After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
A tomb effigy, usually a recumbent effigy or in French gisant is a sculpted figure on a tomb monument depicting in effigy the deceased. Such compositions, developed in Western Europe in the Middle Ages, continuing into Renaissance, and early modern times and they typically represent the deceased in a state of eternal repose, lying with hands folded in prayer and awaiting resurrection. A husband and wife may be depicted lying side by side, an important official or leader may be shown holding his attributes of office or dressed in the formal attire of his official status or social class. The life-size recumbent effigy was first found in the tombs of royalty and senior clerics, in the same period small figures of mourners called weepers or pleurants were added below the effigy to important tombs. In the Early Modern period European effigies are shown as alive. During the Renaissance, other non-recumbent types of effigy became more popular, variations showed the deceased lying on their side as if reading, kneeling in prayer and even standing.
The recumbent effigy had something of a vogue during the Gothic revival period of the 19th century, especially for bishops, many graves at Monument Cemetery in Milan have recumbent figures. Some of the examples of the form are in Westminster Abbey in London, Saint Peters in Rome, Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. A celebrated poem describing and reflecting on a stone effigy is An Arundel Tomb by Philip Larkin, recumbent effigies were a common tradition in Etruscan funerary art, examples are known in both ceramic and stone. The deceased was typically depicted alive as at a feast, lying sideways, propped up on one arm, usually these were rather smaller than life-size. The Romans continued this tradition, though they created many other types of funerary effigy. Their faces are often clearly portraits of individuals, the first medieval gisants emerged in the 12th century. They were executed in low relief, and were horizontal, the faces were generalized rather than portraits. Gradually these became full high-relief effigies, usually recumbent, as in death, in general, such monumental effigies were carved in stone, marble or wood, or cast in bronze or brass.
Often the stone effigies were painted to life, but in the majority of the medieval monuments. By the early 13th century, effigies began to be raised on tomb-style chests decorated with foliage, soon such chests stood alone with varying degrees of decoration. Another late medieval fashion was to show the person in a state of decomposition. This type of tomb is known as a transi, in Spain the iconography of Christ lying, as though an effigy, was very popular until the late 18th century
Vladislaus II of Hungary
Vladislaus II, known as Vladislav II, Władysław II or Wladislas II, was King of Bohemia from 1471 to 1516, and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1490 to 1516. As the eldest son of Casimir IV Jagiellon, he was expected to inherit Poland, George of Poděbrady, the Hussite ruler of Bohemia, offered to make Vladislaus his heir in 1468. Poděbrady needed Casimir IVs support against the rebellious Catholic noblemen and their ally, Matthias Corvinus, the Diet of Bohemia elected Vladislaus king after Poděbradys death, but he could only rule Bohemia proper, because Matthias occupied Moravia and Lusatia. Vladislaus tried to reconquer the three provinces with his fathers assistance, but Matthias repelled them and Matthias divided the Lands of the Bohemian Crown in the Peace of Olomouc in 1479. The Estates of the realm had strengthened their position during the war between the two kings, Vladislauss attempts to promote the Catholics caused a rebellion in Prague and other towns in 1483, forcing him to acknowledge the dominance of the Hussites in the municipal assemblies.
The Diet confirmed the right of the Bohemian noblemen and commoners to freely adhere either to Hussitism or Catholicism in 1485, after Matthias Corvinus seized Silesian duchies to grant them to his illegitimate son, John Corvinus, Vladislaus made new alliances against him in the late 1480s. Vladislaus laid claim to Hungary after Matthiass death, the Diet of Hungary elected him king after his supporters defeated John Corvinus. The other two claimants, Maximilian of Habsburg and Vladislauss brother, John Albert, invaded Hungary, but they could not assert their claim and he settled in Buda, enabling the Estates of Bohemia, Moravia and Lusatia to take full charge of state administration. In Hungary, Vladislaus always approved the decisions of the Royal Council and they even annexed territories in Croatia after annihilating the united army of the Croatian barons in the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493. Vladislaus was the eldest son of Casimir IV, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania and she was the daughter of Albert, King of the Romans and Bohemia.
