Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used in sweet and savoury foods. The term cinnamon refers to its mid-brown colour, Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae, only a few Cinnamomum species are grown commercially for spice. The English word cinnamon, attested in English since the 15th century, derives from the Greek κιννάμωμον kinnámōmon, via Latin, the Greek was borrowed from a Phoenician word, which was similar to the related Hebrew qinnamon. The name cassia, first recorded in English around AD1000, was borrowed via Latin and ultimately derives from Hebrew qtsīʿāh, Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BCE, the first Greek reference to kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the seventh century BCE. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense and ladanum, the phoenix was reputed to build its nest from cinnamon and cassia.
Herodotus mentions other writers who believed the source of cassia was the home of Dionysos, egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia from Hellenistic times onward. The gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cassia and cinnamon, as well as incense, Cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on rafts without rudders or sails or oars, taking advantage of the winter trade winds. Pliny mentions cassia as a agent for wine. According to Pliny, a Roman pound of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 300 denarii, diocletians Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia, while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day. Malabathrum leaves were used in cooking and for distilling an oil used in a sauce for oysters by the Roman gourmet Gaius Gavius Apicius. Malabathrum is among the spices that, according to Apicius, any good kitchen should contain, through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world.
From reading Latin writers who quoted Herodotus, Europeans had learned that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the ports of Egypt. Marco Polo avoided precision on the topic, Pliny the Elder wrote in the first century that traders had made this up to charge more, but the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310. The first mention that the spice grew in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwinis Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad about 1270 and this was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino in a letter of about 1292. Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria
A cordial is any invigorating and stimulating preparation that is intended for a medicinal purpose. The term derives from an obsolete usage, various concoctions were formerly created that were believed to be beneficial to ones health, especially for the heart. Some cordials, with their flecks of gold leaf and bright yellow hue, took their name from the cordial vertues of the rays of the sun, which some alchemists thought they contained. Most cordials were of European origin, first produced in Italian apothecaries during the Renaissance where the art of distilling was refined during the 15th and 16th centuries. It is from this origin that cordials are frequently referred to in French as Liqueurs d’ltalie, from the Renaissance onwards, cordials were usually based on alcohol in which certain herbs, spices or other ingredients were allowed to steep. The first cordials arrived in England in the late 15th century and were called distilled cordial waters and these were strictly used as alcoholic medicines, prescribed in small doses to invigorate and revitalise the heart and spirit as well as cure diseases.
By the 18th century cordials were being imbided for their effects and medicinal virtues. Though cordials originated on the continent a number of British ‘sweet drams’ achieved popularity in Europe, cordials were used to renew the natural heat and revive the spirits, and free the whole body from the malignity of diseases. Many cordials were considered aphrodisiacs, a view which encouraged their consumption in a social as opposed to a medical context, other early varieties of alcoholic cordials were flavoured with spices and herbal ingredients which were thought to settle the stomach after excessive eating. These cordials were called Surfeit Waters, which were created for treating overindulgence. Precious ingredients like gold and coral were sometimes added and these were believed to revive the spirit and to preclude disease. The use of the word Cordial by the author was archaic even at the time, rosa Solis or Rosolio, probably originating in Renaissance Turin was derived from the carnivorous sundew plant.
