is said to have begun with Syon House. It was commissioned to be built in the Neo-classical style, fulfilled, but Adam's eclectic style doesn't end there. Syon is filled with multiple styles and inspirations including a huge influence of Roman antiquity visible Romantic, Picturesque and Mannerist styles and a dash of Gothic. There is evidence in his decorative motifs of his influence by Pompeii that he received while studying in Italy. Adam's plan of Syon House included a complete set of rooms on the main floor, a domed rotunda with a circular inner colonnade meant for the main courtyard, five main rooms on the west and south side of the building, a pillared ante-room famous for its colour, a Great Hall, a grand staircase and a Long Gallery stretching 136 feet long.
Adam's most famous addition is the suite of state rooms and as such they remain as they were built. More specific to the interior of Adam's rooms is where the elaborate detail and colour shines through. Adam added detailed marble chimneypieces, shuttering doors and doorways in the Drawing Room, along with fluted columns with Corinthian capitals; the long gallery, about 14 feet high and 14 feet wide, contains many recesses and niches into the thick wall for books along with rich and light decoration and stucco-covered walls and ceiling. At the end of the gallery is a closet with a domed circle supported by eight columns. In the 1820s the north range of the house, not completed by Adam was redesigned by the 3rd Duke. At this time the house was refaced in Bath stone and the porch rebuilt; this remodelling is thought to have been done by the architect Thomas Cady, who had worked on other estates belonging to the Percy family. Syon House was refurbished again in the 1860s; the 4th Duke had Renaissance-style plaster ceilings p
Strand is a major thoroughfare in the City of Westminster, Central London. It runs just over 3⁄4 mile from Trafalgar Square eastwards to Temple Bar, where the road becomes Fleet Street inside the City of London, is part of the A4, a main road running west from inner London; the road's name comes from the Old English strond, meaning the edge of a river, as it ran alongside the north bank of the River Thames. The street was popular with the British upper classes between the 12th and 17th centuries, with many important mansions being built between the Strand and the river; these included Essex House, Arundel House, Somerset House, Savoy Palace, Durham House and Cecil House. The aristocracy moved to the West End over the 17th century, following which the Strand became well known for coffee shops and taverns; the street was a centre point for theatre and music hall during the 19th century, several venues remain on the Strand. At the east end of the street are two historic churches: St Mary le Strand and St Clement Danes.
This easternmost stretch of the Strand is home to King's College, one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. Several authors and philosophers have lived on or near the Strand, including Charles Dickens, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Virginia Woolf; the street has been commemorated in the song "Let's All Go Down the Strand", now recognised as a typical piece of Cockney music hall. The street is the main link between the two cities of London, it runs eastward from Trafalgar Square, parallel to the River Thames, to Temple Bar, the boundary between the two cities at this point. Traffic travelling eastbound follows a short crescent around Aldwych, connected at both ends to the Strand; the road marks the southern boundary of the Covent Garden district and forms part of the Northbank business improvement district. The name was first recorded in 1002 as strondway in 1185 as Stronde and in 1220 as la Stranda, it is formed from the Old English word ` strond'. It referred to the shallow bank of the once much wider Thames, before the construction of the Victoria Embankment.
The name was applied to the road itself. In the 13th century it was known as'Densemanestret' or'street of the Danes', referring to the community of Danes in the area. Two London Underground stations were once named Strand: a Piccadilly line station that operated between 1907 and 1994 and a former Northern line station which today forms part of Charing Cross station.'Strand Bridge' was the name given to Waterloo Bridge during its construction. London Bus routes 6, 23, 139 and 176 all run along the Strand. During Roman Britain, what is now the Strand was part of the route to Silchester, known as "Iter VIII" on the Antonine Itinerary, which became known by the name Akeman Street, it was part of a trading town called Lundenwic that developed around 600 AD, stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych. Alfred the Great moved the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, the area returned to fields. In the Middle Ages, the Strand became the principal route between the separate settlements of the City of London and the royal Palace of Westminster.
In the archaeological record, there is considerable evidence of occupation to the north of Aldwych, but much along the former foreshore has been covered by rubble from the demolition of the Tudor Somerset Place, a former royal residence, to create a large platform for the building of the first Somerset House, in the 17th century. The landmark Eleanor's Cross was built in the 13th century at the western end of the Strand at Charing Cross by Edward I commemorating his wife Eleanor of Castile, it was demolished in 1647 by the request of Parliament during the First English Civil War, but reconstructed in 1865. The west part of the Strand was in the parish of St Martin in the Fields and in the east it extended into the parishes of St Clement Danes and St Mary le Strand. Most of its length was in the Liberty of Westminster, although part of the eastern section in St Clement Danes was in the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex; the Strand was the northern boundary of the precinct of the Savoy, where the approach to Waterloo Bridge is now.
All of these parishes and places became part of the Strand District in 1855, except St Martin in the Fields, governed separately. The Strand District Board of Works was based at No. 22, Tavistock Street. Strand District was abolished in October 1900 and became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster. From the 12th century onwards, large mansions lined the Strand including several palaces and townhouses inhabited by bishops and royal courtiers on the south side, with their own river gates and landings directly on the Thames; the road was poorly maintained, with many pits and sloughs, a paving order was issued in 1532 to improve traffic. What became Essex House on the Strand was an Outer Temple of the Knights Templar in the 11th century. In 1313, ownership passed to the Knights of St John. Henry VIII gave the house to William, Baron Paget in the early 16th century. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, rebuilt the house in 1563 calling it Leicester House, it was renamed Essex House after being inherited by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, in 1588.
It was demolished around 1674 and Essex Street, leading up to the Strand, was built o