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English claims to the French throne

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, were successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was victorious and retained control of France. Despite this and British monarchs continued to prominently call themselves kings of France, the French fleur-de-lis was included in the royal arms; this continued until 1801, by which time France no longer had any monarch. The Jacobite claimants, did not explicitly relinquish the claim; the title was first assumed in 1340 by Edward III of England, the Kingdom of England being ruled by the French Plantagenet dynasty at the time. Edward III claimed the throne of France after the death of his uncle Charles IV of France.

At the time of Charles IV's death in 1328, Edward was his nearest male relative through Edward's mother Isabella of France. Since the election of Hugh Capet in 987, the French crown had always passed based on male-line relations. There was no precedent for someone succeeding to the French throne based on his maternal ancestry, nor had there been a need to. There had been no shortage of sons for more than three centuries from the inception of the House of Capet until the early 14th century, when new precedents concerning female inheritance had to be introduced. On the death of Philip IV the Fair's son Louis X in 1316 followed by that of his son John I the Posthumous, it had to be decided whether his young daughter Joan or his brother Philip would succeed to the throne. Philip arranged for his coronation, became Philip V of France, he was challenged by the supporters of the Princess Joan, daughter of Louis X, on the basis of his right to the throne. In response, he convened an assembly of prelates and burgesses at Paris, who acknowledged him as their lawful king, declared that "Women do not succeed to the throne of France."

This was said to have been based on the 5th century Salic law, but it is now known that the Salic Law was only rediscovered and used by the lawyers of the Valois kings to fortify their masters' title with an additional aura of authenticity. At the time of Charles's death in 1328, there was once again a dispute over the succession. Although it had come to be accepted that a woman could not possess the French throne in her own right, Edward III, the nephew of the deceased king and thus the nearest adult male relative, based his claim on the theory that a woman could transmit a right of inheritance to her son; this claim was rejected by French jurists under the principle Nemo plus juris ad alium transfere potest quam ipse habet, the throne was given to the male line heir, Count of Valois, a first cousin of the deceased king. At the time, Edward paid homage to Philip VI for his Duchy of Aquitaine. In 1337, Edward, in his capacity as Duke of Aquitaine, refused to pay homage to Philip; the French king's response was to confiscate what was left of lands in English-held Aquitaine, namely Gascony, thus precipitating the Hundred Years' War and Edward's revival of his claim to the throne and title of King of France in 1340.

The decision to assume the title of "King of France" was made at the solicitation of his Flemish allies, who had signed a treaty that they would no longer attack the French king. They said that if Edward took the French royal title the Flemish would be able to keep their honour, since they would not be attacking the "true King of France". Edward continued to use this title until the Treaty of Brétigny on 8 May 1360, when he abandoned his claims in return for substantial lands in France. After the resumption of hostilities between the English and the French in 1369, Edward resumed his claim and the title of King of France, his successors used the title until the Treaty of Troyes on 21 May 1420, in which the English recognised Charles VI as King of France, but with his new son-in-law King Henry V of England as his heir. Henry V adopted the title Heir of France instead. Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other in 1422, Henry V's infant son Henry VI became King of France, he was the only English king, de facto King of France, rather than using the style as a mere title of pretense.

By 1429 Charles VII, with the support of Joan of Arc, had been crowned at Reims and begun to push the English out of northern France. In 1435, an end to the French civil war between Burgundians and Armagnacs allowed Charles to return to Paris the following year, by 1453 the English had been driven out of their last strongholds in Normandy and Guyenne; the only French territory left to the English was Calais which they held until 1558. Nonetheless the kings and queens of England continued to claim the French throne for centuries, through the early modern period; the words "of France" was prominently included among their realms as listed in their titles and styles, the French fleur-de-lys was included in the royal arms. This continued until 1801, by which time France had no monarch. Edward III, King of England. Edward III, King of England. Richard II, King of England (reigned 21 Jun

2010 Individual Ice Racing World Championship

The 2010 FIM Individual Ice Racing World Championship was the 2010 version of FIM Individual Ice Racing World Championship season. The world champion was determined in nine finals in five cities between 6 February and 21 March 2010; the championship title was won by the defending champion Nikolay Krasnikov, who won seven of nine events. It was his sixth world champion title; the silver medal was won by Daniil Ivanov. Dmitry Khomitsevich was third; the top five placing riders were from Russia. The first not-Russian rider was Franz Zorn from Austria. After each Final, the two reserve riders become scheduled riders in the next Final if they have taken part in the Final where they are reserve riders. Therefore, the two lowest point scoring riders on the Intermediate FIM Ice Racing World Championship Classification will become reserve riders in the next Final; the best placed rider will be the first reserve rider with draw number seventeen, the second rider will be the second reserve with draw number eighteen.

