SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French army officer and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France. In 1958, he came out of retirement when appointed president of the Council of Ministers by President René Coty, he was asked to rewrite the Constitution of France and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected the president of France that year, a position he was reelected to in 1965 and held until his resignation in 1969, he was the dominant figure of France during the early part of the Cold War era. Born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912, he was a decorated officer of the First World War, wounded several times and taken prisoner at Verdun. During the interwar period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions. During the German invasion of May 1940, he led an armoured division which counterattacked the invaders.

Refusing to accept his government's armistice with Germany, de Gaulle escaped to England and exhorted the French to resist occupation and to continue the fight in his Appeal of 18 June. He led the Free French Forces and headed the French National Liberation Committee against the Axis. Despite frosty relations with the United States, he had Winston Churchill's support and emerged as the undisputed leader of the French Resistance, he became head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in June 1944, the interim government of France following its Liberation. As early as 1944, de Gaulle introduced a dirigiste economic policy, which included substantial state-directed control over a capitalist economy, followed by 30 years of unprecedented growth, known as the Trente Glorieuses. Frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new Fourth Republic, he resigned in early 1946 but continued to be politically active as founder of the Rassemblement du Peuple Français, he retired in the early 1950s and wrote his War Memoirs, which became a staple of modern French literature.

When the Algerian War was ripping apart the unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May 1958 crisis. He founded the Fifth Republic with a strong presidency, he was elected to continue in that role, he managed to keep France together while taking steps to end the war, much to the anger of the Pieds-Noirs and the military. He acted progressively towards other French colonies. In the context of the Cold War, de Gaulle initiated his "politics of grandeur" asserting that France as a major power should not rely on other countries, such as the United States, for its national security and prosperity. To this end, he pursued a policy of "national independence" which led him to withdraw from NATO's military integrated command and to launch an independent nuclear development program that made France the fourth nuclear power, he restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence through the signing of the Élysée Treaty on 22 January 1963.

However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring Europe as a continent of sovereign nations. De Gaulle criticised the United States intervention in Vietnam and the "exorbitant privilege" of the United States dollar. In his years, his support for the slogan "Vive le Québec libre" and his two vetoes of Britain's entry into the European Economic Community generated considerable controversy in both North America and Europe. Although reelected President of the Republic in 1965, he faced widespread protests by students and workers in May 1968, but had the Army's support and won an election with an increased majority in the National Assembly. De Gaulle resigned in 1969 after losing a referendum, he died a year at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leaving his presidential memoirs unfinished. Many French political parties and figures claim a Gaullist legacy. De Gaulle was born in the industrial region of Lille in the Nord department, the third of five children, he was raised in a devoutly traditional family.

His father, Henri de Gaulle, was a professor of history and literature at a Jesuit college and founded his own school. Henri de Gaulle came from a long line of parliamentary gentry from Burgundy; the name is thought to be Dutch in origin, may well have derived from van der Walle. De Gaulle's mother, descended from a family of wealthy entrepreneurs from Lille, she had French, Scottish and German ancestry. De Gaulle's father encouraged historical and philosophical debate between his children at mealtimes, through his encouragement, de Gaulle grew familiar with French history from an early age. Struck by his mother's tale of how she cried as a child when she heard of the French capitulation to the Germans at Sedan in 1870, he developed a keen interest in military strategy, he was influenced by his uncle named Charles de Gaulle, a historian and passionate Celticist who wrote books and pamphlets advocating the union of the Welsh, Scots and Bretons into one people. His grandfather Julien-Philippe was a historian, his grandmother Joseph

Quddus Mirza

Quddus Mirza is a Pakistani art critic and art educator based in Lahore. He writes in The News, is the co-author of the book “50 Years of Visual Arts in Pakistan”, “The Rising Tide”, “Hanging Fire”, his writings have been published in international newspapers and magazines. Quddus Mirza was born in 1961, he graduated from National College of Arts Lahore in 1986 and completed post-graduate work at the Royal College of Arts London in 1991. He is famous for his writings on Pakistani art. Mirza’s work deals with the issues of pictorial investigation, he transmits the meaning of images created by collective consciousness in our society through media. His paintings address the multiplicity of meaning by fusing the five senses of a viewer, he deliberately uses bright paints with gestural and inlaid social and political intent. Mirza uses division of space and overlapping of brush strokes for effect. Trained as a visual artist, Mirza has been writing on Pakistani art for a decade in The News, in Art India.

