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Charlottetown Airport

Charlottetown Airport, is located 3 nautical miles north of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. The airport is run by the Charlottetown Airport Authority, is owned by Transport Canada and forms part of the National Airports System; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by NAV CANADA and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle aircraft with no more than 60 passengers or 368 if off-loaded in stages; the first aircraft to operate in the Charlottetown area was one that landed at the exhibition grounds east of the city's central business district in 1912. The first facility was known as Upton Field and consisted of two turf runways 2,800 ft and 1,600 ft opening on January 16, 1932. Upton was a farm located in the western part of Queens Royalty, northwest of the city proper; the airfield was leased to Canadian Airways Limited from October 9, 1932 to October 9, 1938, although the airfield was only licensed until June 30, 1938. Throughout this time, Upton Airport received the first air mail service in Canada.

Today the site is farmland and trees, a popular area for walking dogs, cross country skiing, other recreational activities. In June 1938 the city government asked the Department of Transport to assist in the development of an expanded municipal airport. Upton Airport was considered a candidate, as was a 300-acre property east of Sherwood Station on the Brackley Point Road. Upton Airport was rejected due to lack of space and the Sherwood Station property in the central part of Charlottetown Royalty was purchased by the city government for $30,000; the provincial government contributed 50% to the development of the new airport in exchange for 50% of its profits while the city would operate it. In December 1939 the city government offered the airport to the federal government for military use through the duration of World War II; the Royal Canadian Air Force expanded the airport and enlarged the runways in preparation for using the airport to train pilots and aircrew. The runways were altered into a classic triangle configuration seen with most British Commonwealth Air Training Plan aerodromes across Canada.

The Royal Air Force used the airfield from June 15, 1941 until February 1944 during which time it was known as RAF Station Charlottetown. Following the departure of the RAF, the RCAF established training units at the airfield, renamed RCAF Station Charlottetown. Following the end of World War II, the military presence at the airport diminished by late 1945 and the base was decommissioned and transferred from the RCAF to the federal Department of Transport on February 1, 1946, returning the airfield to civilian use. Several expansions were subsequently undertaken, including an enlarged civilian air terminal off the Brackley Point Road on the west side of the airfield, as well as a lengthening and realigning of what would become runway 03/21 during the 1960s-1970s to accommodate jet aircraft. A major expansion during the 1980s saw the old terminal become a general aviation facility after a new terminal, control tower and emergency services building were constructed further to the north from a continuation of the Sherwood Road.

This saw runway 03/21 lengthened to its current configuration. Charlottetown Airport saw extensive service during the 1960s-1990s from both Air Canada and Eastern Provincial Airways to destinations in Atlantic and Central Canada. Following EPA's sale and merger with CP Air, Charlottetown Airport saw direct CP Air service from Central Canada for several years, continued by Canadian; the creation of Air Canada subsidiary Air Nova and Canadian subsidiary Air Atlantic saw the beginning of a downgrade in direct service by the major carriers from Central Canada and an increase in service from hub airports such as Halifax and Moncton. The opening of the Confederation Bridge in 1997 coupled with capacity improvements at Moncton and Halifax airports saw many changes to air traffic through Charlottetown. On February 28, 1999 the Department of Transport transferred operational and financial responsibility for the Charlottetown Airport to the Charlottetown Airport Authority under a 60-year lease arrangement.

Since the turn of the millennium, since the mid-2000s, Charlottetown Airport has seen a great increase in flights. The trend started when Air Canada introduced non-stop flights to Montreal-Trudeau Airport from Charlottetown after the acquisition of Canadian Airlines. JetsGo, a now defunct low-cost Canadian carrier introduced non-stop flights from Charlottetown in early 2003. According to the summer 2003 JetsGo timetable, the airline was operating non-stop jet service to Toronto twice a week with one non-stop jet flight a week being operated to Montreal; the flights didn't last long, as JetsGo declared bankruptcy and shut down in March 2005. With the recent completion of a $2.2 million expansion that includes customs facilities, Delta Air Lines had added flights to Charlottetown from New York. As well, work has been completed to expand the main terminal's apron to accommodate more scheduled flights on the ground at the same time. In 2016/17 the Charlottetown Airport Authority made a major expansion to runway 10/28 to have two 7000 ft runways.

