Mutzig is a commune located at the entrance of the Bruche river valley, in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est, in north-eastern France. The commune of Mutzig is on the Route des Vins d'Alsace. Evidences of human activities can be traced back to the Paleolithic era with the recent discovery of Neanderthal artifacts; the town Mutzig was first mentioned in the 10th century. It became part of the Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg in 1308. In the 19th century, several industries were established in Mutzig among which a weapon manufactory on the grounds of the former castle of the Cardinal de Rohan. In 1893, when Alsace was part of the German Empire, Kaiser Wilhelm II ordered the construction of a fort, the Feste Kaiser Wilhelm II, north of the town, as well as military barracks. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file Mutzig fort website Route des Vins d'Alsace
Charles Ragon de Bange
Charles Ragon de Bange was a French artillery officer and Polytechnician. He invented the first effective obturator system for breech-loading artillery, he designed a system of field guns of various calibers which served the French Army well into World War I: the Système de Bange. Many attempts had been made at developing breech-loading cannons, but had only partial success sealing of the breech; when fired, hot gases and burning gunpowder could escape, losing power and burning the operating crew. Rifles, with smaller loads and thus less stress, were able to use rubber in O-rings as on the Chassepot rifle; the same principle of breech sealing applied on cannons was not as easy to develop. Several materials were able to hold the pressure and heat of cannon fire, but did not expand like rubber, thereby failing to provide a tight seal. In 1872, de Bange designed a new type of obturator for cannons, his system used a breech block made of three parts. When the gun fired, the nose was driven rearward, compressing the asbestos pad and squeezing it so it expanded outward to seal the breech.
The French referred to the shape of the breech's nose as "mushroom like", as it resembled the cap of a mushroom. The action was controlled by a handle mounted vertically on the right side of the breech; when lifted, the handle operated a cam that forced the breech to rotate counter-clockwise, unlocking the interrupted thread. The entire breech was pulled rearward with the same handle, sliding on a ring-shaped holder; the breech holder was hinged on one side the left, so when the breech block was slid all the way to the rear it could be rotated out of the way for loading. The de Bange system was adopted, including by the United States Navy and the British Royal Navy; the technique developed by de Bange is still in use today. The only major advance on the original de Bange system was the introduction of the stepped screw in the Welin breech block of 1889, which increased the load-bearing surface of the breech, allowing them to be made shorter, more secure and faster to operate. Other block mechanisms are used, but the de Bange obturator remains widespread on these.
In 1873, de Bange became Director of the "Atelier-de-précision" in the Central Depot in Paris, in order to redesign French light and heavy artillery. Between 1877 and 1881, de Bange developed several artillery pieces, such as the De Bange 90 mm cannon, the De Bange 80 mm cannon, the De Bange 120 mm L cannon, De Bange 155 mm L cannon, De Bange 155 mm C howitzer, as well as mortars for siege warfare, such as the 1880 De Bange 220 mm mortar, 1885 De Bange 270 mm and coastal batteries such as the De Bange 240 mm and De Bange 270 mm. Several of these weapons were used during the colonial wars of the end of the 19th century, during the First World War and sometimes during the Second World War; as with other cannons, the de Bange cannons had the disadvantage of being slow to fire, as they were affected by recoil, thus had to be re-aimed after every shot. This inconvenience would be solved with the appearance of the famous Canon de 75, that had a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, which kept the gun's trail and wheels still during the firing sequence.
