Charles VII of France

Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was King of France from 1422 to his death in 1461. In the midst of the Hundred Years' War, Charles VII inherited the throne of France under desperate circumstances. Forces of the Kingdom of England and the Duke of Burgundy occupied Guyenne and northern France, including Paris, the most populous city, Reims, the city in which the French kings were traditionally crowned. In addition, his father Charles VI had disinherited him in 1420 and recognized Henry V of England and his heirs as the legitimate successors to the French crown instead. At the same time, a civil war raged in France between the Burgundian party. With his court removed to Bourges, south of the Loire River, Charles was disparagingly called the "King of Bourges", because the area around this city was one of the few remaining regions left to him. However, his political and military position improved with the emergence of Joan of Arc as a spiritual leader in France. Joan of Arc and other charismatic figures led French troops to lift the siege of Orléans, as well as other strategic cities on the Loire river, to crush the English at the battle of Patay.

With the local English troops dispersed, the people of Reims switched allegiance and opened their gates, which enabled the coronation of Charles VII in 1429 at Reims Cathedral. A few years he ended the English-Burgundian alliance by signing the Treaty of Arras in 1435, followed by the recovery of Paris in 1436 and the steady reconquest of Normandy in the 1440s using a newly organized professional army and advanced siege cannons. Following the battle of Castillon in 1453, the French expelled the English from all their continental possessions except for the Pale of Calais; the last years of Charles VII were marked by conflicts with his turbulent son, the future Louis XI of France. Born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol, the royal residence in Paris, Charles was given the title of comte de Ponthieu at his birth in 1403, he was the eleventh child and fifth son of Charles VI of Isabeau of Bavaria. His four elder brothers, Charles and John had each held the title of Dauphin of France in turn. All died childless.

After his accession to the title of Dauphin, Charles had to face threats to his inheritance, he was forced to flee from Paris on 29 May 1418 after the partisans of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, had entered the city the previous night. By 1419, Charles had established a Parlement in Poitiers. On 11 July of that same year and John the Fearless attempted a reconciliation by signing, on a small bridge near Pouilly-le-Fort, not far from Melun where Charles was staying, the Treaty of Pouilly-le-Fort known under name of Paix du Ponceau, they decided that a further meeting should take place the following 10 September. On that date, they met on the bridge at Montereau; the Duke assumed that the meeting would be peaceful and diplomatic, thus he brought only a small escort with him. The Dauphin's men reacted to the Duke's arrival by killing him. Charles' level of involvement has remained uncertain to this day. Although he claimed to have been unaware of his men's intentions, this was considered unlikely by those who heard of the murder.

The assassination marked the end of any attempt of a reconciliation between the two factions Armagnacs and Burgundians, thus playing into the hands of Henry V of England. Charles was required by a treaty with Philip the Good, the son of John the Fearless, to pay penance for the murder, which he never did. At the death of his father, Charles VI, the succession was cast into doubt; the Treaty of Troyes, signed by Charles VI in 1420, mandated that the throne pass to the infant King Henry VI of England, the son of the deceased Henry V and Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI. For those who did not recognize the treaty and believed the Dauphin Charles to be of legitimate birth, he was considered to be the rightful heir to the throne. For those who did not recognize his legitimacy, the rightful heir was recognized as Charles, Duke of Orléans, cousin of the Dauphin, in English captivity. Only the supporters of Henry VI and the Dauphin Charles were able to enlist sufficient military force to press for their candidates.

The English in control of northern France, were able to enforce the claim of their king in the regions of France that they occupied. Northern France, including Paris, was thus ruled by an English regent, Henry V's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, based in Normandy. In his adolescent years, Charles was noted for his flamboyant style of leadership. At one point after becoming Dauphin, he led an army against the English dressed in the red and blue that represented his family. However, in July 1421, upon learning that Henry V was preparing from Mantes to attack with a much larger army, he withdrew from the siege of Chartres in order to avoid defeat, he went south of the Loire River under the protection of Yolande of Aragon, known as "Queen of the Four Kingdoms" and, on 22 April 1422, married her daughter, Marie of Anjou

Parapoynx fluctuosalis

Parapoynx fluctuosalis is a moth of the family Crambidae. It is a widespread species, known from Africa, Sri Lanka, Japan, Taiwan, Hawaii, Fiji and the Galápagos Islands, it is an introduced species in Europe, where it has been recorded from Great Britain, the Iberian Peninsula and Sardinia. Adults are sexually dimorphic, with a variable colouration of the wings; the larvae feed on various grasses growing including Nymphaea species and rice. The larvae form a case of leaf fragments, they live about the bases of their host plants and have been found on water lily leaves. Young larvae have a pair of long hairs on the dorsum of the terminal segment and there are some sparse shorter hairs. On, it acquires fine filamentous gills enclosing air tubes that join the longitudinal tracheal trunks; the pupa is formed within a cocoon. Parapoynx fluctuosalis fluctuosalis Parapoynx fluctuosalis linealis Guenée, 1854 Zimmerman, Elwood C.. Insects of Hawaii. 8 Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea. University of Hawaii Press. Parapoynx fluctuosalis.

CSIRO - Australian Moths Online. Retrieved 22 November 2017

Local to Global Justice

Local to Global Justice is a volunteer organization based in Tempe, United States. It sponsors events dealing with social justice issues held on and around the Arizona State University Tempe campus; the group is a registered ASU student organization, but membership is not limited to students at the university. Every year since 2002 the group has organized the Local to Global Justice Teach-in at the ASU Tempe campus; the free event is a social forum featuring nationally recognized speakers, workshops by local grassroots organizations and food. The speakers and workshops at the Teach-in have dealt with a wide variety of topics, including civil rights, environmental justice, workers' rights and immigration. Well-known speakers at past events have included Starhawk, Ward Churchill, Rod Coronado, Jonathan Schell, Frances Moore Lappé, Lisa "Tiny" Gray-Garcia, Michael Alewitz and Tom Hayden. Local to Global Justice homepage