Ten Lost Tribes
The ten lost tribes were the ten of the Twelve Tribes of Israel that were said to have been deported from the Kingdom of Israel after its conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire circa 722 BCE. These are the tribes of Reuben, Dan, Gad, Issachar, Zebulun and Ephraim. Claims of descent from the "lost" tribes have been proposed in relation to many groups, some religions espouse a messianic view that the tribes will return. In the 7th and 8th centuries CE, the return of the lost tribes was associated with the concept of the coming of the messiah; the Jewish historian Josephus wrote that "the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, are an immense multitude and not to be estimated in numbers". Historian Tudor Parfitt has declared that "the Lost Tribes are indeed nothing but a myth", he writes that "this myth is a vital feature of colonial discourse throughout the long period of European overseas empires, from the beginning of the fifteenth century, until the half of the twentieth"; the scriptural basis for the idea of "10 Lost Tribes" is 2 Kings 17:6: "In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and deported the Israelites to Assyria.
He settled them in Halah, in Gozan on the Habor River and in the towns of the Medes." According to the Hebrew Bible, Jacob had 12 sons and at least one daughter by two wives and two concubines. The twelve sons fathered the twelve Tribes of Israel; when the land of Israel was apportioned among the tribes in the days of Joshua, the Tribe of Levi, being chosen as priests, did not receive land. However, the tribe of Levi were given cities. Six cities were to be refuge cities for all men of Israel, which were to be controlled by the Levites. Three of these cities were located on each side of the Jordan River. In addition, 42 other cities, totaling 48 cities, were given to the Tribe of Levi. Jacob elevated the descendants of Ephraim and Manasseh to the status of full tribes in their own right, replacing the Tribe of Joseph; each tribe received its own land and had its own encampment during the 40 years of wandering in the desert. Thus, the two divisions of the tribes are: According to the Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of the successor states to the older United Monarchy, which came into existence in about the 930s BCE after the northern Tribes of Israel rejected Solomon's son Rehoboam as their king.
Nine landed tribes formed the Northern Kingdom: the tribes of Reuben, Zebulun, Naphtali, Asher and Manasseh. In addition, some members of the Tribe of Levi, who had no land allocation, were found in the Northern Kingdom; the Tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to Rehoboam, formed the Kingdom of Judah. Members of Levi and the remnant of Simeon were found in the Southern Kingdom. According to 2 Chronicles 15:9, members of the tribes of Ephraim and Simeon "fled" to Judah during the reign of Asa of Judah. Whether these groups were absorbed into the population or remained distinct groups or returned to their tribal lands is not indicated. In c. 732 BCE, the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III sacked Damascus and Israel, annexing Aramea and territory of the tribes of Reuben and Manasseh in Gilead including the desert outposts of Jetur and Nodab. People from these tribes, including the Reubenite leader, were taken captive and resettled in the region of the Khabur River system in Assyria/Mesopotamia.
Tiglath-Pilesar captured the territory of Naphtali and the city of Janoah in Ephraim, an Assyrian governor was placed over the region of Naphtali. According to 2 Kings 16:9 and 15:29, the population of Aram and the annexed part of Israel was deported to Assyria. Israel continued to exist within the reduced territory as an independent kingdom subject to Assyria until around 725–720 BCE, when it was again invaded by Assyria and the rest of the population deported; the Bible relates that the population of Israel was exiled, leaving only the Tribe of Judah, the Tribe of Simeon, the Tribe of Benjamin, the people of the Tribe of Levi who lived among them of the original Israelite tribes in the southern Kingdom of Judah. However, Israel Finkelstein estimated that only a fifth of the population were resettled out of the area during the two deportation periods under Tiglath-Pileser III, Shalmaneser V, Sargon II. Many fled south to Jerusalem, which appears to have expanded in size fivefold during this period, requiring a new wall to be built, a new source of water to be provided by King Hezekiah.