However, there were two howitzers the Obusier de 120 mm C modèle 1890 and Obusier de 155 mm C modèle 1890 with de Bange breeches and recoil mechanisms designed by Captain Louis Henry Auguste Baquet. From 1882 to 1889, de Bange was Director of the Cail Manufacturing Corporation, the forerunner of the Société française de constructions mécaniques, where he worked on weapon design and trade, selling guns to such countries as Serbia. A street is named after him in the city of Versailles. Cannons Shells Canet guns Breech mechanisms Data for all the guns in the De Bange system
The Minié rifle was an important infantry rifle of the mid-19th century. A version was adopted in 1849 following the invention of the Minié ball in 1847 by the French Army captain Claude-Étienne Minié of the Chasseurs d'Orléans and Henri-Gustave Delvigne; the bullet was designed to allow rapid muzzle loading of rifles, was an innovation that brought about the widespread use of the rifle as the main battlefield weapon for individual soldiers. The French adopted it following difficulties encountered by the French army in Northern Africa, where their muskets were outranged by long-barreled weapons which were handcrafted by their Algerian opponents; the Minié rifle belonged to the category of rifled muskets. The rifle used a conical-cylindrical soft lead bullet smaller than the barrel bore, with three exterior grease-filled grooves and a conical hollow in its base; when fired, the expanding gas forcibly pushed on the base of the bullet, deforming it to engage the rifling. This provided spin for accuracy, a better seal for consistent velocity and longer range, cleaning of barrel detritus.
Before this innovation, the smoothbore musket using the buck and ball was the only practical field weapon. Rifled muskets had been in use since the Renaissance, but they required hammering projectiles with a ramrod and mallet into the bore of the barrel, created considerable cleaning problems; the short-lived "carabine à tige" system used a pin at the bottom of the barrel which deformed the bullet against the wall of the barrel when the bullet was pushed to the bottom. This system was problematic for cleaning with the black powders of the period; the Minié rifle weighed 10 lb 9 oz. Having a reasonable accuracy up to 600 yards, it was equipped with sights for effective aiming; the hollow-based bullet was of.702 inch calibre, weighed 500 grains. It could penetrate 4 inches of soft pine at 1,000 yards. A test in Vincennes in 1849 demonstrated that at 15 yards the bullet was able to penetrate two boards of poplar wood, each two-thirds of an inch thick and separated by 20 inches. Soldiers of the time spread rumors that at 1,200 yards the bullet could penetrate a soldier and his knapsack and still kill anyone standing behind him killing every person in a line of 15.
The Minié rifle saw limited distribution in the Crimean War and similar rifles using Minié bullets were the dominant infantry weapons in the American Civil War. The large-caliber deformed conical lead bullets, ranging in diameter from.54 to.58 inches, combined with the high-speed spin from the rifling, created terrible wounds. The Pattern 1851 Minié rifle was in use by the British Army from 1851 to 1855; the Minié system was used extensively by various manufacturers, such as Springfield and Enfield. Minié rifles were used extensively in the Boshin War in Japan, where they had an important role in tipping the balance against the Tokugawa forces in encounters such as the Battle of Toba–Fushimi; the muzzle-loading Minié rifle became obsolete in 1866 following the defeat of the Austrians, equipped with this type of rifle, against the Prussians, who had the innovative bolt-action Dreyse rifles. In France, the existing Minié rifles were retooled to accommodate a breech-loading mechanism reminiscent of a snuff box, became known as Tabatière rifles.
Soon after, the breech-loading Chassepot system was adopted by the French army. French weapons in the American Civil War Nosworthy, The Bloody Crucible of Courage, Fighting Methods and Combat Experience of the Civil War and Graf Publishers, 2003, ISBN 0-7867-1147-7. Smithsonian article
Monaco the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, 161 metres above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent. Monaco is known as a playground for the famous, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state.
Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297; the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are spoken and understood. The state's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, a railway connection to Paris. Since Monaco's mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax, low business taxes, is well known for being a tax haven. It is the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One; the principality has a club football team. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" "alone, single" + "οἶκος" "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods; as a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.
Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy the Third Reich, before being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia", his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was known by this name. Francesco, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century; the Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica; the Crown of Aragon became a part of Spain through marriage and other parts drifted into various pieces of other
French colonial empire
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is made between the "first colonial empire," that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830; the second colonial empire came to an end after the loss in wars of Indochina and Algeria, peaceful decolonizations elsewhere after 1960. Competing with Spain, the Dutch United Provinces and England, France began to establish colonies in North America, the Caribbean and India in the 17th century. A series of wars with Britain and others resulted in France losing nearly all of its conquests by 1814. France rebuilt a new empire after 1850, concentrating chiefly in Africa as well as Indochina and the South Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build their own colonial empire; as it developed, the new empire took on roles of trade with France supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language and the Catholic religion.