Vladislaus was born in Kraków on 1 March 1456 and his mother and father laid claim to Hungary and Bohemia after her childless brother, Ladislaus the Posthumous, died on 23 November 1457. However, their claims were ignored in both Hungary and Bohemia, the Diet of Hungary elected Matthias Corvinus king on 24 January 1458. The Bohemian Estates of the realm proclaimed the Hussite George of Poděbrady king on 2 March, Vladislaus was his fathers heir in Poland and Lithuania. Casimir IV wanted to prepare all his sons for ruling a realm, the historian Jan Długosz was Vladislauss tutor. Pope Paul II excommunicated George of Poděbrady in late 1466 and proclaimed a crusade against him, the Czech Catholic noblemen rose up against the heretic Poděbrady and sought assistance from Matthias Corvinus. Matthias declared war in March 1468 and invaded Moravia, on 16 May 1468, Poděbrady offered Casimir IV to make Vladislaus his heir if Casimir mediated a peace treaty between Bohemia and Hungary. Matthias refused Casimirs offer, but Poděbrady forced him to sign a truce in early 1469, fearing of losing Matthiass support, the Catholic nobles proclaimed him king of Bohemia in Olomouc on 3 May.
After Poděbrady repeated his offer of bequeathing Bohemia to Vladislaus, Casimir IV entered into negotiations with the Holy Roman Emperor, Poděbrady died on 22 March 1471
A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can be the tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. The word derives from the Greek, κενοτάφιον kenotaphion Cenotaphs were common in the ancient world with many built in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and across Northern Europe. The Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence, contains a number of cenotaphs including one for Dante Alighieri, a cenotaph is the focal point of the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria, South Africa. It is situated below the main point of interest, a marble Historical Frieze in the Hall of Heroes. The Hall of Heroes itself has a dome from the summit of one can view the interior of the monument. At noon on 16 December each year the sun shines through another opening in the dome onto the middle of the cenotaph, the ray of sunshine symbolises Gods blessing on the lives and endeavours of the Voortrekkers. 16 December is the date in 1838 that the Battle of Blood River was fought, South Africa, has a striking and unusual cenotaph made of granite and lavishly decorated with brightly coloured ceramics.
Port Elizabeth, South Africa, has a cenotaph, on either side of the central sarcophagus are statues by Technical College Art School principal, James Gardner, who served in the trenches during the war. One depicts St George and the Dragon, the other depicts the sanctity of family life, surrounding the sarcophagus are a number of bas-relief panels depicting scenes and people during the First World War. It was unveiled by Mrs W F Savage and dedicated by Canon Mayo on 10 November 1929, a surrounding memorial wall commemorates the men and women killed during World War II. In Livingstone there is a cenotaph at the Eastern Cataract of The Victoria Falls with the names of the men of Northern Rhodesia who died during the Great War 1914–18 and it was unveiled by HRH Prince Arthur of Connaught on 1 August 1923. There is a cenotaph in Lusaka at Embassy Park, opposite the Cabinet Office along Independence Avenue, the cenotaph was commemorated in 1977. A monument which has come to be known to as the Cenotaph was erected in Plaza San Martín, in downtown Buenos Aires, to commemorate the Argentinian soldiers who died during the Falklands War, in 1982.
The monument consists of a series of plaques of marble with the names of the fallen, surrounding a flame. Another cenotaph, which is a replica of the Argentine Military Cemetery in Darwin on the Falkland Islands, exists in Campo de Mayo, a limestone replica of the Cenotaph at Whitehall in London was erected outside the Cabinet Building in Hamilton, Bermuda in 1920. In the United States, a cenotaph in Yale Universitys Hewitt Quad honours men of Yale who died in battle, the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial in Dallas is often described as a cenotaph. It has an Egyptian Revival cenotaph base, surmounted by a fasces bound together with ribbons bearing the names of the dead and it was designed by French émigré architect Maximilian Godefroy in 1815, and construction was completed in 1827
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, and King of Hungary. His acts started the Thirty Years War, Ferdinands aim, as a zealous Catholic, was to restore Catholicism as the only religion in the Empire and to suppress Protestantism. He was born at Graz, the son of Charles II, Archduke of Austria and he was educated by the Jesuits and attended the University of Ingolstadt. After completing his studies in 1595, he acceded to his lands and made a pilgrimage to Loreto. Shortly afterwards, he began the suppression of Protestantism in his territories, with the Oñate treaty, Ferdinand obtained the support of the Spanish Habsburgs in the succession of his childless cousin Matthias, in exchange for concessions in Alsace and Italy. In 1617, he was elected King of Bohemia by the Bohemian diet, in 1618, King of Hungary by the Hungarian estates and his devout Catholicism and negative regard of Protestantism caused immediate turmoil in his non-Catholic subjects, especially in Bohemia.
