Charles Theodore reigned as Prince-elector and Count Palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and as prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777 to his death. He was a member of the House of a branch of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles Theodore was of the Wittelsbach house Palatinate-Sulzbach, his father was Johann Christian, who became Count Palatine of Sulzbach. His mother was Marie-Anne-Henriette-Leopoldine de La Tour d'Auvergne, Margravine of Bergen op Zoom, a grandniece of Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne. Charles Theodore was educated in Mannheim. Charles Theodore was the Margrave of Bergen op Zoom from 1728 onwards, he succeeded his father as Count Palatine of Sulzbach in 1733 and inherited the Electoral Palatinate and the duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1742, with the death of Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine. To strengthen the union of all lines of the Wittelsbach dynasty Charles III Philip had organised a wedding on 17 January 1742 when his granddaughter Elizabeth Augusta was married to Charles Theodore and her sister Maria Anna to the Bavarian prince Clement.
As reigning Prince Elector Palatine, Charles Theodore won the hearts of his subjects by founding an academy of science, stocking up the museums' collections and supporting the arts. When Maximilian III Joseph of Bavaria died in 1777, Charles Theodore became Elector and Duke of Bavaria and moved to Munich. Charles Theodore did not take up his new title, he had many illegitimate children. However, these people could inherit neither that of the Palatine. Charles Theodore dreamed of resurrecting the Burgundian Empire of the Middle Ages. On 3 January 1778, shortly after the death of Max Joseph, Charles Theodore signed an agreement with Emperor Joseph II to exchange southern Bavaria for part of the Austrian Netherlands; the plan was opposed by Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony, the widow of Max Joseph, Charles Theodore's cousin Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken, the head of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld and next heir of Bavaria and the Palatinate. They were supported by Frederick II of Prussia, most of the German minor states.
The ensuing diplomatic crisis led to the War of the Bavarian Succession, ended by the Peace of Teschen. Charles Theodore accepted the Bavarian succession, but agreed that his illegitimate descendants could not inherit Bavaria. Austria acquired a part of Bavaria in the basin of the Inn river. Charles Theodore had only one son with his wife, Countess Elizabeth Augusta of Sulzbach, who died a day after birth, his wife died in 1794. In 1795, he married Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, Joseph's niece. A second proposal to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands in 1784 failed as Frederick II of Prussia initiated the Fürstenbund; when Charles Theodore died and the Electorate passed to his cousin, Max Joseph, Duke of Zweibrücken, the younger brother of Charles August, who had died in 1795. In 1989, Marvin E. Thomas argued in Karl Theodor and the Bavarian Succession, 1777–1778 that Charles Theodore wanted to maintain possession of his new territory, as is shown in his diplomatic correspondence.
Thomas is the only scholar to produce such an analysis. It is more understood that Charles Theodore continued the despotic and expensive habits he had developed as Elector Palatine. Charles Theodore never became popular as a ruler in Bavaria according to his critic Lorenz von Westenrieder, he attempted, without success to exchange the ducal lands of Bavaria, for the Austrian Netherlands and a royal crown, he never managed to control the mounting social tensions in Bavaria. After a dispute with Munich's city council, he moved the electoral residence in 1788 to Mannheim but returned only one year later. In 1785, he appointed the American Loyalist exile Benjamin Thompson as his aide-de-camp and chamberlain. Over the next 11 years, Thompson reformed the army and many aspects of the state, rising to high ministerial rank with Charles Theodore's backing, becoming Count von Rumford. Charles Theodore is known for disbanding Adam Weishaupt's order of the Illuminati in 1785. In 1794, the armies of revolutionary France occupied the Duchy of Jülich, in 1795 they invaded the Palatinate, in 1796 marched towards Bavaria.
Charles Theodore begged Francis II for help. When he died of a stroke in Munich in 1799, the population in Munich celebrated for several days, he is buried in the crypt of the Theatinerkirche in Munich. Despite the mutual dislike and distrust between the Duke and his Bavarian subjects, Charles Theodore left a distinctive mark on the city of Munich: it was during his reign that the English Garden, Munich's largest park, was created, the city's old fortifications were dismantled to make place for a modern, expanding city. One of Munich's major squares, Karlsplatz, is named after Charles Theodore. Munich natives, however use that name, calling the square instead Stachus, after the pub "Beim Stachus", located there until construction work for Karlsplatz began because Charles Theodore, as noted above, never enjoyed the popularity in Bavaria that he enjoyed in the Palatinate. Charles Theodore was more interested in arts and philosophy than in politics. Historian Thomas Carlyle referred to him as a "poor idle creature, of purely egoistical, dilettante nature.
Notker Wolf OSB served as the ninth Abbot Primate of the Benedictine Confederation of the Order of Saint Benedict. He was elected to his position as Abbot Primate in 2000, succeeding Marcel Rooney, ended his final term in 2016, he lives at the Confederation's headquarters at Sant'Anselmo in Rome. The position is honorary as the Benedictines are not a centralized order, he speaks on Benedictine or Catholic issues. In November 2009 the Abbot Primate received an honorary Doctorate of Laws from Saint Anselm College, he has written at least 19 books, with his latest concerning the issue of living an environmentally sustainable life for both a good future for the earth as well as for the individual in a spiritual/holistic fashion. An interview of his views on sustainable consumption is given in the 4 April 2012 issue of Stern magazine, his books have been translated into many languages. He is a musician who has performed both traditional Benedictine music and Christian rock since 1981, including at least 4 CDs.
He plays electric guitar for the rock group Feedback. He admits. However, on covering the Pope's recent trip to Bavaria for German TV, he took a positive position. During the aftermath of Benedict's Regensburg lecture, he took the position that the Pope was referring to Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and those who force conversions rather than to Islam as a whole. Wolf is interested in interfaith dialogue and sits on the Board of World Religious Leaders for the Elijah Interfaith Institute. On 21 September 2012 the Congress of Abbots reelected the 72-year-old Wolf to serve another term as Abbot Primate. German language site Album cover for Feedback's "Rock my Soul" official site of FEEDBACK"
The George Herbert Jones Laboratory is an academic building at 5747 S. Ellis Avenue, Illinois, on the main campus of the University of Chicago. Room 405 of the building was named a National Historic Landmark in 1967; the George Herbert Jones Laboratory is located at the northwest corner of the main quadrangle of the University of Chicago campus, between East 58th and 57th Streets. It is a four-story masonry structure, built in 1928-29 as facility and instructional space for the university's staff of research chemists and graduate students in chemistry. Room 405 is a non-descript chamber on the fourth floor, measuring 6 by 9 feet, with shelves and counters lining its walls, it is accessed via a wooden door with a glass window in its upper half. As part of the U. S. War Department's Manhattan Project, University of Chicago chemists began to study the newly manufactured radioactive element, plutonium. Room 405 was the site where, for the first time on August 18, 1942, a team led by physicist Glenn Seaborg isolated a trace quantity of this new element.
Measurements performed on September 10, 1942 enabled chemists to determine the new element's atomic weight. This important step was to change the world, making possible nuclear weapons. Seaborg said of this event: "These memorable days will go down in scientific history to mark the first sight of a synthetic element, the first isolation of a weighable amount of an artificially produced isotope of any element." The U. S. Department of Energy remediated Jones Laboratory in the 1980s by studying and removing all of the building's World War II-era radioactive waste; the remediation took place in 1982, 1983, 1987. Although room 405 looks nothing like the original condition, the lobby of the laboratory maintains a collection of the specialized equipment used to perform the measurements. Although the building's basement and ground floor were damaged by an explosion in 1973, Room 405 was not affected