Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, other subnational entities. Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; some borders—such as a state's internal administrative border, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area—are open and unguarded. Other borders are or controlled, may be crossed only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled. Borders may foster the setting up of buffer zones. A difference has been established in academic scholarship between border and frontier, the latter denoting a state of mind rather than state boundaries. In the past, many borders were not defined lines. Special cases in modern times were the Saudi Arabian–Iraqi neutral zone from 1922 to 1981 and the Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone from 1922 until 1970. In modern times, marchlands have been replaced by defined and demarcated borders.
For the purposes of border control and seaports are classed as borders. Most countries have some form of border control to regulate or limit the movement of people and goods into and out of the country. Under international law, each country is permitted to legislate the conditions that have to be met in order to cross its borders, to prevent people from crossing its borders in violation of those laws; some borders require presentation of legal paperwork like passports and visas, or other identity documents, for persons to cross borders. To stay or work within a country's borders aliens may need special immigration documents or permits. Moving goods across a border requires the payment of excise tax collected by customs officials. Animals moving across borders may need to go into quarantine to prevent the spread of exotic infectious diseases. Most countries prohibit carrying endangered animals across their borders. Moving goods, animals, or people illegally across a border, without declaring them or seeking permission, or deliberately evading official inspection, constitutes smuggling.
Controls on car liability insurance validity and other formalities may take place. In places where smuggling and infiltration are a problem, many countries fortify borders with fences and barriers, institute formal border control procedures; these can extend inland, as in the United States where the U. S. Customs and Border Protection service has jurisdiction to operate up to 100 miles from any land or sea boundary. On the other hand, some borders are signposted; this is common in countries within the European Schengen Area and on rural sections of the Canada–United States border. Borders may be unmarked in remote or forested regions. Migration within territorial borders, outside of them, represented an old and established pattern of movement in African countries, in seeking work and food, to maintain ties with kin who had moved across the porous borders of their homelands; when the colonial frontiers were drawn, Western countries attempted to obtain a monopoly on the recruitment of labor in many African countries, which altered the practical and institutional context in which the old migration patterns had been followed, some might argue, are still followed today.
The frontiers were porous for the physical movement of migrants, people living in borderlands maintained transnational cultural and social networks. A border may have been: Agreed by the countries on both sides Imposed by the country on one side Imposed by third parties, e.g. an international conference Inherited from a former state, colonial power or aristocratic territory Inherited from a former internal border, such as within the former Soviet Union Never formally defined. In addition, a border may be a de facto military ceasefire line. Political borders are imposed on the world through human agency; that means that although a political border may follow a river or mountain range, such a feature does not automatically define the political border though it may be a major physical barrier to crossing. Political borders are classified by whether or not they follow conspicuous physical features on the earth. Natural borders are geographical features that present natural obstacles to communication and transport.
Existing political borders are a formalization of such historical, natural obstacles. Some geographical features that constitute natural borders are: Oceans: oceans create costly natural borders. Few countries span more than one continent. Only large and resource-rich states are able to sustain the costs of governance across oceans for longer periods of time. Rivers: some political borders have been formalized along natural borders formed by rivers; some examples are: the Niagara River, the Rio Grande, the Rhine, the Mekong. If a precise line is desired, it is drawn along the thalweg, the deepest line along the river. In the Hebrew Bible, Moses defined the middle of the river Arnon as the border between Moab and the Israelite tribes settling east of the Jordan; the United States Supreme Court ruled in 1910 that the boundary between the American states of Maryland and West Virginia is the south bank of the Potoma
The Tugaloo River is a 45.9-mile-long river bordering the U. S. states of South Carolina. It was named for the Cherokee town of Tugaloo at the mouth of Toccoa Creek, near present-day Toccoa and Travelers Rest in Stephens County, Georgia, it is fed by the Tallulah River and the Chattooga River, which each form an arm of Lake Tugalo, on the edge of Georgia's Tallulah Gorge State Park. The Tugaloo flows out of the lake via Tugaloo Dam, passing into Lake Yonah and through Yonah Dam; the river ends as an arm of Lake Hartwell, as does South Carolina's Seneca River. After flowing out of Lake Hartwell, it is called the Savannah River. Territorial claims to the river and its islands were settled with the Treaty of Beaufort in 1787, as interpreted in the two Georgia v. South Carolina cases before the U. S. Supreme Court in 1922 and 1989; the river is one of the boundaries of the Treaty of New York. The river's watershed is home to some of the most challenging whitewater in the Southeast, luring sport kayakers and canoeists from all over the country.
