Monarchy of Monaco
The Sovereign Prince or Princess of Monaco is the reigning monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco. All reigning princes and princesses have taken the name of the House of Grimaldi, although some have belonged to other families in the male line; the present reigning prince is Albert II. Monaco, along with Liechtenstein and Vatican City, is one of only three states in Europe where the monarch still plays an active role in day-to-day politics; the Prince or Princess of Monaco exercises his or her authority in accordance with the Constitution and laws. He or she represents the Principality in foreign relations and any revision, either total or partial, of the Constitution must be jointly agreed to by the Prince and the National Council. Legislative power is divided between the Prince who initiates the laws, the National Council which votes on them. Executive power is retained by the Prince; the Minister of State and the Government Council are directly responsible to the Prince for the administration of the Principality.
Judiciary powers belong to the Prince. The present Constitution states that the Prince has full authority in the courts and tribunals which render justice in his or her name. Pursuant to Article 16 of the 1962 Constitution, the Sovereign Prince confers orders and other distinctions as the fons honorum of the Principality of Monaco; the Prince is styled His Serene Highness. Although used only formally, the Prince bears several other hereditary titles, some of which are bestowed on his relatives or their spouses; some of these titles have merged with the Crown of Monaco as a result of the Grimaldi family's acquisition of various fiefs. Most were granted or recognised by the Kingdom of France or the Papal States and could only pass through the male line. Thereafter, some of these titles were implicitly re-created as distinctly Monegasque titles; the father of Prince Rainier III was Pierre Grimaldi, Duke of Valentinois, né Count Pierre de Polignac, whose legitimate male-line descendants remain remotely in the line of succession for the French dukedom of Polignac).
The current Prince's complete titles and styles are, in precedent order of rank: Sovereign Prince of Monaco Duke of Valentinois Duke of Estouteville Duke of Mazarin Duke of Mayenne Prince of Château-Porcien Marquis of Baux Marquis of Chilly-Mazarin Marquis of Guiscard Marquis of Bailli Count of Polignac Count of Carladès Count of Ferrette, Belfort and Rosemont Count of Torigni Count of Longjumeau Count of Clèdes Baron of Calvinet Baron of Buis Baron of La Luthumière Baron of Hambye Baron of Altkirch Baron of Saint-Lô Baron of Massy Seigneur of Issenheim Seigneur of Saint-Rémy Sire of Matignon "Prince of Monaco" is a title given to legitimate members of the princely family of Monaco. It is distinct from the ruling Prince's title "Sovereign Prince of Monaco" Albert II, or with the title of the heir apparent or presumptive to the throne Hereditary Prince Jacques. Charlene, Gabriella and Stephanie, are given Princess titles, as the wife and daughters of a sovereign prince. List of rulers of Monaco List of Monégasque consorts Line of succession to the Monegasque throne
Grand Duchy of Hesse
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine was a grand duchy in western Germany that existed from 1806 to the end of the German Empire in 1918. The grand duchy formed on the basis of the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1806 as the Grand Duchy of Hesse. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, it changed its name in 1816 to distinguish itself from the Electorate of Hesse, which had formed from neighboring Hesse-Kassel. Colloquially, the grand duchy continued to be known by its former name of Hesse-Darmstadt, it joined the German Empire in 1871 and became a republic after German defeat in World War I in 1918. Hesse-Darmstadt was a member of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine during the Napoleonic Wars. Expanding during the mediatizations, Hesse-Darmstadt became an amalgamation of smaller German states, such as the Electorate of Cologne; the legal patchwork of the state culminated in a decree issued on 1 October 1806 by Louis I. The old territorial estates were abolished, which altered Hesse-Darmstadt "from a mosaic of patrimonial fragments into a centralized, absolute monarchy."
The Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse-Darmstadt had received in 1803, was ceded to the Kingdom of Prussia during the Congress of Vienna. However, Hesse-Darmstadt was compensated with some territory on the western bank of the Rhine, including the important federal fortress at Mainz; the neighboring Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel had backed Prussia against Napoleon and was absorbed into the Kingdom of Westphalia. At the Congress of Vienna, Hesse-Kassel was reestablished as the Electorate of Hesse. To distinguish the two Hessian states, the grand duchy changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine in 1816. In 1867, the northern half of the Grand Duchy became a part of the North German Confederation, while the half of the Grand Duchy south of the Main remained outside. In 1871, it became a constituent state of the German Empire; the last Grand Duke, Ernst Ludwig, was forced from his throne at the end of World War I, the state was renamed the People's State of Hesse. After World War II, the majority of the state combined with Frankfurt am Main, the Waldeck area and the former Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau to form the new state of Hesse.