Additionally, Ferdinand was an absolutist monarch and infringed several historical privileges of the nobles, given the relatively great number of Protestants in the kingdom, including some of the nobles, the kings unpopularity soon caused the Bohemian Revolt. The Second Defenestration of Prague of 22 May 1618 is considered the first step of the Thirty Years War, in the following events he remained one of the staunchest backers of the Anti-Protestant Counter Reformation efforts as one of the heads of the German Catholic League. Ferdinand succeeded Matthias as Holy Roman Emperor in 1619, supported by the Catholic League and the Kings of Spain and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ferdinand decided to reclaim his possession in Bohemia and to quench the rebels. On 8 November 1620 his troops, led by the Flemish general Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, smashed the rebels of Frederick V, in 1625, despite the subsidies received from Spain and the Pope, Ferdinand was in a bad financial situation.
Wallenstein was able to recruit some 30,000 men, with whom he was able to defeat the Protestants in Silesia and his military success caused the tottering Protestants to call in Gustavus II Adolphus, King of Sweden. Soon, some of Ferdinands allies began to complain about the power exercised by Wallenstein. Ferdinand replied by firing the Bohemian general in 1630, the leadership of the war thenceforth passed to Tilly, who was however unable to stop the Swedish march from northern Germany towards Austria. Tilly died in battle in 1632, Wallenstein was recalled, being able to muster an army in only a week, and expelled the Swedes from Bohemia. However, in November 1632 the Catholics were defeated in the Battle of Lützen, a period of minor operations followed, perhaps because of Wallensteins ambiguous conduct, which ended with his assassination in 1634. Despite Wallensteins fall, the imperial forces recaptured Regensburg and were victorious in the Battle of Nördlingen, in 1635 Ferdinand signed his last important act, the Peace of Prague, yet this did not end the war.
Ferdinand died in 1637, leaving to his son Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II was buried in his Mausoleum in Graz. His heart was interred in the Herzgruft of the Augustinian Church, in 1600, Ferdinand married Maria Anna of Bavaria, daughter of Duke William V of Bavaria
Sigismund III Vasa
He was the son of King John III of Sweden and his first wife, Catherine Jagellonica of Poland. Elected to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sigismund sought to create a union between the Commonwealth and Sweden, and succeeded for a time in 1592. After he had deposed in 1599 from the Swedish throne by his uncle, Charles IX of Sweden. Shortly after his victory over his enemies, Sigismund took advantage of a period of civil unrest in Muscovy and invaded Russia. In 1617 the Polish–Swedish conflict, which had been interrupted by an armistice in 1611, while Sigismunds army was fighting Ottoman forces in Moldavia, King Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden invaded Sigismunds lands, capturing Riga and seizing almost all of Polish Livonia. Sigismund, who concluded the Truce of Altmark with Sweden in 1629 and his Swedish wars resulted, moreover, in Polands loss of Livonia and in a diminution of the kingdoms international prestige. Sigismund remains a controversial figure in Poland. His long reign coincided with the apex of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealths prestige, power, on the other hand, it was during his reign that the symptoms of decline leading to the Commonwealths eventual demise surfaced.
However, the question of whether the Commonwealths decline was caused by Sigismunds decisions or had its roots in historical processes beyond his personal control and he was commemorated in Warsaw with Sigismunds Column, commissioned by his son and successor, Władysław IV. Sigismund was born on 20 June 1566 to Catherine Jagiellon and the Grand Duke John of Finland at Gripsholm and his parents, at the time, were being held prisoner by King Eric XIV, but despite the Protestant domination of Sweden young Sigismund was raised as a Roman Catholic. In 1567 Sigismund and his parents where released from prison, and in 1568 Erik XIV was deposed, from 1568 Sigismund was the crown prince of Sweden. His mother was the daughter of Polish king Sigismund I the Old, in 1587 Sigismund stood for election to the Polish throne after the death of his uncle, King Stephen Bathory. He was supported by his aunt Queen Anna, Hetman Jan Zamoyski and it seemed that the issue of who would be King of Poland had been settled when Maximilian III invaded Poland to claim the crown.