It was believed to not only invigorate the heart, but to be an aphrodisiac as well, according to the 17th century medical writer William Salmon, Royal Usquebaugh was a spicy concoction containing flecks of gold leaf thought to capture the suns golden radiance. It was usually flavoured with aniseed and saffron and sweetened with sugar extracted from figs. The name derives from the Irish uisce beatha, which is literally the Gaelic translation of Latin aqua vitae, escubac d’Angleterre, a more down-market relative of Royal Usquebaugh without the flecks of gold leaf, but was nevertheless a popular drink. Vespetrò, another popular liqueur of Italy, flavoured with anise, elixir Liqueur Squash Tincture Web page about several types of cordials
Hyssopus officinalis or hyssop is a herbaceous plant of the genus Hyssopus native to Southern Europe, the Middle East, and the region surrounding the Caspian Sea. Due to its properties as an antiseptic, cough reliever, and expectorant, hyssop is a brightly coloured shrub or subshrub that ranges from 30 to 60 cm in height. The stem is woody at the base, from which grow a number of straight branches and its leaves are lanceolate, dark green in colour, and from 2 to 2.5 cm long. During the summer, the plant produces bunches of pink, blue, or, more rarely and these give rise to small oblong achenes. A plant called hyssop has been in use since classical antiquity and its name is a direct adaptation from the Greek ὕσσωπος. The Hebrew word אזוב and the Greek word ὕσσωπος probably share a common origin, I Kings iv.33 mentions that ezov was a small plant. It was burned with the Red Heifer and used for purification of lepers, the species as a whole is resistant to drought, and tolerant of chalky, sandy soils.
It thrives in full sun and warm climates, under optimal weather conditions, herb hyssop is harvested twice yearly, once at the end of spring and once more at the beginning of the fall. The plants are harvested when flowering in order to collect the flowering tips. Once the stalks are cut, they are collected and dried either stacked on pallets to allow for draining or hung to dry, the actual drying process takes place in a cool, well-ventilated area, where the materials are mixed several times to ensure even drying. Drying herbs are kept from exposure to the sun to prevent discoloration and oxidation, the drying process takes approximately six days in its entirety. Once dried, the leaves are removed and both components and flowers, are chopped finely, the final dried product weighs a third of the initial fresh weight and can be stored for up to 18 months. The essential oil includes the chemicals thujone and phenol, which give it antiseptic properties and its high concentrations of thujone and chemicals that stimulate the central nervous system, including pinocamphone and cineole, can provoke epileptic reactions.
The oil of hyssop can cause seizures and even low doses can cause convulsions in children, the fresh herb is commonly used in cooking. Essence of hyssop can be obtained by steaming, and is used in cooking to a lesser extent, the plant is commonly used by beekeepers to produce a rich and aromatic honey. Herb hyssop leaves are used as an aromatic condiment, the leaves have a lightly bitter taste due to its tannins, and an intense minty aroma. Due to its intensity, it is used moderately in cooking, the herb is used to flavor liqueur, and is part of the official formulation of Chartreuse. In herbal medicine hyssop is believed to have soothing, hyssop can stimulate the gastrointestinal system
Tanacetum balsamita is a perennial temperate herb known as costmary, balsam herb, bible leaf, or mint geranium. The costmary is a perennial with oval serrated leaves and can grow up to 2 m high, during summer it shows small yellow button shaped blossoms which appear in clusters. The English name costmary stems from costus of Saint Mary, also, in other languages, it is associated with the virgin Mary, most probably because it is sometimes used to treat womens diseases. The plant seems to have originated in the Mediterranean and it is unclear whether the plant called balsamita described by Columella in 70 AD is the same. According to Heinrich Marzell, it was first mentioned in 812 in a plant catalogue, costmary was widely grown since the medieval times in herb gardens until the late 19th and early 20th centuries for medical purposes. Nowadays it has disappeared in Europe, but is still widely used in southwest Asia. It was used in times as a place marker in Bibles. It is referred to by Nicholas Culpeper as the balsam herb, leaves of the plant have been found to contain a range of essential oils.