Excluded were the Montabaur district from Hessen-Nassau and that part of Hessen-Darmstadt on the left bank of the Rhine, which became part of the Rhineland-Palatinate state. Wimpfen—an exclave of Hessen-Darmstadt—became part of Baden-Württemberg, in the district of Sinsheim. After a plebiscite on 29 April 1951, Bad Wimpfen was transferred from Sinsheim district to Heilbronn District; this change to Heilbronn was carried out on 1 May 1952. Because of the disjointed nature of the state, it did not develop its own state railway to begin with, but set up joint railway projects with its neighbouring states: These were the: Main-Neckar Railway with Frankfurt and Baden Main-Weser Railway with Frankfurt and Kurhessen Frankfurt-Offenbach Local Railway with the Free City of FrankfurtIn addition the state encouraged numerous other projects by the owned Hessian Ludwig Railway Company. In 1876 the state founded its own company, the Grand Duchy of Hesse State Railways, which continued to expand the network until it was merged into the Prussian-Hessian Railway Company in 1897.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse was divided into three provinces: Starkenburg: Right bank of the Rhine, south of the Main. Rhenish Hesse: Left bank of the Rhine, territory gained from the Congress of Vienna. Upper Hesse: North of the Main, separated from Starkenburg by the Free City of Frankfurt. List of rulers of Hesse Line of succession to the former Hessian throne Hessenlager Constitution of Hesse Das Großherzogtum Hessen 1806–1918 Großherzogtum Hessen 1910
Muhammad III as-Sadiq
Muhammad III as-Sadiq GCB was the Husainid Bey of Tunis from 1859 until his death. Invested as Bey al-Mahalla on 10 June 1855, he succeeded his brother Muhammad II ibn al-Husayn on 23 September 1859. Named as divisional General in the Imperial Ottoman Army on 10 June 1855, he was promoted to the rank of Marshal on 10 December 1859. In July 1860, the Bey was persuaded by the British consul, Richard Wood, to allow a British subject named Holt to set up the first official printing press, as well as the first Arabic-language newspaper in the country, the ar-Ra'id at-Tūnisi. A telegraph concession was established, with a French interest taking it up in 1859. On 23 April 1861 he promulgated the first written constitution in the Arab world, separating executive and judiciary powers, through a new Supreme Council and court system, thus limiting the powers of the Bey; this constitution guaranteed equality of rights to Jews. This created a new legal environment. On 26 April 1861, the Bey changed the order of succession to the throne.
Since the time of Hammouda Pasha two hundred years before, French interests in Tunisia had been housed in the fondouk des Français, a caravanserai in the medina. Now the Tunisian government had a new French consulate built, on what was to become the Avenue de la Marine, it was formally opened by the Bey on 12 January 1862; the Bey commissioned the Marseille engineer Colin to repair the Zaghouan aqueduct providing a fresh water supply to the capital. In 1865 he began demolishing the walls around the medina, some of which were so unsound they threatened to collapse, it is during this period that Tunis lost a number of its historic gates - Bab Cartagena, Bab Souika, Bab Bnet and Bab El Jazira. The bronze cannon on the city walls and the fortifications of La Goulette were sold off in 1872. Europeans began to settle near the former Bab el Bhar, in streets close to the old walls and along the Avenue de la Marine, now planted with fig trees. Room for building was limited in nearby areas by European cemeteries opposite the new consulate building, by market gardens along the Lake of Tunis which extended as far towards the city as the present Avenue de Carthage.
