Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 134,875 in 2017; the estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, was 761,155 residents in 2016, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Charleston was founded in 1670 as Charles Town, its initial location at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River was abandoned in 1680 for its present site, which became the fifth-largest city in North America within ten years. Despite its size, it remained unincorporated throughout the colonial period.
Election districts were organized according to Anglican parishes, some social services were managed by Anglican wardens and vestries. Charleston adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. Population growth in the interior of South Carolina influenced the removal of the state government to Columbia in 1788, but the port city remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census. Historians estimate that "nearly half of all Africans brought to America arrived in Charleston", most at Gadsden's Wharf; the only major antebellum American city to have a majority-enslaved population, Charleston was controlled by an oligarchy of white planters and merchants who forced the federal government to revise its 1828 and 1832 tariffs during the Nullification Crisis and launched the Civil War in 1861 by seizing the Arsenal, Castle Pinckney, Fort Sumter from their federal garrisons. Known for its rich history, well-preserved architecture, distinguished restaurants, hospitable people, Charleston is a popular tourist destination.
It has received numerous accolades, including "America's Most Friendly " by Travel + Leisure in 2011 and in 2013 and 2014 by Condé Nast Traveler, "the most polite and hospitable city in America" by Southern Living magazine. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure; the city proper consists of six distinct districts. Downtown, or sometimes referred to as The Peninsula, is Charleston's center city separated by the Ashley River to the west and the Cooper River to the east. West Ashley, residential area to the west of Downtown bordered by the Ashley River to the east and the Stono River to the west. Johns Island, far western limits of Charleston home to the Angel Oak, bordered by the Stono River to the east, Kiawah River to the south and Wadmalaw Island to the west. James Island, popular residential area between Downtown and the town of Folly Beach where the McLeod Plantation is located. Cainhoy Peninsula, far eastern limits of Charleston bordered by the Wando River to the west and Nowell Creek to the east.
Daniel Island, fast-growing residential area to the north of downtown, east of the Cooper River and west of the Wando River. The incorporated city fit into 4–5 square miles as late as the First World War, but has since expanded, crossing the Ashley River and encompassing James Island and some of Johns Island; the city limits have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. The present city has a total area of 127.5 square miles, of which 109.0 square miles is land and 18.5 square miles is covered by water. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivan's Island lies to the north of Morris Island to the south; the entrance itself is about 1 mile wide. The tidal rivers are evidence of drowned coastline. There is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor and the Cooper River is deep.
Charleston has a humid subtropical climate, with mild winters, hot humid summers, significant rainfall all year long. Summer is the wettest season. Fall remains warm through the middle of November. Winter is short and mild, is characterized by occasional rain. Measurable snow only occurs several times per decade at the most however freezing rain is more common. However, 6.0 in fell at the airport on December 23, 1989, the largest single-day fall on record, contributing to a single-storm and seasonal record of 8.0 in snowfall. The highest temperature recorded within city limits was 104 °F on June 2, 1985, June 24, 1944, the lowest was 7 °F on February 14, 1899. At the airport, where official records are kept, the historical range is 105 °F on August 1, 1999, down to 6 °F on January 21, 1985. Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall, with several severe hurrican
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority
The Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority provides area residents and visitors public transportation within parts of Charleston and Dorchester counties in the Lowcountry region of South Carolina, including the cities of Charleston, North Charleston and the surrounding communities of Mount Pleasant, James Island, Sullivan's Island, the Isle of Palms. CARTA presently contracts with Transdev for staffing and managing the bus drivers in addition to maintaining and scheduling the buses. CARTA operates seven days a week on each day of the year. In addition to its regular fixed routes, CARTA offers express commuter service on weekdays, a free area shuttle service in downtown Charleston, Tel-A-Ride services for eligible residents; as with many communities across the United States, the Charleston region was served by streetcars and buses that were operated by electric companies. The bus system in Charleston was operated by SCE&G until 1997. In 1978, the popular Downtown Area Shuttle or DASH service began with the help of a federal grant.