A Spanish study found the oil includes carvone as the component, together with minor amounts of beta-thujone, t-dihydrocarvone, c-dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveol isomer, c-carveol. Levels of beta-thujone, a ketone, were 9. 8%,12. 5% and 12. 1% in the respective samples. In medieval times, costmary was used for menstruation problems, in the 18th century, it was classified as laxative, against stomach problems and as astringent. It was recommend against melancholy and hysteria as well as dysentery, the plant is known from ancient herbals and was widely grown in Elizabethan knot gardens. 17th century herbalist Nicholas Culpeper says of costmary, It is under the dominion of Jupiter and it is astringent to the stomach, and strengtheneth the livers other viscera, and taken in whey, worketh more effectively. It is good for weak and cold livers, the seed is given to children for worms, and so is the infusion of flowers in white wine, about two ounces at a time. Pyrethrum Culpepers British Herbal - Pub, william Nicholson and Son - C.1905
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
It grows to a maximum height of 70–150 cm. The leaves have a mild lemon scent similar to mint, during summer, small white flowers full of nectar appear. It is not to be confused with bee balm, although the flowers attract bees. The leaves are used as an herb, in teas, the plant is used to attract bees for honey production. It is grown as a plant and for its oil. The tea of lemon balm, the oil, and the extract are used in traditional and alternative medicine. The plant has been cultivated at least since the 16th century, the plant is used to attract bees to make honey. It is grown and sold as an ornamental plant, the essential oil is used as a perfume ingredient, but the plant has other culinary and medicinal uses. Lemon balm is used in some toothpastes, Lemon balm is used as a flavouring in ice cream and herbal teas, both hot and iced, often in combination with other herbs such as spearmint. It is an addition to peppermint tea, mostly because of its complementing flavor. Lemon balm is paired with fruit dishes or candies, additionally, it can be used in fish dishes and is the main ingredient in lemon balm pesto.
Its flavour comes from citronellal, linalyl acetate and caryophyllene, in traditional Austrian medicine, M. Lemon balm is the main ingredient of Carmelite water, which is still for sale in German pharmacies. In alternative medicine it is used as an aid and digestive aid. Lemon balm essential oil is popular in aromatherapy, the essential oil is commonly co-distilled with lemon oil, citronella oil or other oils. M. officinalis is native to Europe, central Asia and Iran, Lemon balm seeds require light and at least 20 °C to germinate. Lemon balm grows in clumps and spreads vegetatively, as well as by seed, in mild temperate zones, the stems of the plant die off at the start of the winter, but shoot up again in spring. Lemon balm grows vigorously, it should not be planted where it spread into other plantings. M. officinalis may be the honey-leaf mentioned by Theophrastus and it was in the herbal garden of John Gerard,1596
To counterfeit means to imitate something. Counterfeit products are fakes or unauthorised replicas of the real product, counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product. Counterfeit products tend to have company logos and brands, have a reputation for being lower quality. This has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, due to automobile and aviation accidents, the counterfeiting of money is usually attacked aggressively by governments worldwide. Paper money is the most popular product counterfeited, counterfeit money is currency that is produced without the legal sanction of the state or government and in deliberate violation of that countrys laws. The United States Secret Service, mostly known for its guarding-of-officials task, was organized primarily to combat the counterfeiting of American money. Forgery is the process of making or adapting documents with the intention to deceive and it is a form of fraud, and is often a key technique in the execution of identity theft.
Uttering and publishing is a term in United States law for the forgery of documents, such as a trucking companys time. Questioned document examination is a process for investigating many aspects of various documents. Security printing is a printing industry specialty, focused on creating legal documents which are difficult to forge, the spread of counterfeit goods has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly. Apparel and accessories accounted for over 50 percent of the goods seized by U. S Customs. A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development indicates that up to US$200 Billion of international trade could have been in counterfeit and illegally copied goods in 2005. In November 2009, the OECD updated these estimates, concluding that the share of counterfeit and that represents an increase to US$250 billion worldwide. In a detailed breakdown of the counterfeit goods industry, the total loss faced by countries around the world is $600 billion, when calculating counterfeit products, current estimates place the global losses at $400 billion.