February 6–7, 2010 RUS Tolyatti, Samara OblastSTROITEL” Stadium Referee: Wojciech Grodzki Jury President: C. Bergstrøm References February 13–14, 2010 RUS Saransk, Republic of Mordovia ”Svetotechnika” Stadium Referee: Anthony Steele Jury President: Andrzej Grodzki References February 21, 2010 AUT Innsbruck, Tyrol Olympiaworld Referee: Krister Gardell Jury President: Janos Nadasi References This meeting was scheduled to take place on February 20 and 21. However, the meeting was delayed because of poor track conditions; the first day's program was held on Sunday. Rider #17 – in heats 5 and 13 Rider #18 – in heats 9 and 17 March 13–14, 2010 NED Assen, Drenthe De Bonte Wever Referee: Wojciech Grodzki Jury President: Christer Bergström References March 20–21, 2010 GER Wilmersdorf, Berlin Horst-Dohm-Eisstadion Referee: Istvan Darago Jury President: Jörgen Jensen References Changes: Sven HolsteinRené Stellingwerf In case of one or more ties on the Intermediate Classification of the Championship, the following will apply: Best place in the last Final run.

In case of riders involved in a tie on the Final Overall Classification at the end of the Championship, the following will apply: Run-off for 1st, 2nd and 3rd place. Best place in the last Final meeting. 2010 Team Ice Racing World Championship 2010 Speedway Grand Prix in classic speedway

Whittier, North Carolina

Whittier is an unincorporated community in Jackson and Swain counties in the western part of the U. S. state of North Carolina. Whittier is located on the Tuckasegee River, between Bryson City downstream to the west, Dillsboro upstream to the southeast. Founded in 1881 by Clark Whittier when he purchased 60,000 acres of land in the area, it was incorporated as a town from 1887 to 1933; the town declined following the collapse of the lumber industry during the Great Depression. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Whittier at USGS GNIS

Colin Haynie

Colin Jeffrey "CJ" Haynie is an American teenager who shot and killed his mother and three siblings and injured his father in Grantsville, Utah on January 17, 2020. The incident was the deadliest mass shooting in Utah in thirteen years. Police told reporters that Haynie shot and killed his mother and 12-year-old sister first at around 1:00 pm and waited to attack the others when they arrived home, they were shot multiple times in their heads and upper bodies. His 15-year-old sister was killed sometime after she arrived home between 2:00 and 5:00 pm, was shot multiple times as well; when his 14-year-old brother arrived home around 5:17 pm, he was shot once in the head. Haynie shot his father in the leg when he returned home around 6:15 pm. After being shot, the father wrestled away the weapon, was told by Haynie that his intention was to kill everyone in the house except himself, per charging documents. Haynie shot and killed his mother Consuelo Alejandra Haynie, 52. Haynie had an older brother, at Utah Valley University at the time of the shooting and therefore avoided injury.

Haynie was charged as an adult in the 3rd District Court with four counts of aggravated murder, one count of attempted aggravated murder and five counts of illegal discharge of a firearm. During his initial appearance in court, Haynie was ordered to stay in juvenile detention facility with a bail set at $4 million, he was issued a public defender. As he is a juvenile, Haynie can not be sentenced to life without parole, he faces a minimum of 25 years, a maximum of life in prison with parole. In memory of the victims, yellow ribbons and signs were posted on trees and other objects around the neighborhood and town. Two online fundraisers had been created for the family, one through GoFundMe and another through a local market. Shortly after the shooting, Governor Gary Herbert tweeted his condolences and urged adults with guns in their homes to make sure they were properly secured. List of mass shootings in the United States in 2020

Skansen Kronan

Skansen Kronan is a redoubt in the district of Haga of Gothenburg, Sweden. Skansen Kronan was built in the half of the 17th century according to the plans of Erik Dahlbergh. Skansen Kronan was fitted with 23 guns; the roof was not completed until 1700. Skansen has 4-5 metre thick walls made of granite and diabase. Skansen Kronan was never attacked and the cannons on the inside have never been used; the fortress and the twin counterpart, Skansen Lejonet, were built as part of the defenses against possible Danish attack on Gothenburg from the south, thus had a similar purpose as the Älvsborg fortress. The fortress — built outside the city walls — is today situated in the city centre of Gothenburg on a hill in the city district of Haga, it was used as a military museum until 2004. Today Skansen Kronan is a private facility for private parties. Mattsson, Britt-Marie Parkernas Göteborg ISBN 91-630-1016-X Schånberg, Sven.

Abu Sa'id Mirza

Abu Sa'id Mirza was the ruler of the Timurid Empire during the mid-fifteenth century. Born a minor prince of the Timurid dynasty, Abu Sa'id established himself as the most prominent among his warring relations. Over the course of two decades, he reunified much of the Timurid Empire, which had become fractured in the aftermath of the death of his great-uncle Shah Rukh. However, Abu Sa'id's hopes of restoring the empire to its former extent at the time of Timur failed after he was killed during an invasion of what is now western Iran, he was the paternal grandfather of Babur, who founded the Mughal Empire of India. Abu Sa'id Mirza was born in 1424, the second son of the Timurid prince Muhammad Mirza by his wife Shah Islam, his father was a son of Miran Shah, himself the third son of Timur. His mother was the daughter of Suhrab Kurd and a relative of Izz al-din Shir of Hakkari, a former adversary of Timur's, his father appears to have had little involvement in political matters, though Muhammad Mirza did maintain a close relationship with his influential cousin Ulugh Beg, son of the ruling sultan Shah Rukh and governor of Transoxiana.