DASH service continues to this day. During the 1980s, mass transit options in Charleston were reduced. An effort to create a regional transportation authority that would operate public transportation were defeated by voters in a referendum. In 1997, after learning that SCE&G intended to cease operating buses, the City of Charleston, the City of North Charleston, the Town of Mt. Pleasant and Charleston County joined together to create the Charleston Area Regional Transportation Authority. From its inception, CARTA has been hampered by insufficient funding it claimed it required to operate effectively; the transportation service provider explored many avenues to increase funding over the years but no source provided enough to keep CARTA from making substantial reductions in service. CARTA was forced to cease most of its operations in January 2004 and relied on emergency funding from state and federal funding streams to keep it from being liquidated. In early November 2004, a half-cent sales tax referendum was passed, providing CARTA with the revenue to relaunch many of the services that were eliminated or consolidated due to insufficient funding.
CARTA added new routes and services throughout their rebuilding phases, as was the case with the launch of #CARTA Express in January 2007. On September 1, 2010, CARTA suffered a budget problem which stranded 22,443 passengers during the day and 40,500 passengers during the night. Despite budgetary setbacks, CARTA ridership continues to become more popular. In 2013, CARTA reported its busiest year of operations, with nearly five million riders for 2012 and a weekday average of over 15,000 riders. DASH service accounted for nearly 1.2 million rides in 2012. In late 2013, CARTA inaugurated its North Area Shuttle service as a free circulator route to serve the North Charleston area, however this service was suspended in June 2014 due to low ridership. In February 2014, the NASH Express service was launched, creating an express route between Charleston International Airport and downtown Charleston. CARTA Express is a commuter-style service with limited stops from select locations in the region with service to or through downtown Charleston.
CARTA Express buses are full-sized commuter-style buses with reclining, upholstered “airline-style” seats, reading lights and overhead luggage racks. Single door entry provides; the fare for any Express route is $3.00 per one-way ride. As of February 2014, there are four active CARTA Express routes: CARTA offers fixed route services to much of the Charleston area by offering trips on select routes which run seven days a week, with limited services on Sundays and select holidays. Routes are serviced by large passenger buses complete with bench seating, two entrances, a wheelchair lift and a bike rack with space for two bikes on the front of each bus. Routes that are less traveled may are sometimes serviced with minibuses. Services to the north of downtown Charleston Route 10 – Rivers Avenue Route 11 – Dorchester/Airport Route 12 – Upper Dorchester/AFB Route 13 – Remount RoadServices within downtown Charleston Route 7 - Hospitality on Peninsula Shuttle Route 20 – King Street/Citadel Route 203 – Medical Shuttle Route 204 - MUSC/Calhoun CirculatorServices to the west and east of downtown Charleston Route 30 – Savannah Highway Route 31 – Folly Road Route 32 – North Bridge Route 33 - Ashley River Rd. Route 40 – Mt. Pleasant Route 41 – Coleman Boulevard Route 42 - Wando Circulator Route 301 – Glenn McConnell ConnectorServices in other areas of the region Route 102 – North Neck Route 103 – Leeds Avenue Route 104 – Montague AvenueRegular adult bus fares are $2.00 per trip and transfers are $0.50.
Special fares are available for senior citizens, staff and students. Children aged six and younger ride Fixed Route and DASH services for free when they are accompanied by a paying passenger. Seniors aged 55 years and older pay $1.00 for Fixed Route services that run from Monday through Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. and after 6:00 p.m. and all day Saturday and Sunday and Holidays. Drivers may request proof of age. Disabled patrons or passengers with a valid Tel-A-Ride I. D. card can ride Fixed Route services for all day. The Downtown Area Shuttle service connects visitors to many key destinations throughout the downtown Charleston area. CA
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Charleston Executive Airport
Charleston Executive Airport is a public use airport located in Charleston in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States. It is six nautical miles southwest of the central business district of the city, it is owned by the Charleston County Aviation Authority. The airport serves the general aviation community, with no scheduled commercial airline service; the airport opened in April 1943 named Johns Island Army Airfield. It was an auxiliary to Columbia Army Air Base as an unmanned emergency landing airfield. On 31 March 1944, jurisdiction was transferred to Charleston Army Airfield when Charleston was reassigned to Air Transport Command, it served as an emergency landing base with no permanent structures being used for transatlantic flights. On 25 August 1945 the airfield was turned over to local authorities which converted it into a civil airport; the occasional military aircraft still uses the airport. Charleston Executive Airport covers an area of 1,373 acres at an elevation of 17 feet above mean sea level.