Some see the rise in counterfeiting of goods as being related to globalisation and these new managers of production have little or no loyalty to the original corporation. They see that profits are being made by the brand for doing little and see the possibilities of removing the middle men. Certain consumer goods, especially expensive or desirable brands or those that are easy to reproduce cheaply, have become frequent. The counterfeiters either attempt to deceive the consumer into thinking they are purchasing a legitimate item, or convince the consumer that they could deceive others with the imitation
Cardamom, sometimes Cardamon or Cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to India, Bhutan and Nepal, some other countries, such as Sri Lanka, have begun to cultivate it. Cardamom is the worlds third-most expensive spice, surpassed in price per weight only by vanilla, the modern genus name Elettaria is derived from the local name. The root ēlam is attested in all Dravidian languages viz. Kannada elakki, Telugu yelakulu, Tamil elakkai, the second element kai means seed or fruit. The Malabar region had historical connections and was a prominent area of cardamom cultivation. A related root is present in Hindi ilaychi, Bengali ælachi. In Sindhi it is called Photta, in Sanskrit it was known as ela or ellka. In Marathi it is known as velchi or veldoda. In Sri Lanka, the plant is known as Enasal by Sinhala language, there are two main types of cardamom, True or green cardamom comes from the species Elettaria cardamomum and is distributed from India to Malaysia.
What is often referred to as white cardamon is actually Siam cardamom, the two types of cardamom, κάρδαμομον and ἄμωμον, were distinguished in the fourth century BCE by the Greek father of botany, Theophrastus. Theophrastus and informants knew that these varieties were originally and solely from India, both forms of cardamom are used as flavorings and cooking spices in both food and drink, and as a medicine. E. cardamomum is used as a spice, a masticatory, Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic, resinous fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more smokey, though not bitter, green cardamom is one of the more expensive spices by weight, but little is needed to impart flavor. It is best stored in the pod as exposed or ground seeds quickly lose their flavor, grinding the pods and seeds together lowers both the quality and the price. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a generally accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1 1⁄2 teaspoons of ground cardamom and it is a common ingredient in Indian cooking.
In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes, as well as traditional flavouring in coffee, Cardamom is used to a wide extent in savoury dishes. In Asia both types of cardamom are used in both sweet and savory dishes, particularly in the south. Both are frequent components in spice mixes, such as Indian and Nepali masalas, green cardamom is often used in traditional Indian sweets and in masala chai
Henry IV of France
Henry IV, known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne dAlbret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, and led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct descendant of Louis IX of France. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589 and he initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear Frances crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era.
Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants and he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, an unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henrys popularity greatly improved after his death, in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The Good King Henry was remembered for his geniality and his concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri, Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion, on 9 June 1572, upon his mothers death, he became King of Navarre.
At Queen Joans death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II, the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre began in Paris, several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henrys wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and he was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and he named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years, Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 243,626, together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 749,595 inhabitants and 1,178,335 in the area, it is the fifth largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille. It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department and its inhabitants are called Bordelais or Bordelaises. The term Bordelais may refer to the city and its surrounding region, Bordeaux is the worlds major wine industry capital. It is home to the main wine fair, Vinexpo. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century, the historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 300 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city.
In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around 60 BC, its importance lying in the commerce of tin, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing especially during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals, further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414 and the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city. In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, the city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, a certain Gallactorius is cited as count of Bordeaux, the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after storming the fortified city and overwhelming the Aquitanian garrison.
After Duke Eudess defeat, the Aquitanian duke could still save part of its troops, the following year, the Frankish commander descended again over Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles sons Pepin and Carloman against Hunald, Hunald was defeated, and his son Waifer replaced him, who in turn confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifers last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Shorts troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, in 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux, probably undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, and possibly leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that very year
The Chartreuse Mountains is a mountain range in southeastern France, stretching from the city of Grenoble south to the Lac du Bourget north. It is the southernmost range in the Jura Mountains and belongs to the French Prealps, one of the larger cities in the Chartreuse Mountains is Voiron. The monastic Carthusian Order takes its name from these mountains, where its first hermitage was founded in 1084. Also derived from the ranges name is that of the alcoholic cordial Chartreuse produced by the monks since the 1740s. The Réserve Naturelle des Hauts de Chartreuse was founded in 1997 and it includes seven Isère townships and four Savoie townships. The Chartreuse Mountains gave their name to, The monastery of the Grande Chartreuse, head of the Carthusian order The Chartreuse liquor, the color chartreuse, with the greenish hue of the Chartreuse liqueur. Chartreuse, A Walking Guide A Wiki-Walks guide to some well known hiking routes in the Chartreuse