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K. O. Bowman

Kimiko Osada Bowman is a Japanese-American statistician known for her work on approximating the probability distribution of maximum likelihood estimators and for her advocacy for people with disabilities. Kimiko Osada was Japanese, but became a U. S. citizen in 1958. She contracted polio while young, became paralyzed from the neck down, but learned to walk again through years of physical therapy, she began her undergraduate studies in home economics at Radford College, but was persuaded by the college president to become a scientist. She studied both mathematics and chemistry, completed a B. S. Ed. in mathematics in 1960. She earned a PhD in mathematical statistics from Virginia Tech in 1963, she worked as a senior research scientist at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, from which she retired in 1994. She has frequently visited Japan in association with the U. S. Office of Naval Research. Bowman became a Fellow of the American Statistical Association in 1976, she is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute.

In 1987, she was given an honorary doctorate by the University of Tokyo, becoming the first foreigner to be so honored

Alabama Judicial Building

Heflin-Torbert Judicial Building called the Alabama Judicial Building, is a state government building in Montgomery, Alabama. It houses several state judicial agencies, most notably the Supreme Court of Alabama, Alabama Court of Civil Appeals, Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals, it is the first state court building in the United States to house all three courts under one roof. Additionally, it houses the State Law Library; the neoclassical-style structure was completed in 1994 at a cost of $35 million. In 2001, Roy Moore, Chief Justice at the time, placed a Ten Commandments monument on public display in the rotunda of the building; this placement of a religious monument in a government judicial building caused a nationwide controversy. The Judicial Building is a contemporary interpretation of neoclassical architecture, it was designed by Barganier Davis Sims Architects Associated of Montgomery and Gresham and Partners of Birmingham. Situated on a city block measuring 300 by 320 feet, it rises to a height of 158 feet at the top of the 100-foot wide dome.

The building has a reinforced steel substructure, clad in Indiana limestone. A pedimented portico with ten monumental Ionic columns is centered on the front facade of the structure between projecting side-wings; the interior is arranged around a central rotunda that measures 40 feet tall and 75 feet wide. The rotunda features eight marble columns that are 34 feet tall; the building contains 338,000 square feet of floorspace spread over six levels. A parking garage and mechanical systems are located on the basement level; the Administrative Office of Courts, Museum of Judicial History, a visitor parking garage are located on the ground floor level. The main lobby level contains the primary entrance, as well as the State Law Library, Appellate Court Clerks' Offices, the two-story rotunda; the Court of Civil Appeals, Court of Criminal Appeals, their courtrooms are situated on the second level. A mezzanine level contains archival and storage rooms; the Supreme Court chamber is located on the third, level.

It is directly beneath the dome. Roy Moore was elected Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama on November 7, 2000, he was sworn in on January 15, 2001. It was revealed on August 1, 2001 that Moore had commissioned and placed a 5,280-pound granite replica of the Ten Commandments in the rotunda of the Judicial Building's the night before; this was all done without the prior knowledge or consent of the other eight justices of the Supreme Court. Three lawyers filed Glassroth v. Moore in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama against Moore in his official capacity as Chief Justice to have the monument removed; the court found in favor of the plaintiffs, citing that the display was a violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. The District Court entered its final judgment and injunction that ordered that it be removed from the building by August 20, 2003. Moore refused to comply. Thousands of protestors from around the country converged on the Judicial Building after the decision to rally against the removal of the monument.

Following Moore's non-compliance, the eight Associate Justices of the Alabama Supreme Court issued an order that recognized Moore's refusal to obey a binding order of a federal court and instructed that the building manager comply with the injunction. The monument was put into storage. Due to a variety of factors, including legal appeals and potential clashes with pro-monument protesters outside of the building, the monument was not removed from the building until July 19, 2004; the Alabama Judicial Inquiry Commission filed a complaint against Moore with the Alabama Court of the Judiciary a few days after the monument was removed from public display. Moore was subsequently removed from office on November 2003 by the court. In 2012, Moore was returned to his position as Chief Justice by a vote of the people and began his second term in January 2013. Government of Alabama Alabama Administrative Office of Courts Museum Area - Building tour and photos