Hetman Jan Zamoyski defeated Maximilian at the Battle of Byczyna and took him prisoner, however, at the request of Pope Sixtus V, King Sigismund III released Maximilian, who surrendered his claim to Poland in 1589. King Sigismund tried to maintain peace with his neighbor by marrying Archduchess Anne Habsburg in 1592. It was always his intention to maintain an alliance with Catholic Austria against the Protestant forces, when his father died King Sigismund III asked the Sejm to be allowed to claim his inheritance as the rightful King of Sweden. When he promised to respect Lutheranism as the religion of Sweden. Sigismund was crowned King of Sweden in 1594 and he appointed his uncle, Duke Charles, to rule as regent on his behalf in Sweden while he remained in Poland, since Sweden and the Commonwealth were only in a personal union, not united in one state
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period
The residence of the Inner Austrian archdukes and stadtholders was at the Burg castle complex in Graz. In the west, the Carinthian lands stretched to the Archbishopric of Salzburg and the Habsburg County of Tyrol, while in the east, the Mur River formed the border with the Kingdom of Hungary. In the south, the County of Görz, which had passed to the House of Habsburg in 1500, the Imperial Free City of Trieste on the Adriatic Coast linked to assorted smaller possessions in the March of Istria around Pazin and the free port of Rijeka in Liburnia. In 1335 Rudolphs grandson Duke Albert II of Austria received the Carinthian duchy with the adjacent March of Carniola at the hands of Emperor Louis the Bavarian as Imperial fiefs. Both sides came to an agreement to maintain the Neuberg division, from 1404 William acted as Austrian regent for his minor nephew Albert V. The Tyrolean and Further Austrian lands passed to Williams younger brother Duke Leopold IV the Fat,1490 saw the reunification of all Habsburg lines, when Archduke Sigismund of Further Austria and Tyrol resigned in favour of Fredericks son Maximilian I.
In 1512, the Habsburg territories were incorporated into the Imperial Austrian Circle, the dynasty however was split up again in 1564 among the children of deceased Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg. Under the Inner Austrian line founded by his younger son Archduke Charles II and his intentions to translate the absolutist and anti-reformationist Inner Austrian policies to the Crown of Bohemia sparked the Thirty Years War. The political administration of Inner Austria was centralized at Graz in 1763, Inner Austrian stadtholders went on to rule until the days of Empress Maria Theresa in the 18th century. Ferdinand became Archduke of Austria in 1619, all Habsburg territories again united in 1655. History of Austria History of Slovenia
Constance of Austria
Constance of Austria was queen of Poland as the second wife of King Sigismund III Vasa and the mother of King John II Casimir. Constance was a daughter of Charles II of Austria and Maria Anna of Bavaria and her paternal grandparents were Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Anne was the daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary. Her maternal grandparents were Albert V, Duke of Bavaria and Anne Habsburg of Austria, Constance was a younger sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Margaret of Austria, Leopold V of Austria and Anna of Austria. Her older sister Anna was the first wife of king Sigismund III Vasa, after her death Constance and Sigismund were married on December 11,1605. They had seven children, John Casimir, John Casimir, who reigned during 1648–1668 as John II Casimir. Queen Constance was an ambitious politician, immediately after the wedding, she made efforts to influence policy. She built a strong faction of followers by arranging marriages between her handmaidens and powerful nobles and she represented the interests of the Habsburg family in Poland, and influenced the appointments of positions in the court and church.