10/28 reopened in late summer 2017. Eastern Provincial Airways served the airport during the 1960s with Douglas DC-3 prop aircraft and Handley Page Dart Herald turboprop aircraft. By 1970, Eastern Provincial had introduced jet service with Boeing 737-200 aircraft and was operating non-stop 737 flights to Ha


In nuclear strategy, a counterforce target is one that has a military value, such as a launch silo for intercontinental ballistic missiles, an airbase at which nuclear-armed bombers are stationed, a homeport for ballistic missile submarines, or a command and control installation. The intent of a counterforce strategy is to do a pre-emptive nuclear strike whose aim is to disarm an adversary by destroying its nuclear weapons before they can be launched; that would minimize the impact of a retaliatory second strike. However, counterforce attacks are possible in a second strike as well with weapons like UGM-133 Trident II. A counterforce target is distinguished from a countervalue target, which includes an adversary's population, economic, or political resources. In other words, a counterforce strike is against an adversary's military, a countervalue strike is against an adversary's cities. A related tactic is the decapitation strike, which destroys an enemy's nuclear command and control facilities and has a goal to eliminate or reduce the enemy's ability to launch a second strike.

In nuclear warfare, enemy targets are divided into two types: countervalue. A counterforce target is an element of the military infrastructure either specific weapons or the bases that support them. A counterforce strike is an attack that targets those elements but leaving the civilian infrastructure, the countervalue targets, as undamaged as possible. Countervalue refers to the targeting of an opponent's cities and civilian populations. An ideal counterforce attack would kill no civilians. Military attacks are prone to causing collateral damage when nuclear weapons are employed. In nuclear terms, many military targets are located near civilian centers, a major counterforce strike that uses relatively small nuclear warheads against a nation would inflict many civilian casualties; the requirement to use ground burst strikes to destroy hardened targets would produce far more fallout than the air bursts used to strike countervalue targets, which introduces the possibility that a counterforce strike would cause more civilian casualties over the medium term than a countervalue strike.

Counterforce weapons may be seen to provide more credible deterrence in future conflict by providing options for leaders. One option considered by the Soviet Union in the 1970s was basing missiles in orbit. Counterforce is a type of attack, proposed during the Cold War; because of the low accuracy of early generation intercontinental ballistic missiles, counterforce strikes were possible only against large, undefended targets like bomber airfields and naval bases. Later-generation missiles, with much-improved accuracy, made possible counterforce attacks against the opponent's hardened military facilities, like missile silos and command and control centers. Both sides in the Cold War took steps to protect at least some of their nuclear forces from counterforce attacks. At one point, the US kept B-52 Stratofortress bombers permanently in flight so that they would remain operational after any counterforce strike. Other bombers were kept ready for launch on short notice, allowing them to escape their bases before intercontinental ballistic missiles, launched from land, could destroy them.

The deployment of nuclear weapons on ballistic missile submarines changed the equation as submarines launching from positions off the coast would destroy airfields before bombers could launch, which would reduce their ability to survive an attack. Submarines themselves, are immune from counterforce strikes unless they are moored at their naval bases, both sides fielded many such weapons during the Cold War. A counterforce exchange was one scenario mooted for a possible limited nuclear war; the concept was. That would leave the military capability of both sides destroyed; the war might come to an end because both sides would recognize that any further action would lead to attacks on the civilian population from the remaining nuclear forces, a countervalue strike. Critics of that idea claimed that since a counterforce strike would kill millions of civilians since some strategic military facilities like bomber airbases were located near large cities; that would make it unlikely. MIRVed land-based ICBMs are considered destabilizing because they tend to put a premium on striking first.

For example, suppose that each side has 100 missiles, with 5 warheads each, each side has a 95 percent chance of neutralizing the opponent's missiles in their silos by firing 2 warheads at each silo. In that case, the side that strikes first can reduce the enemy ICBM force from 100 missiles to about 5 by firing 40 missiles with 200 warheads and keeping the remaining 60 missiles in reserve. For such an attack to be successful, the warheads would have to strike their targets before the enemy launched a counterattack; this type of weapon was therefore banned under the START II agreement, not ratified and therefore ineffectual. R-36M. Deployed in 1976, this counterforce MIRV ICBM had single or 10 MIRV warheads, with a circular error probable of 250 m. Targeted against Minuteman III silos as well as CONUS command and communications facilities. Has sufficient throw-weight to carry up to 10 RVs and 40 penaids. Still in service. RS