It has two concrete paved runways: 9/27 is 5,000 by 150 feet and 4/22 is 4,313 by 150 feet. For the 12-month period ending October 23, 2008, the airport had 55,000 aircraft operations, an average of 150 per day: 91% general aviation and 5% military and 4% air taxi. At that time there were 58 aircraft based at this airport: 79% single-engine, 16% multi-engine, 2% jet and 3% helicopter. South Carolina World War II Army Airfields List of airports in South Carolina This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. FAA Terminal Procedures for JZI, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for JZI AirNav airport information for KJZI FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Charleston Historic District
The Charleston Historic District, alternatively known as Charleston Old and Historic District, is a National Historic Landmark District in Charleston, South Carolina. The district, which covers most of the historic peninsular heart of the city, contains an unparalleled collection of 18th and 19th-century architecture, including a large number of distinctive Charleston "single houses", it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. The city of Charleston was founded in 1670, with its main historic colonial heart laid out in 1680 on the peninsula at the confluence of the Ashley and Cooper Rivers. Since that time, the city has been a major commercial and trade center on the southeastern seaboard of North America, its architecture reflects numerous significant periods of development, with high-quality examples of different architectural styles resulting from the city's continued importance through more than 300 years of history. Significant among these are a large number of Charleston "single houses", which are a single room in depth, oriented with the short access toward the street, with the entrance area on a long side.
These types of houses are built using all types of building materials, including wood and stucco. In Ansonborough, there are blocks of fine Greek Revival houses, built in the wake of an 1838 fire. Broad Street, a major east-west thoroughfare since the early days, is home to a fine collection of Federal period houses, many of which have been converted to commercial uses, it is where a number of important early civic and institutional buildings are located, including the 1752 St. Michael's Episcopal Church, the 1767 Exchange, the 1792 Charleston County Courthouse; the city of Charleston legislatively established the "Old and Historic District" as a local historic district. In 1960, a portion of this district was designated a National Historic Landmark District for its architectural significance; when listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1966, the district was defined as "An area bounded by Broad, Bay, S. Battery and Ashley and an area along Church bounded by Cumberland and Chalmers".
Significant boundary enlargements of the National Register district in 1970 and 1978 have resulted in it now coinciding with the locally legislated district, extending in parts as far north as Calhoun Street. The district was enlarged to add individual buildings in 1984, 1985 and 1986; the Charleston Historic District's Board of Architectural Review has come under fire in recent years as it relates to the proposed redevelopment of the "Sergeant Jasper" property located adjacent to the historic district. Built as a 14-story apartment building in 1950, the Sergeant Jasper's owners, The Beach Company of Charleston, SC, proposed a redevelopment of the property in 2014; as the Palmetto Business Daily reports, several concepts for the property's redevelopment were rejected by the BAR. As a result, The Beach Company filed suit over what it claims is an "arbitrary and capricious" review process by the BAR; the Sergeant Jasper stakeholders went into court-ordered mediation over the project on April 6, 2014.
In a Palmetto Business Daily interview, Competitive Enterprise Institute senior fellow Marc Scribner criticized the BAR, saying that, "The unelected bureaucrats on the Board of Architectural Review and nosy neighbors may have all sorts of warm and fuzzy feelings about proposed real estate projects. But it is still unconstitutional to deny property owners their due process rights.” Charleston's French Quarter District Charleston Navy Yard Historic District Media related to Charleston Old and Historic District at Wikimedia Commons Charleston Historic District, Charleston County, at South Carolina Department of Archives and History map of the district