It provided manpower in the World Wars. A major goal was the ‘Mission civilisatrice’ the mission to spread French culture and religion, this proved successful. In 1884, the leading proponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry, declared. Full citizenship rights – assimilation – were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens." France sent small numbers of settlers to its empire, contrary to Great Britain and Spain and Portugal, with the only notable exception of Algeria, where the French settlers nonetheless always remained a small minority. At its apex, it was one of the largest empires in history. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 11,500,000 km2 in 1920, with a population of 110 million people in 1939. In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the overseas colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. Historian Tony Chafer argues: "In an effort to restore its world-power status after the humiliation of defeat and occupation, France was eager to maintain its overseas empire at the end of the Second World War."
However, after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. The French constitution of 27 October 1946, established the French Union which endured until 1958. Newer remnants of the colonial empire were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories within the French Republic; these now total altogether 119,394 km², which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2.7 million people living in them in 2013. By the 1970s, says Robert Aldrich, the last "vestiges of empire held little interest for the French." He argues, "Except for the traumatic decolonization of Algeria, what is remarkable is how few long-lasting effects on France the giving up of empire entailed." During the 16th century, the French colonization of the Americas began. Excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion.
But Spain's defense of its American monopoly, the further distractions caused in France itself in the 16th century by the French Wars of Religion, prevented any constant efforts by France to settle colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro and in Florida, in 1612 at São Luís, were not successful, due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance; the story of France's colonial empire began on 27 July 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. A few years in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec, to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France. New France had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England for land, by relying on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military and diplomatic connections.
These became the most enduring alliances between the First Nation community. The French were, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism. Through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent. Areas of French settlement were limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies, it is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Back in France there was littl
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century; the Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were small operations in a peaceful century. Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century; the Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform. The 19th century was an era of rapid economic modernisation and growth of industry and finance, in which Britain dominated the world economy. Outward migration was heavy to the United States; the empire was expanded into much of South Asia. The Colonial Office and India Office ruled through a small number of administrators who managed the units of the empire locally, while democratic institutions began to develop.
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In overseas policy, the central policy was free trade, which enabled British and Irish financiers and merchants to operate in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. London formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, moved closer to the United States. Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, the state was renamed to the current "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" in 1927; the modern-day United Kingdom is the same country as the one from this period—a direct continuation of what remained after the secession—not an new successor state. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which occurred during the British war with revolutionary France.
The British government's fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801; the Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland. However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it. During the War of the Second Coalition, Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch overseas possessions, the Netherlands having become a satellite state of France in 1796, but tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40,000 troops; when the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized. The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy, in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
In May 1803, war was declared again. Napoleon's plans to invade Great Britain failed, chiefly due to the inferiority of his navy, in 1805 a Royal Navy fleet led by Nelson decisively defeated the French and Spanish at Trafalgar, the last significant naval action of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System; this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. The British Army remained a minimal threat to France. Although the Royal Navy disrupted France's extra-continental trade—both by seizing and threatening French shipping and by seizing French colonial possessions—it could do nothing about France's trade with the major continental economies and posed little threat to French territory in Europe. France's population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, but it was smaller in terms of industry, mercantile marine and naval strength.
Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. On the contrary Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in the world, its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions and the United States; the Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington pushed the French out of Spain, in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. After Napoleon's surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. Napoleon reappeared in 1815; the Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo. To defeat France, Britain put heavy pressure on the Americans
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia from 1789 to 1925. The state ruled by the dynasty was known as the Sublime State of Persia; the Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan and Armenia; the Qajar rulers were members of the Karagöz or "Black-Eye" sect of the Qajars, who themselves were members of the Qajars or "Black Hats" lineage of the Oghuz Turks. Qajars first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qizilbash tribes that supported the Safavids.