When the former visited Muhammad Mirza on his death-bed, the dying prince took Abu Sa'id's hand and placed it in Ulugh Beg's, putting the boy under his protection. Abu Sa'id was given a role at Ulugh Beg's court receiving his daughter in marriage through good service. However, upon Ulugh Beg's ascension to the Timurid throne following the death of Shah Rukh, Abu Sa'id turned against his benefactor. In 1449, while the former was suppressing the rebellion of his son Abdal-Latif, Abu Sa'id left his post on the northern borders and used a group of Arghun tribesmen to lead an attack on the capital Samarqand. Ulugh Beg's other son Abdal-Aziz retreated to the citadel and warned his father, who marched his army back to the city, forcing Abu Sa'id to retreat. However, Abdal-Latif used this distraction to his advantage and defeating Ulugh Beg, who he had assassinated soon after. Abu Sa'id led his forces against his cousin, but was defeated, as well as being taken captive. Abu Sa'id escaped his imprisonment in Samarqand in 1450.

However, he found little support there and was imprisoned, only being spared execution when news of Abdal-Latif's death reached the city. The Bukhari nobles hastened to release the prince and swore their allegiance to him, upon which he marched against the new ruler, Ulugh Beg's nephew Abdullah Mirza. After an initial failed assault on Samarqand, Abu Sa'id and his small group of followers seized the frontier town of Yasi; when Abdullah marched his forces out in retaliation, Abu Sa'id appealed to the Uzbek ruler Abu'l-Khayr Khan for aid. The latter agreed and their combined forces defeated Abdullah in June 1451. Given that his rival was killed during the battle, the victors were able to enter Samarqand unopposed. Abu Sa'id claimed the Timurid throne and in thanks to the Uzbeks, gave Abu'l-Khayr Khan rich presents as well as Ulugh Beg's daughter in marriage; when Abu Sa'id annexed Balkh in 1454, another Timurid, Abul-Qasim Babur of Herat, led his forces against him in response, culminating in a siege on Samarqand.

However, the two sides agreed on a truce, establishing the Amu Darya river as a border. This treaty remained in effect until Abul-Qasim Babur's death in 1457, when his young son and successor Mahmud was ousted from Herat by Ibrahim Mirza, a great-nephew of Ulugh Beg. Abu Sa'id, who desired to conquer the city as well as the surrounding region of Khorasan, led his forces against Ibrahim, forcing the latter to flee. However, he was unable to capture the city until 1456; the following year, Abu Sa'id had Shah Rukh's aged widow, the influential dowager-empress Gawhar Shad executed, having accused her of conspiring with Ibrahim, her great-grandson. Noting the conflict among the Timurid princes, Jahan Shah, ruler of the Qara Qoyunlu, took advantage of the situation and marched his forces into the region, capturing Herat in 1458. Jahan Shah had had great success in conquering much of the western Timurid territories. However, as he was facing a revolt by his son Hasan Ali, he was forced to abandon his latest conquests, allowing the re-annexation of Khorasan by Abu Sa'id, who subsequently made Herat his capital.

Friendly relations were established between the two rulers, with multiple embassy missions taking place throughout the 1460s. During this period, Abu Sa'id continued to consolidate his power. In 1459, he defeated the combined forces of the three Timurid princes, Sultan Sanjar, Ibrahim Mirza and Ala al-Dawla, in the Battle of Sarakhs. Sanjar was captured and executed after the battle and the latter two died in exile in the following years. Abul-Qasim Babur's ousted son Mahmud died around this time. With the deaths of so many rivals, Abu Sa'id now had the resources to extend his dominion up to Mazandaran and Sistan; the sultan succeeded in conquering Badakhshan, a region which Timur himself had gained only nominal suzerainty over. However, other Timurid princes remained. In 1454, Uways Mirza, a descendant of Timur's eldest son Umar Shaikh, started an uprising with the aid of Abu'l-Khayr Khan, Abu Sa'id's erstwhile ally, during which the latter suffered a serious defeat. Abu Sa'id faced similar threats from another descendant of Sultan Husayn Bayqara.

The latter had captured Gorgan from a Qara Qoyunlu chief when Jahan Shah had withdrawn from the region. Although he swore fealty to Abu Sa'id, when his overlord was distracted by a rebellion in 1460, Husayn Bayqara occupied Mazandaran and laid siege to Herat the following year. Although he was expelled from these lands, Husayn Bayqara ne