In his writings, Mirza analyzes the parallel between west. He has rejected the term Pakistani art, he said. His writings address the issues revolving around life. Being an art educator, Mirza questions problems in art education, as well as the role of art galleries and institutions shaping and reshaping Pakistani art. In his writings he examines the conventional trends of art in Pakistan those initiated by modern miniaturists who transformed it for foreign curators due to the tastes of the art market in the West. Metaphoric Connections Noble Savage or the Contempt For Contemporary Pakistani Art and its South Asian Identity South Asian Art Media-Ting Art Beyond Many Borders http://www.tkfr.com/?p=57 https://web.archive.org/web/20120425020600/http://www.artindiamag.com/quarter01_01_09/letter_pakistan01_01_09.html http://www.vaslart.org/xhtml/artpublic/arttxt/index.html https://web.archive.org/web/20150101153226/http://jang.com.pk/thenews/apr2008-weekly/nos-27-04-2008/enc.htm#2 https://web.archive.org/web/20120425051256/http://artindiamag.com/quarter01_01_10/letter_pakistan01_01_10.html http://www.canvasartgallery.net/xhtml/artists/Mirza%20Quddus.html

Beagle Airedale

The Beagle A.109 Airedale was a British light civil aircraft developed in the 1960s. The Airedale was a four-seat, high-wing braced monoplane with a fixed, tricycle undercarriage of steel tube construction and fabric covered, it was designed as the Auster D.8, a modified tricycle version of the Auster D.6. Although similar in many respects, the Airedale was not based on the earlier Auster C.6 Atlantic design, of which a single aircraft was built and flown in 1958. The first three D.8 airframes were in construction when Beagle Aircraft bought the Rearsby-based Auster company in 1960. At this stage Beagle began introducing a series of major modifications to the D.8, which included moving the pilot's door aft and adding a second door on the right, widening the rear cabin, lengthening the rear fuselage and adding a swept fin, as well as many minor changes Following the first flight of the 1st prototype G-ARKE, seven further development and pre-production aircraft were flown.. As changes continued, these eight aircraft were modified and rebuilt.

Concerns about the weight, when it was suggested that "the increase in weight was resulting in a 2-seater aircraft", were ignored by the design team. The performance of the Airedale, although faster than the D.6 on the same engine, was decidedly lacklustre due to its comparatively high structural weight, it was unable to compete in the market with its US competitors. This was because of the out-dated steel tube/fabric construction, compared to the more modern all-metal Piper Cherokee and Cessna 172 designs, but the performance was worse and production quality was poor. Beagle had retained the older construction method as development of monocoque techniques would have extended the design period. However, the benefit of this was lost by the subsequent protracted development period. Additionally the Airedale proved expensive to manufacture with the production man-hours remaining higher than anticipated and a higher price than the American imports.. It was reported that dealers abroad only consented to buying a demonstrator Airedale as they wanted to be appointed as agents for the Beagle-Miles M.218 which they viewed as far more saleable.

A single Airedale, the first prototype was refitted with a 180 hp Continental GO-300-E engine so that it could be part of the SBAC Display at the 1961 Farnborough Airshow, as the standard Airedale was not eligible on account of its US-built Lycoming O-360 engine. This model was designated A.111. Ostensibly this engine was made by Rolls-Royce under their new licence agreement but the engine came from the USA. Whether this expenditure was justified by the publicity is debatable, the performance was worse.. Production of the Airedale ceased in 1963 after production of only 43 aircraft, when it was calculated that the break-even figure could be as high as an unfeasible 675 aircraft.. The Airedale took some 6,900 man-hours and £2,037 in labour charges to build, against a selling price below £5,000; the Airedale and the Terrier were both built by Beagle as stop-gaps whilst more modern aircraft were designed, but both incurred significant losses, in the case of the Airedale £500,000. It appears that a decision in 1962 to continue production past the first 25 aircraft was only made due to the optimistic outlook and predictions of the Chairman, Peter Masefield.

Data from British Civil Aircraft since 1919 Volume I General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 3 passengers Length: 26 ft 4 in Wingspan: 36 ft 4 in Height: 10 ft 0 in Wing area: 185 sq ft Aspect ratio: 6.9:1 Airfoil: NACA 23012 Empty weight: 1,630 lb Gross weight: 2,750 lb Fuel capacity: 50 imp gal maximum Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-360-A1A air-cooled, four-cylinder horizontally-opposed engine, 180 hp Propellers: 2-bladed McCauley 2D36C14/78KM/4 constant-speed propeller, 6 ft 2 in diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 140 mph Cruise speed: 133 mph Stall speed: 52 mph Range: 940 mi Service ceiling: 12,000 ft Rate of climb: 650 ft/min Aircraft of comparable role and era Cessna 172 Cessna 175 Piper Cherokee Airedale images