The Safavids "left Arran to local Turkic khans", and, "in 1554 Ganja was governed by Shahverdi Soltan Ziyadoglu Qajar, whose family came to govern Karabakh in southern Arran". Qajars filled a number of diplomatic missions and governorships in the 16–17th centuries for the Safavids; the Qajars were resettled by Shah Abbas I throughout Iran. The great number of them settled in Astarabad near the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea, it would be this branch of Qajars that would rise to power; the immediate ancestor of the Qajar dynasty, Shah Qoli Khan of the Quvanlu of Ganja, married into the Quvanlu Qajars of Astarabad. His son, Fath Ali Khan was a renowned military commander during the rule of the Safavid shahs Sultan Husayn and Tahmasp II, he was killed on the orders of Shah Nader Shah in 1726. Fath Ali Khan's son Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar was the father of Mohammad Khan Qajar and Hossein Qoli Khan, father of "Baba Khan," the future Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. Mohammad Hasan Khan was killed on the orders of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty.
Within 126 years between the demise of the Safavid state and the rise of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, the Qajars had evolved from a shepherd-warrior tribe with strongholds in northern Persia into a Persian dynasty with all the trappings of a Perso-Islamic monarchy. "Like every dynasty that ruled Persia since the 11th century, the Qajars came to power with the backing of Turkic tribal forces, while using educated Persians in their bureaucracy". In 1779 following the death of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty, Mohammad Khan Qajar, the leader of the Qajars, set out to reunify Iran. Mohammad Khan was known as one of the cruelest kings by the standards of 18th-century Iran. In his quest for power, he razed cities, massacred entire populations, blinded some 20,000 men in the city of Kerman because the local populace had chosen to defend the city against his siege; the Qajar armies at that time were composed of Turkomans and Georgian slaves. By 1794, Mohammad Khan had eliminated all his rivals, including Lotf Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty.
He reestablished Persian control over the territories in the entire Caucasus. Agha Mohammad established his capital at Tehran, a village near the ruins of the ancient city of Rayy. In 1796, he was formally crowned as shah. In 1797, Mohammad Khan Qajar was assassinated in Shusha, the capital of Karabakh Khanate, was succeeded by his nephew, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. In 1744, Nader Shah had granted the kingship of Kartli and Kakheti to Teimuraz II and his son Erekle II as a reward for their loyalty; when Nader Shah died in 1747, they capitalized on the chaos that had erupted in mainland Iran, declared de facto independence. After Teimuraz II died in 1762, Erekle II assumed control over Kartli, united the two kingdoms in a personal union as the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, becoming the first Georgian ruler to preside over a politically unified eastern Georgia in three centuries. At about the same time, Karim Khan Zand had ascended the Iranian throne. In 1783, Erekle II placed his kingdom under the protection of the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Georgievsk.
In the last few decades of the 18th century, Georgia had become a more important element in Russo-Iranian relations than some provinces in northern mainland Persia, such as Mazandaran or Gilan. Unlike Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, the then-ruling monarch of Russia, viewed Georgia as a pivot for her Caucasian policy, as Russia's new aspirations were to use it as a base of operations against both Iran and the Ottoman Empire, both immediate bordering geopolitical rivals of Russia. On top of that, having another port on the Georgian coast of the Black Sea would be ideal. A limited Russian contingent of two infantry battalions with four artillery pieces arrived in Tbilisi in 1784, but was withdrawn, despite the frantic protests of the Georgians, in 1787 as a new war against Ottoman Turkey had started on a different front; the consequences of these events came a few years when a strong new Iranian dynasty under the Qajars emerged victorious in the protracted power struggle in Persia. Their head, Agha Mohammad Khan, as his first objective, resolved to bring the Caucasus again under the Persian orbit.
For Agha Mohammah Khan, the resubjugat