Mark Twain Historic District

Mark Twain Historic District is a national historic district located at Hannibal, Marion County, Missouri. The district encompasses 20 contributing buildings in the central business district of Hannibal, it developed between about 1840 and 1936. Located in the district is the separately listed Mark Twain Boyhood Home. Other notable buildings include the Ice House Theatre, Randall House Antiques, Information Center, House of the Pilasters & Grant's Drug Store, "Becky Thatcher" House, the Mark Twain Memorial Lighthouse, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978

Gustav Hasford

Jerry Gustave Hasford known under his pen name Gustav Hasford was an American novelist and poet. His semi-autobiographical novel The Short-Timers was the basis of the film Full Metal Jacket, he was a United States Marine Corps veteran. Born in Russellville, Hasford joined the United States Marine Corps in 1966 and served as a combat correspondent during the Vietnam War; as a military journalist, he wrote stories for Leatherneck Magazine, Pacific Stars and Stripes, Sea Tiger. During his tour in Vietnam, Hasford was awarded the Navy & Marine Corps Achievement Medal with Valor Device, during the Battle of Huế in 1968. Hasford associated with various science fiction writers of the 1970s, including Arthur Byron Cover and David J. Skal, he had works published in magazines and anthologies such as Space and Time and Damon Knight's Orbit series. He published the poem "Bedtime Story" in a 1972 edition of Winning Hearts and Minds, the first anthology of writing about the war by veterans; the poem was reprinted in Carrying the Darkness in 1985.

In 1978, Hasford attended the Milford Writer's Workshop and met veteran science fiction author Frederik Pohl, an editor at Bantam Books. At Pohl's suggestion, Hasford submitted The Short-Timers, Pohl promptly bought it for Bantam; the Short-Timers was published in 1979 and became a best-seller, described in Newsweek as "he best work of fiction about the Vietnam War". It was directed by Stanley Kubrick; the screenplay by Hasford and screenwriter Michael Herr was nominated for an Academy Award. Hasford's actual contributions were a subject of dispute among the three, Hasford chose not to attend the Oscar ceremonies. In 1985, Hasford had borrowed 98 books from the Sacramento, California public library and was wanted for grand theft there. In 1988, shortly before the Oscars ceremony, he was charged with theft after campus police from California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, found nearly 10,000 library books in his rented storage locker. At that time, he had 87 overdue books and five years of Civil War Times magazine issues checked out from the Cal Poly-SLO library.

Hasford's book collection included books borrowed from dozens of libraries across the United States, from libraries in Australia and the United Kingdom, books taken from the homes of acquaintances. Among them were 19th-century books on Edgar Allan Poe and the American Civil War. Hasford had obtained borrowing privileges at Cal Poly-SLO as a California resident, using a false address and Social Security number. Hasford denied the charges, but he admitted possession of several hundred stolen books and pleaded nolo contendere to possession of stolen property, he was sentenced to six months' imprisonment and promised to pay restitution from the royalties of his future works. Hasford claimed, he described his difficulties as "a vicious attack launched against me by Moral Majority fanatics backed up by the full power of the Fascist State." In 1990, he published a second novel, The Phantom Blooper: A Novel of Vietnam, a sequel to The Short-Timers. The sequel was supposed to be the second of a "Vietnam Trilogy", but Hasford died soon after completing The Phantom Blooper and before writing the third installment.

Hasford's final novel is a hardboiled, noir detective story set in Los Angeles. Hasford and suffering from untreated diabetes, moved to the Greek island of Aegina and died there of heart failure on 29 January 1993, aged 45, he is interred at Winston Memorial Cemetery in Alabama. Vietnam TrilogyThe Short-Timers ISBN 0-553-23945-7 The Phantom Blooper: A Novel of Vietnam ISBN 0-553-05718-9 UnpublishedStandalone novelA Gypsy Good Time ISBN 0-671-72917-9 "Author Information for Gustav Hasford"; this Goodly Land: Alabama's Literary Landscape. Alabama Center for the Book. Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Original version of the Gustav Hasford home page, with the full text of The Short-Timers and The Phantom Blooper novels included at the Wayback Machine Original version of the Gustav Hasford website containing an excerpt of A Gypsy Good Time