However, intrigues among his ministers, notably Mustapha Khaznadar and Mustapha Ben Ismaïl, constant pressure from European consuls and the looming bankruptcy of the state, provoked the Mejba Revolt of 1864, compelled him to secure debts which he could not repay, opened the door to foreign occupation despite the efforts of his Grand Vizier Kheireddine Pacha. France gained an important foothold in Tunisia in 1869 by means of a tripartite Debt Commission, constituted with the United Kingdom and Italy to manage the country's financial commitments to its creditors. In April 1881, a border incident with French Algeria involving raids by Khroumire tribesmen who were subjects of the Bey provided the final pretext for the dispatch of a French expeditionary force which took El Kef, for the landing of French troops at Bizerte on 1 May; the French army occupied Tunis on 11 May. The Bey was therefore compelled to sign the Treaty of Bardo on 12 May, establishing the French protectorate of Tunisia. Muhammad as-Sadiq had several wives.
The first was his cousin, the daughter of the Qaid Ahmed al-Munastiri, from a Turkish family, influential in the harem of the Beys of Tunis throughout the century. His second wife was Henani, daughter of Ali Laroussi, a rich merchant dealing in traditional Tunisian chéchia headgear, he married a Circassian odalisque Lalla Kmar, a gift from the Ottoman sultan. However this marriage was never consummated and Lalla Kmar subsequently married two other Beys after him, his main residence was the Ksar Said palace, built in an Italianate style in front of the Bardo palace. It had been confiscated from the former minister and Keeper of the Seals, Ismail as-Sunni, accused of treason and executed in 1867.. It was to one of the first floor staterooms of this palace that, on 12 May 1881, the French consul Théodore Roustan brought the French General Jules Aimé Bréart to the Bey's privy council to secure his signature on the Treaty of Bardo. In his years, the Bey fell under the influence Mustapha Ben Ismaïl, died without issue.
He was buried in the Tourbet el Bey mausoleum in the medina of Tunis. He was succeeded by his brother Ali III ibn al-Husayn. Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kalākaua I, 1881 History of the Jews in Tunisia Ottoman Tunisia History of French-era Tunisia The Mejba Revolt
Monégasque is a variety of Ligurian, a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Monaco as well as nearby in Italy and France. Monégasque is taught in the schools of Monaco and spoken by a minority of residents and as a common second language by many native residents. In Monaco-Ville, street signs are printed in both Monégasque. Forming a part of the Western Romance dialect continuum, Monégasque shares many features with the Genoese dialect. Though similar to the dialect of Ventimiglia, it does differ from the Menton's dialect, it shares similarities with the Niçard dialect of the Occitan language. Monegasque, like all other Ligurian language variants, is derived directly from the Vulgar Latin of what is now northwestern Italy and southeastern France and has some influence in vocabulary and syntax from French and related Gallo-Romance languages, but most words are derived from Italian. Before the annexation of the County of Nice to France in 1860, the Niçois spoke a dialect similar to Monégasque, it is spoken in addition to French by Monégasques within the small nation of Monaco.
Because Monégasques are only a minority in Monaco, the language was threatened with extinction in the 1970s. However, Monégasque is now being taught in schools, its continuance is regarded as secured. In the old part of Monaco, street signs are written in French. Standard Italian is a major language in Monaco. Italian nationals make up some 20% of Monaco's 35,000 permanent residents. Italian was the official language of Monaco when it was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia, from 1814 to 1861, leaving a legacy in some Monégasque words. Indeed, for a long time after the Renaissance, Monaco was the most westerly part on the Mediterranean coast of the Republic of Genoa. During the fascist occupation in 1942–43, the Principality of Monaco was incorporated into Italy and Monégasque was again considered a dialect of Italian. After World War II there were nearly 10,000 Italians in Monte Carlo, some of them spoke Monégasque fluently. Monégasque orthography follows Italian principles, with the following exceptions: ⟨ü⟩ represents, as the French ⟨u⟩. ⟨œ⟩ represents, as the French ⟨é⟩, not the French ⟨œu⟩, as in bœuf, how it is pronounced in Ligurian, which uses the character ⟨ö⟩ to represent the sound.
