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Charles IV of Spain

Charles IV was King of Spain from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. Charles was his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony, he was born in Naples, while his father was King of Sicily. His elder brother, Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy. In Naples and Sicily, Charles was referred to as the Prince of Taranto, he was called El Cazador, due to his preference for sport and hunting, rather than dealing with affairs of the state. Charles was considered by many to have been simple-minded. In 1788, Charles III died and Charles IV succeeded to the throne, he intended to maintain the policies of his father, retained his prime minister, the Count of Floridablanca, in office. Though he had a profound belief in the sanctity of his office, kept up the appearance of an absolute, powerful monarch, Charles never took more than a passive part in his own government; the affairs of government were left to his wife, Maria Luisa, his prime minister, while he occupied himself with hunting.

In 1792, political and personal enemies ousted Floridablanca from office, replacing him with Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. However, in the wake of the war against Republican France, the liberal-leaning Count of Aranda was himself replaced by Manuel de Godoy, a favourite of the Queen and believed to be her lover, who enjoyed the lasting favor of the King. In 1799, he authorized Prussian aristocrat and scientist Alexander von Humboldt to travel in Spanish America, with royal officials encouraged to aid him in his investigation of key areas of Spain's empire. Humboldt's Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain was a key publication from his five-year travels. Godoy continued Abarca de Bolea's policy of neutrality towards France, but after Spain protested the execution of Louis XVI of France, the deposed king, in 1793, France declared war on Spain. After the declaration and Spain signed a treaty of mutual protection against France. In 1796 France forced Godoy to enter into an alliance, declare war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.

As a consequence, Spain became one of the maritime empires to have been allied with Republican France in the French Revolutionary War, for a considerable duration. Spain remained an ally of France and supported the Continental Blockade until the British naval victory at Trafalgar, when Spain became allied with Britain. However, after Napoleon's victory over Prussia in 1807, Godoy again steered Spain back onto the French side; this switching of alliances devalued Charles' position as a trustworthy ally, increasing Godoy's unpopularity, strengthening the fernandistas, who favoured an alliance with the United Kingdom. Economic troubles, rumours about a sexual relationship between the Queen and Godoy, the King's ineptitude, caused the monarchy to decline in prestige among the population. Anxious to take over from his father, jealous of the prime minister, Crown Prince Ferdinand attempted to overthrow the King in an aborted coup in 1807. Riots, a popular revolt at the winter palace Aranjuez, in 1808 forced the king to abdicate on 19 March, in favor of his son.

Ferdinand took the throne as Ferdinand VII, but was mistrusted by Napoleon, who had 100,000 soldiers stationed in Spain by that time due to the ongoing War of the Third Coalition. The ousted King, having appealed to Napoleon for help in regaining his throne, was summoned before Napoleon in Bayonne, along with his son, in April 1808. Napoleon forced both Charles and his son to abdicate, declared the Bourbon dynasty of Spain deposed, installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King Joseph I of Spain, which began the Peninsular War. Following Napoleon's deposing of the Bourbon dynasty, the ex-King, his wife, former Prime Minister Godoy were held captive in France first at the château de Compiègne and three years in Marseille. After the collapse of the regime installed by Napoleon, Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne; the former Charles IV drifted about Europe until 1812, when he settled in Rome, in the Palazzo Barberini. His wife died on 2 January 1819, followed shortly by Charles, who died on 20 January of the same year.

Sir Francis Ronalds included a detailed description of the funeral in his travel journal. Well-meaning and pious, Charles IV floundered in a series of international crises beyond his capacity to handle, he was painted by Francisco Goya in a number of official court portraits, which numerous art critics have seen as satires on the King's stout vacuity. Charles IV married his first cousin Maria Louisa, the daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma, in 1765; the couple had fourteen children, six of whom survived into adulthood: 11 November 1748 – 10 August 1759: His Royal Highness The Prince of Taranto 10 August 1759 – 14 December 1788: His Royal Highness The Prince of Asturias 14 December 1788 – 19 March 1808: His Majesty The King of Spain 19 March 1808 – 20 January 1819: His Majesty King Carlos IV of Spain Historia del Reinado de Carlos IV, by General Gomez de Arteche, in the Historia General de España de la Real Academia de la Historia. Historiaantiqua. Isabel II. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Charles IV. king of Spain".