Furthermore, 2 Chronicles 30:1-11 explicitly mentions northern Israelites, spared by the Assyrians—in particular, members of Dan, Manasseh and Zebulun—and how members of the latter three returned to worship at the Temple in Jerusalem at that time. The Hebrew Bible does not use the phrase "ten lost tribes", leading some to question the number of tribes involved. 1 Kings 11:31 states that the kingdom would be taken from Solomon and ten tribes given to Jeroboam: And he said to Jeroboam, Take thee ten pieces: for thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, Behold, I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, will give ten tribes to thee.... But I will take the kingdom out of his son's hand, will give it unto thee ten tribes. According to Zvi Ben-Dor Benite: Centuries after their disappearance, the ten lost tribes sent an indirect but vital sign... In 2 Esdras, we read about the ten tribes and "their long jou
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, the processes by which they change over time. Geology can include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, the processes that have shaped that structure, it provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, numerical modelling.
In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering; the majority of geological data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These fall into one of two categories: rock and unlithified material; the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three major types of rock: igneous and metamorphic; the rock cycle illustrates the relationships among them. When a rock solidifies or crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock; this rock can be weathered and eroded redeposited and lithified into a sedimentary rock. It can be turned into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure that change its mineral content, resulting in a characteristic fabric.
All three types may melt again, when this happens, new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once more solidify. To study all three types of rock, geologists evaluate the minerals; each mineral has distinct physical properties, there are many tests to determine each of them. The specimens can be tested for: Luster: Measurement of the amount of light reflected from the surface. Luster is broken into nonmetallic. Color: Minerals are grouped by their color. Diagnostic but impurities can change a mineral’s color. Streak: Performed by scratching the sample on a porcelain plate; the color of the streak can help name the mineral. Hardness: The resistance of a mineral to scratch. Breakage pattern: A mineral can either show fracture or cleavage, the former being breakage of uneven surfaces and the latter a breakage along spaced parallel planes. Specific gravity: the weight of a specific volume of a mineral. Effervescence: Involves dripping hydrochloric acid on the mineral to test for fizzing. Magnetism: Involves using a magnet to test for magnetism.
Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, like halite. Smell: Minerals can have a distinctive odor. For example, sulfur smells like rotten eggs. Geologists study unlithified materials, which come from more recent deposits; these materials are superficial deposits. This study is known as Quaternary geology, after the Quaternary period of geologic history. However, unlithified material does not only include sediments. Magmas and lavas are the original unlithified source of all igneous rocks; the active flow of molten rock is studied in volcanology, igneous petrology aims to determine the history of igneous rocks from their final crystallization to their original molten source. In the 1960s, it was discovered that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, upper mantle, called the asthenosphere; this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity.
There is an intimate coupling between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection of the mantle. Thus, oceanic plates and the adjoining mantle convection currents always move in the same direction – because the oceanic lithosphere is the rigid upper thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle; this coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics has provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features are explained as plate boundaries. For example: Mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, are seen as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart. Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes are theorized as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts, or moves, under another. Transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes.
Plate tectonics has provided a mechan
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Red Clay State Park
Red Clay State Historic Park is a state park located in southern Bradley County, Tennessee established in 1979. The park is listed as an interpretive center along the Cherokee Trail of Tears, it is located just above the Tennessee-Georgia stateline. The park was the site of the last seat of Cherokee national government before the 1838 enforcement of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 by the U. S. military, which resulted in most of the Cherokee people in the area being forced to emigrate West. Eleven general councils were held between 1832 and 1837; the James F. Corn Interpretive Center features exhibits about 18th and 19th century Cherokee culture, economy, recreation and history. A series of stained glass windows depicts the forced removal of the Cherokee and subsequent Trail of Tears emigration. There is a video about the Cherokee. Outside there is a replica of a Council House. Other nearby Cherokee points of interest are the cabin of Chief John Ross located in Rossville and the grave site of Nancy Ward in Benton, Tennessee.