SS Elingamite

SS Elingamite was an Australian passenger steamer of 2,585 tons, built in 1887, owned by Huddart Parker. The ship was wrecked on 9 November 1902 off the north coast of New Zealand carrying a large consignment of gold. Now the Elingamite wreck is a favourite site for adventurous divers because of the drama associated with it, wild tales of lost treasure. Elingamite arrived at Sydney, on 22 November 1887, having departed from Newcastle upon Tyne in England on 24 September, where she had been built by C. S. Swan & Hunter, she was a steel-hulled screw steamer 320 feet long, 40 feet 9 inches in the beam, with a depth of 22 feet 3 inches. She was powered by triple-expansion compound steam engines, built by the Wallsend Slipway & Engineering Company, which gave her a top speed of 11 knots. There was accommodation for 100 passengers in 1st class, another 100 in steerage; the Victorian government had selected her for use as an armed cruiser, she had fittings in place for four Armstrong 36-pounder guns, machine-guns amidships.

She was schooner-rigged on two pole masts. Elingamite left Sydney early on Sunday morning, 5 November 1902, on the regular Tasman Sea run between Sydney and Auckland. Captain Ernest Atwood was in charge. On board were 136 passengers and 58 crew, a consignment of 52 boxes of coins for banks in New Zealand, including 6,000 gold half-sovereigns; the voyage was uneventful until mid-morning on the 9th when the ship encountered thick fog. Captain Atwood took necessary precautions, but the vessel struck West Island, one of the islands in the Three Kings group, about 35 nautical miles north of Cape Reinga on the northern tip of mainland New Zealand; the vessel foundered and sank within 20 minutes, but those on board managed to escape in lifeboats and rafts, some taking survivors to King Islands and some to the mainland. One lifeboat was never seen again. 45 people were killed. A party of 75 people from three boats landed on a rocky ledge on the middle King Island and after two days were picked up by the SS Zealandia and taken to Auckland.

A raft and a fourth boat reached the Great King island and a fifth boat with 52 people on board sailed to Houhora on the North Island, 80 miles away. A court of enquiry into the sinking lasted about two months. Captain Atwood was found guilty of grossly negligent navigation, his master's certificate was suspended. Eight years the Australian Naval Station reported that the Three Kings were wrongly charted. In 1911, the Terra Nova surveyed the area and established the Three Kings group to be a mile and a quarter south, a third of a mile east, of their position shown on Captain Atwood's chart; the enquiry was reopened and the court found that the sinking would never have happened had the chart been accurate. Captain Atwood was cleared of all charges and became a ship surveyor at Wellington. Over the years there have been exaggerated claims that there was unregistered bullion aboard, inflated tales about the true value of the coins on board when she sank, it was worth £17,320, a lot of money, but less than claimed by urban legends.

For 30 years the Elingamite wreck has been a favourite site for adventurous divers and although dispersed and now scarce, some coins have been recovered. The late Kelly Tarlton ran several salvage expeditions to this wreck, during which explosives may have been used to free non-ferrous metals from solidifying precipitate and ferrous corrosion; the wreck is now owned, having passed through several hands after auction of the rights to the wreck by the original insurance company. List of New Zealand disasters by death toll Awanui for description of the shipwreck and rescue attempts Picture from the State Library of Victoria The Shipwreck, from the Christchurch Public Library Programme of a charity concert for victims New Zealand Graphic photos - raft, Zealandia at Queen Street wharf with survivors, lifeboat approaching SS Zealandia, survivors boarding SS Clansman at Hohoura, occupants of the dinghy, occupants of Captain Attwood's boat

District 187: Sin Streets

District 187: Sin Streets was a first-person shooter video game developed by Netmarble, a subsidiary of CJ Corporation. An online multiplayer, the game pits SWAT gangsters against each other in urban combat; the game was released on November 20, 2012, with digital distribution through Steam made available on November 28. The game resembles Counter-Strike, including its "cops and robbers" setup, game modes and map layouts, it features an extensive weapon modification system that allows both cosmetic upgrades. The game focuses on team-based progression. Clans will compete for territory, with clan performance in four weekly "street fight" events determining possession of city districts. District 187 is free-to-play, with all weapons available for in-game currency only. Players are charged real money for cosmetic modifications and for upgrades that speed up the acquisition of in-game currency; the game was developed for western audiences by CJ Corporation's North American subsidiary. On October 3, 2013 the developers took the game offline.

It is now no longer available. Official website Official blog