Her closest confidant was Urszula Meyerin, Constance was proficient in Spanish and Italian. She learned Polish after the wedding but rarely used it and she was very religious and went to Mass twice a day. She was a patron of clerics and architects and she financed the buildings of several palaces for her children, but she was described as an economic person. In 1623 Constance bought Żywiec from Mikołaj Komorowski, which was forbidden by law to the members of the Royal Family, some time she made it forbidden for Jews to settle in the city. Constance wished to secure the succession of her own son to the rather than the son of her sister. Urszula Meyerin Golub-Dobrzyń The Stockholm Roll, Entry of the Wedding Procession of Constance of Austria and Sigismund III into Kraków in 1605
University of Graz
The University of Graz, located in Graz, Austria, is the largest and oldest university in Styria, as well as the second-largest and second-oldest university in Austria. Karl-Franzens-Universität, referred to as the University of Graz, is the citys oldest university, joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where civil servants and medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Francis I, thus gaining the name Karl-Franzens-Universität, over 30,000 students are currently enrolled at this university. The university is sub-divided into six different faculties, the two largest ones being the Faculty of Arts and Humanities and Faculty of Natural Sciences, the other faculties are the faculties of Law and Economic Sciences, Regional Sciences and Education, and Catholic Theology. The Faculty of Medicine has been separated from the university by state legislation in 2004 and has become an independent university in the form of the Medical University of Graz. These six distinct faculties offer a range of undergraduate, graduate.
Ludwig Boltzmann was professor at the University of Graz twice, once from 1869 to 1873 and once from 1876 to 1890, while he was developing his statistical theory of heat. Nobel Laureate Otto Loewi taught at the university from 1909 until 1938 and Victor Franz Hess graduated in Graz, the physicist Erwin Schrödinger was briefly chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936. Students enrolled in one of these programmes attend lectures and seminars at both universities and are awarded a degree at the end of their studies. This tendency holds true for all state-funded universities in Austria, even including the three times as large University of Vienna, historically speaking, for most of its existence the University of Graz was controlled by the Catholic Church. Evidently, relations between the Catholic Church, especially the local bishop, and the universitys Faculty of Theology remain strong yet general policy is not influenced by these connections, geschichte der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, von den Anfängen bis in das Jahr 2005
Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana of Austria
Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana of Austria was a member of the House of Habsburg. She was the daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria, the son of Emperor Ferdinand I and her elder brother Archduke Ferdinand, succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor in 1619. Born in Graz, her godparents were Pope Gregory XIII and her maternal aunt, named after both, Gregoria Maximiliana was described as extremely pious and had the closest relationship to her mother among her siblings. In addition to the Habsburg inferior lip, Gregoria Maximiliana suffered from a deformed shoulder, in 1596 the Admiral of Aragon arrived to Graz and had deliver to the Spanish court portraits of Gregoria Maximiliana and her two younger sisters in marriageable age and Margaret. Shortly after, Gregoria Maximiliana was betrothed to the Prince of Asturias, although the Prince, after seeing the portraits he preferred Margaret, was his father King Philip II who chose Gregoria Maximiliana as his bride, mainly because she was the older. On 17 September 1597 the Prince of Asturias made a visit to the Imperial court in Graz, at this time, Gregoria Maximiliana was seriously ill and she compared her suffering to the prisoners of the Turkish sultan.
Three days later, she died aged sixteen, and was in buried in Seckau Abbey, Gregoria Maximilianas fiancé married her sister Margaret in 1599
Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain
Margaret of Austria was Queen consort of Spain and Portugal by her marriage to King Philip III and II. Margaret was the daughter of Archduke Charles II of Austria, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia, Margarets mother was Maria Anna of Bavaria. Her elder brother was the Archduke Ferdinand, who succeeded as Emperor in 1619, two of her sisters and Constance, through their subsequent marriages to King Sigismund III Vasa, became Queens of Poland. Margaret married Philip III of Spain, her first cousin, once-removed, on 18 April 1599, Philip had an affectionate, close relationship with Margaret, and paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605. Margaret was a great patroness of the arts and she was considered by contemporaries to be a very pious Catholic and astute and very skillful in her political dealings. They emphasised Spains status as a Catholic power acting in the interest of Catholic Europe and they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II.
Queen Margaret was melancholic and unhappy about the influence of the Duke, whom she considered corrupt, over her husband, the Duke of Lerma was eventually removed from power in 1618, though only after Margarets death. Margaret died while giving birth to her youngest child and her husband never remarried and died ten years later. Sánchez and Political Images of a Habsburg Woman at the Court of Philip III, in, Magdalena S. Sánchez and Alain Saint-Saëns, Spanish women in the golden age and realities