The American Cyclopædia. 1879

Clifton, New South Wales

Clifton is a village on the coast of New South Wales, between Sydney and Wollongong. Along with nearby Coalcliff, the village began life as a coal-mining centre, it is situated on a narrow area between the Illawarra escarpment. The electrified South Coast railway line passes through, but the station at Clifton was closed in 1915; the Sea Cliff Bridge, opened in 2005, restored the connection between Clifton and Coalcliff, broken by frequent rock falls onto this section of the Lawrence Hargrave Drive. The bridge lies parallel to the former "coal cliffs" and offers scenic views of the cliffs, the sea, surrounding coastline. In 1797, survivors of the Sydney Cove discovered coal in the'Coal Cliffs'. Clifton was created with the construction of the Coal Cliff Colliery in 1877, it was situated on the southern end of the Stanwell Park Estate owned by surveyor Sir Thomas Mitchell. A number of weatherboard cottages with galvanised iron roofs had been built; the mine opened in 1878. In 1880, the School of Arts was established.

Thomas Hale, the first mine manager, constructed a 500-foot jetty out to sea and a slide down the 120-foot cliff. This took coal to Herga, two steam colliers built in Glasgow. Hilda struck a reef near Port Hacking in 1893. In 1878 the mine employed 73 men. By 1884 there were 150 miners, coal production was 51,500 tons annually. Most of the miners lived, in Clifton. There was a post/telegraph office and James Farraher's Clifton Inn and in 1884 the press reported near 1000 residents, a large proportion of which worked at the mines. In 1879 a mail service to Bulli was established; the mine closed after storms destroyed the job losses crippled the village. In 1887 the railway line had reached Clifton from Wollongong. Before this time four-horse coaches would travel between Wollongong and Clifton, starting from Wollongong at 5 am. In 1884 an Anglican and a Roman Catholic Church were built. A public hall was built in 1885. In 1887 the railway between Wollongong and Clifton was opened. In 1890 the Coal Cliff Coal and Land Company Ltd take over the colliery.

In 1893 the Clifton School was opened. In 1910 the miners at the Coal Cliff Colliery went on strike for ten months. In 1910 the school of arts building was built; the strikers supplied some of the required labour for this project. In 1919 additions were made to the Catholic Church and it was blessed in a ceremony on the first of March. From May 8th to 10th, 1972, about sixty miners took over the mine at South Clifton in protest of its closure on May 5th, ensuring the mine was reopened for a further period. Media related to Clifton, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons

1945 Irish presidential election

The 1945 Irish presidential election was held on 14 June 1945. It was Ireland's first contested presidential election. Outgoing president Douglas Hyde, who had served since 1938, decided not to seek a second term. Fianna Fáil nominated Tánaiste Seán T. O'Kelly, as its candidate. Fine Gael nominated Seán Mac Eoin. Independent republican Patrick McCartan sought and failed to receive the necessary four nominations from local councils, but secured a nomination from Oireachtas members. O'Kelly won on the second count but the degree of voting transfers between the two opposition candidates, O'Kelly's failure to win on the first count, showed the depth of growing opposition to Éamon de Valera's government and the potential that existed for cooperation among various opposition groups. De Valera's government was defeated in the subsequent 1948 general election and replaced by a First Inter-Party Government; the election took place on the same date as the 1945 local elections. Electoral law was amended to allow administrative counties and county boroughs to be used as constituencies instead of using Dáil constituencies, as required.

This was to facilitate counting of ballots with ballots for the local elections. Under Article 12 of the Constitution of Ireland, candidates could be nominated by: at least twenty of the 198 serving members of the Houses of the Oireachtas, or at least four of 31 councils of the administrative counties, including county boroughs, or themselves, in the case of a former or retiring president. All Irish citizens on the Dáil electoral register were eligible to vote; the first candidate nominated was Seán Mac Eoin, a Fine Gael TD, nominated on 5 May by 17 members of his own party, as well as three independent TDs, Alfie Byrne, Tom O'Reilly and Richard Anthony. Seán T. O'Kelly was nominated by Fianna Fáil Oireachtas members on 15 May. On the date before nominations closed on 16 May, the administrative council of the Labour Party voted to allow its Oireachtas members to sign the nomination form of Patrick McCartan, Clann na Talmhan voted that its Oireachtas members would sign his nomination form, together guaranteeing his position on the ballot.

Results were announced by county councils and county borough corporations rather than by constituency