Red Clay State Park - official site Wildernet information about the park Red Clay Council Grounds
Watkins Glen, New York
Watkins Glen is a village in Schuyler County, New York, United States, it is the county seat of Schuyler County. Watkins Glen lies within the towns of Reading; the current mayor, as of 2015, is Samuel Schimizzi. The village is home to the well-known race track Watkins Glen International, host of NASCAR Cup Series, IndyCar and a former host of the United States Grand Prix of Formula One; the first settlement of European peoples in the area began circa 1800. Watkins Glen was the northern terminus of the Chemung Canal, started in 1830 and completed in 1833, connecting Seneca Lake to the Chemung River. Catharine Creek, flowing into the lake through the village, was used to help create the canal; the village was incorporated in 1842 as Salubria Jefferson, but was renamed Watkins after Dr. Samuel Watkins, the founder, for his contributions to the community; the current name Watkins Glen was adopted in 1926. For the first half of the 20th century, the village was known as the site of Glen Springs Sanitarium, one of the leading spas in the United States.
The A. F. Chapman House, First Baptist Church of Watkins Glen, Schuyler County Courthouse Complex, St. James Episcopal Church, United States Post Office, Watkins Glen Commercial Historic District, Watkins Glen Grand Prix Course, 1948-1952, Watkins Glen High School are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Watkins Glen is located at 42°22′52″N 76°52′16″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.2 square miles. 1.9 square miles of the village is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. New York State Route 14 joins New York State Route 414 by Watkins Glen. NY-14 is one of the principal streets in Watkins Glen village. New York State Route 329 and New York State Route 409 lead into Watkins Glen from the west; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,859 people, 873 households, 442 families residing in the village. The population density was 845 per square mile. There were 977 housing units at an average density of 444 per square mile; the racial makeup of the village was 96.2% White, 0.50% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.70% from other races, 1.70% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.40% of the population. There were 873 households out of which 22.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.70% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 49.40% were non-families. 42.40% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.86. In the village, the age distribution of the population was spread out with 22.70% under the age of 20, 5.40% from 20 to 24, 31.80% from 25 to 50 and 17.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.20 years old. The Village of Watkins Glen had 866 male residents, 993 female residents; the median income for a household in the village was $34,969 and the median income for a family was $55,357. Males had a median income of $37,885 versus $29,000 for females; the per capita income for the village was $24,116. 5.0% of the population and 1.70% of families were living below the poverty line.
3.6% of those under the age of 18 and 6.80% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Located on the southern tip of Seneca Lake, one of western New York's deep, glacial Finger Lakes, Watkins Glen is the site of scenic Watkins Glen State Park. Watkins Glen is noted for its role in auto racing, being the home of a street course used in road racing, a famous racetrack, Watkins Glen International, one of the premier automobile road racing tracks in the United States, which has hosted the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series I Love New York 355 at The Glen, IndyCar Series Grand Prix at The Glen, the IMSA SportsCar Championship 6 Hours of Watkins Glen; the first Watkins Glen Sports Car Grand Prix, was held in 1948 on public streets in and near the village. Organized by local resident Cameron Argetsinger, it was the first post-WWII road race held in the United States and it marked the revival of American road racing; the original course passed through the center of the village. The streets used for the original course remain intact today and a checkered flag marks the original start-finish line on the village's main street.