⟨ç⟩ represents, as the French ⟨ç⟩: tradiçiùn comes from the Latin traditionem, not from the Italian tradizione. Below is an excerpt from the Monégasque national anthem, written by Louis Notari. In addition, there is an older French version of the anthem; the choice between the two forms is subject to the occasion and the circumstance. Despœi tugiù sciü d'u nostru paiseSe ride au ventu, u meme pavayùnDespœi tugiù a curù russa e gianca E stà l'emblema, d'a nostra libertà Grandi e i piciui, l'an sempre respetà The following is a Monégasque rendering of the Hail Mary: Ave Maria,Tüta de graçia u Signù è cun tü si benedëta tra tüt'ë done e Gesü u to Fiyu è benejiu. Santa Maria, maire de Diu, prega per nùi, pecatùi aùra e à l'ura d'a nostra morte AMEN. Languages of Europe Languages of Italy Languages of Monaco
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Order of Charles III
The Royal and Distinguished Spanish Order of Charles III Royal and Much Distinguished Order of Charles III was established by the King of Spain Carlos III by means of the Royal Decree of 19 September 1771, with the motto Virtuti et mérito. Its objective is to reward people for their actions in benefit to the Crown. Since its creation, it has been the most distinguished civil award that can be granted in Spain, despite its categorisation as a military order; the Order was formally converted to a civil order in 1847. The order's current regulations were approved by Royal Decree 1051 of 2002; the regulation sets the objective of the order as a means of "rewarding the citizens who, with their effort and work, have brought a distinguished and extraordinary service to the Nation". The Grand Master of the order is the monarch of Spain King Felipe VI. Although the royal decree of creation was in September 1771, Carlos III did not make public the orders that would regulate the distinction until 24 October.
The reason for this lies in the origin of the Order. The future king and prince of Asturias, Carlos IV, had been married for five years with no offspring, reason for which when his first child was born his grandfather, Carlos III, wanted to leave evidence of his gratitude to God — to whom he declared having prayed to while waiting for the continuation of the dynasty — and to the Virgin Mary in his advocacy of the Immaculate Conception and of whom he declared himself the profoundly devote king. Like so, on the given date, when the king's daughter-in-law assisted the first religious affair with the child in her arms, the king wanted to publish the laws of concession, naming himself "Great Master of the Order" and giving his heirs, as long as they held the title "King of Spain", the same treatment and position. Although the child and various brothers died soon after, Carlos III maintained his agreement, the number of Crosses given was reduced at the monarch's regret; the orders of creation demanded two requirements: to be "worthy and affectionate of His Highness".
Two classes were created: the "Great Crosses" and the "Pensioners", the monarch being discretional with his authorization, although it was limited to sixty of the former and two-hundred of the latter. In 1783 the classes were expanded to three with that of "Supernumerary Knights", whose level of importance was between the previous two. At this moment the duties and requirements of the titles were specified: they needed to have "pure and noble blood" up to their great-grandparents, as was regulated by the Old Book of Territorial Laws of Castilla and the other valid laws; those received by the Order took an oath for loyalty towards the king, his family, the protection of the goods of the Royal House, recognizing him as Great Master and die in faith catholic, accepting as indisputable the Mystery of the Immaculate Conception, attending and receiving communion at mass at least once a year. Pope Clement XIV, on 21 February 1772 recognized the Order through papal bull and bestowed upon it the religious benefits, to the Order as well as its members, giving the Great Master all the capacity to decree in religious matters regarding the members Christian pardon and apostolic blessing.
The benefits of the members of the Order were of a different nature increasing with Pius VI. The insignias of the Order have varied through time, but have invariably maintained some original features: blue silk band with white design, an eight-point cross with the image of the Immaculate Conception, the legend of the "Viruti et Merito" and the figure of the founding king; the government of the Order became more and more complex, although in truth it was the monarch and the treasurer who granted authorization and retributions. The king was careful to incorporate into the Order theologians of the Crown that investigated the mysteries of the Virgin Mary, in some cases the clergymen being greater in number than the knights and nobles of which it was made up; the meetings were held in the Church of San Gil in Madrid twice a year, one coinciding with the Immaculate Conception and the other with the Day of the Saints. With Carlos IV of Spain some reforms were made to the dress and the distribution of colours in the distinctions.
The war of Spanish independence caused the two institutions to attribute the faculty of the government of the Order, giving both distinctions: the King José I and the Supreme Central Assembly on behalf of Fernando VII. In the end, these were abolished by the Napoleonic king; the colours of the band of the Order were adopted by some members of the First Assembly of Government to signify their adhesion to King Fernando VII and would come to represent the movement for independence. The Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III is reserved for those who, having completed relevant service to Spain, having been Presidents of the Congress of Deputies, the Senate, the Constitutional Court of the Supreme Judicial Council, the Supreme Court, Ministers or other senior officials of the state; the maximum number of Grand Crosses are limited to one hundred, not counting those accorded to Ministers. Knights Collar and Knights Grand Cross of the Order are entitled to be addressed with the style The Most Excellent in front of their name.