A permanent racing facility, the Watkins Glen Grand Prix Race Course opened in 1956. It has hosted nearly every type of road racing, from the Sahlen's 6 Hours of Watkins Glen, the Formula One United States Grand Prix, the I Love New York 355 at The Glen, one of the few races on the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series schedule not conducted on an oval speedway, the other being Sonoma Raceway; the International Motor Racing Research Center, an annex to the village library, is located in Watkins Glen. Since 2014, Watkins Glen has hosted a weekend of IJSBA closed course racing, has become one of the largest race venues in the sport today. Promoted in Region 8 by NEWA, until 2016 when East Coast Watercross purchased the series, racing has been at Clute Memorial Park and Campground, is the last weekend in August; the event has always been free to spectators, features both closed course racing and freestyle competition using standup, sit-down, sport class machines. The racetrack was the scene of the 1973 Summer Jam at Watkins Glen rock festival attended by an estimated 600,000 people, one-and-a-half time the crowd at 1969's historic Woodstock Festival and a world record for the largest number of people at a pop mu
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
Bradley County, Tennessee
Bradley County is a county located in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 98,963, making it the thirteen most populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is Cleveland. It is named for Colonel Edward Bradley of Shelby County, colonel of Hale's Regiment in the American Revolution and the 15th Regiment of the Tennessee Volunteers in the War of 1812. Bradley County is included in the Cleveland, Tennessee Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Chattanooga-Cleveland-Dalton, TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. Bradley County was first seen by Europeans on June 2, 1540 by Hernando De Soto and his expedition while traveling through the North American continent. Bradley County was established on February 10, 1836, it was named to honor Colonel Edward Bradley who served in the War of 1812. On January 20, 1838, Cleveland, a township with a population of 400, became the seat of Bradley County. Red Clay State Park, the site of the last Cherokee council before the tribe's removal via Trail of Tears, is located in Bradley County.
Like most East Tennessee counties, Bradley County was opposed to secession on the eve of the Civil War. In Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession referendum on June 8, 1861, the county's residents voted against secession by a margin of 1,382 to 507; the bridge over the Hiwassee River was burned on November 8, 1861, by members of the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy led by Alfred Cate. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 331 square miles, of which 329 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles is water. The county is situated on a series of paralleling ridges running north-northeasterly which are part of the Ridge and Valley Appalachians; the highest of these, Candies Creek Ridge, runs through the center of Cleveland. Located in between these ridges are creeks, there are several springs in the county, which made the area favorable to early settlers. Chatata is the Cherokee name for a region in the northeastern portion of the county where the so-called Chatata Wall was found in the late 19th century.
The highest point in the county is located on the Hamilton County line along White Oak Mountain. The county is bordered on the north by the Hiwassee River. Meigs County McMinn County Polk County Murray County, Georgia Whitfield County, Georgia Hamilton County Chickamauga Wildlife Management Area Charlotte Anne Finnel Neal Wildlife Management Area Red Clay State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 87,965 people, 34,281 households, 24,648 families residing in the county; the population density was 268 people per square mile. There were 36,820 housing units at an average density of 112 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.98% White, 3.99% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. 2.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 34,281 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families.
23.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 11.30% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,034, the median income for a family was $41,779. Males had a median income of $30,654 versus $21,407 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,108. About 9.00% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 11.60% of those age 65 or over. With thirteen Fortune 500 manufacturers, Cleveland has the fifth largest industrial economy in Tennessee. Cleveland is home to a variety of industries, including household cooking equipment, textiles, storage batteries, industrial cleaning products, photographic processing and domestic chemicals, automotive parts.
Major employers include Whirlpool, Johnston Coca-Cola, Incorporated, Procter & Gamble, Hardwick Clothes, Cleveland Chair Company. Wacker Polysilicon, Olin Corporation and Arch Chemicals have factories and distribution centers in Charleston. Resolute Forest Products Bowater, has a plant across the river from Charleston in Calhoun. Agriculture in Bradley County has an annual market value of over $115 million. Bradley County is home to farms which raise beef cattle, poultry and crops, such as corn and fruits and vegetables. Bradley County has a 14-member county commission form of government, with two commissioners from each of seven districts; the commission is headed by a vice chairman, who are chosen by fellow commissioners. The current chairman is Johnny Mull from District 3 and the vice chairman is Jeff Yarber from District 5; each district is assigned a constable elected. The county executive separately elected, is Republican D. Gary Davis. Other elected officials include county clerk and criminal court clerk, register of deeds, assessor of property and road superintendent.
Elections take place every year, with primaries in the first week