Other members are entitled to the style of The Most Illustrious. The orders are conferred in the following grades: Collar – restricted to 25 Spanish citizens. Grand Cross – restricted to 100 Spanish citizens. Commander by Number - restricted to 200
Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary
The Order of Saint Stephen was an order of knighthood founded by Maria Theresa in 1764. In 1938, Miklós Horthy took the activities of Grand Master as Regent of Hungary; the name of the Order changed to The Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen. The Order was terminated at the time of the proclamation of the Republic of Hungary in 1946, it was recreated in 2011 as the Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen, to this day remains the highest order in Hungary. The order is named after Hungary's most famous king, Stephen I, whose reign was marked by his consolidation of the monarchy, the establishment of the medieval state of Hungary, his adoption of Christianity as the state religion, his coronation, as recognized in the Church, is dated 1001. He died August 1038, during the Feast of the Assumption, his feast day in Hungary is August 20. Canonized by Pope Gregory VII in 1083 along with his son Imre and Bishop Gerhard of Hungary, St. Stephen is the patron saint of "Hungary, the death of children, masons and bricklayers."
Though its exact provenance is somewhat disputed, the Crown of St. Stephen is said to have been a gift from Pope Silvester II, upon Stephen's 1001 coronation. Empress Maria Teresa and her son, Emperor Joseph II, made several political concessions to ease tensions within their empire—most between Austria and Hungary, among them being the creation of the Order. Membership was available to various members of the Hungarian nobility. To receive the Order, according to collector and historian Stephen Herold, one had to have at least four quarterings of arms showing as many generations of noble status, it helped promote her position as Queen of Hungary and reinforced the quasi independent position of Hungary in the Empire. The original statutes allow for only 20 Grand Crosses, 30 Commanders and 50 Knights who are to be "distinguished for virtue and merit and noble birth". Grand Cross Knights were considered so important that the Emperor was to address them as "Cousin"; these insignia were to be returned to the Chancellery of the Order on the death of the holder.
There was no military application of this order. It is rare, modern awards of St. Stephen are seen. More than any other Austrian order, this one approached the ideal character as put forth in its statutes and regulations. Grand Cross – For ceremonial purposes, a full set of robes were prescribed, following the tradition of other orders, such as the Austrian and Spanish Orders of the Golden Fleece and Great Britain's Order of the Garter; the robes were crimson and green, were lined with ermine. A collar of gold was worn about the neck and shoulders, with the badge of the Order suspended from the collar. For normal occasions and every-day wear, a sash of crimson, edged with green, was worn over the right shoulder and extended to the left hip, the distinctive badge of the Order suspended from the sash at the hip. An eight-pointed star was worn on the left breast. During the waning days of the monarchy during the Great War, a less formal option was authorized, whereby a miniature of the breast star was affixed to the center of the ribbon of an ordinary knight's cross, was worn on the left breast with other orders and military medals, in order of precedence.
Knights Commander – wore the badge of the Order at the throat, suspended from the crimson edged with green ribbon about the neck. During the Great War, the informal wear of the miniature, Crown of Saint Stephen kleine Decoration was worn on an ordinary knight's cross, to delineate them from ordinary knights and Grand Cross knights, worn on the left breast with other orders and military medals, in order of precedence. Knights – wore the badge of the Order, suspended from a tri-fold ribbon of crimson, edged in green, on the left breast with other orders and military medals, in order of precedence; the following is a partial list of knights of the Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen, as compiled from a variety of sources listed in the bibliography. A nearly complete list, MAGYAR KIRÁLYI SZENT ISTVÁN REND, is available in the Hungarian language, online. Empress Maria Teresa, 1764–1780 Emperor Josef II, 1780–1790 Emperor Leopold II, 1790–1792 Emperor Franz I, 1792–1835 Emperor Ferdinand I, 1835–1848 Emperor Franz Josef I, 1848–1916 Emperor Karl I, 1916–1922.
Karl von Habsburg, 2007–present Prince Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz and foreign policy advisor to Maria Teresa, State Chancellor and Privy Councilor to Josef II Carl Friedrich Hatzfeldt zu Gleichen, Austrian statesman.