The name of the river comes from Tugaloo, a Cherokee town, located on the river near the mouth of Toccoa Creek. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Tugaloo River South Carolina DHEC
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
This article refers to the river. For the town, see Tallulah Falls, for the lake, see Tallulah Falls Lake and for the waterfalls and gorge, see Tallulah Gorge; the Tallulah River is a 47.7-mile-long river in North Carolina. It begins in Clay County, North Carolina, near Standing Indian Mountain in the Southern Nantahala Wilderness and flows south into Georgia, crossing the state line into Towns County; the river travels through Rabun County and ends in Habersham County. It cuts through the Tallulah Dome rock formation to form the Tallulah Gorge and its several waterfalls; the Tallulah River intersects with the Chattooga River to form the Tugaloo River at Lake Tugalo in Habersham County, which joins South Carolina's Seneca River at Lake Hartwell to create the Savannah River which flows southeastward into the Atlantic Ocean. From its headwaters to its confluence with the Tugaloo River, the Tallulah River is 48 miles long; the Tallulah River Basin drains 184 square miles, as measured at the Tallulah Falls Hydroelectric Plant in Habersham County, near the lower end of the Tallulah Gorge.
The lower part of the river includes a string of man-made lakes along the river created by hydroelectric dams operated by Georgia Power. The first lake in the series is Lake Burton, followed by Lake Seed, Lake Rabun, Lake Tallulah Falls. From Tallulah Falls Lake, the lower part of the river flows through the Tallulah Gorge and now ends as an arm of Lake Tugalo, the other arm of the lake being formed by the Chattooga River. Starting at a point about 0.5 miles downstream from the dam for Tallulah Falls Lake, the boundary line between Habersham and Rabun counties follows the course of the Tallulah River to its end. The upper Tallulah River Basin drains to the portion of the Tallulah River, upstream from Lake Burton and includes northwestern Rabun County, northeastern Towns County and part of Clay County, North Carolina; the United States Geological Survey collects data for the upper Tallulah River Basin from its gauging station at the point where the river crosses Plum Orchard Road. The upper Tallulah River Basin includes a section of the river, about 14.3 miles long, draining a 56.5 square mile area.
Annually, the area receives at least 72 inches of rainfall and is within the boundaries of the Chattahoochee National Forest, with about one third of the land falling in the Southern Nantahala Wilderness and about one fifth owned. The primary tributaries of the Tallulah River in Rabun County are Persimmon Creek; the upper Tallulah River Basin is as scenic. The highest elevations are found in North Carolina on Standing Indian Mountain, elevation 5,499 feet, where the Tallulah River headwaters are located. After coming into Georgia and passing through the old mining and logging town of Tate City, Georgia in eastern Towns County, the river enters into to what some people call Tallulah’s upper gorge or the Rock Mountain Gorge; this upper "gorge" is far less dramatic that the more famous Tallulah Gorge, but it starts just upstream from the river’s confluence with Coleman River and runs nearly 3 miles past Rock Mountain on the western side of the river. The scenic "gorge" is accessible via a drive along the Tallulah River Road.
The Tallulah River Road follows an old railroad bed before ending in the Southern Nantahala Wilderness and provides the only access to Tate City. Wooded today, the upper Tallulah River Basin was stripped nearly bare by logging in the 1930s before the establishment of the Chattahoochee National Forest; because Georgians long have assumed that Tallulah was a Cherokee word, there is no agreement regarding the derivation of the name for the Tallulah River. Tourism promoters in the late 19th century described the word Tallulah as meaning "thundering waters" in Cherokee; some scholars theorized that tallulah meant “terrible” in Cherokee or was derived from a number of other words, but it is more that there is no translation for the word. It has no meaning in Cherokee; the most source of the word is the Okonee word talula, which means "town". The Okonee People occupied northeastern Georgia and northwestern South Carolina for hundreds of years prior to the arrival of the Cherokees in the early 18th century.
There was a Cherokee Over-the-Hill settlement called Tallulah located on the upper portion of the river
Kalmia latifolia called mountain laurel, calico-bush, or spoonwood, is a broadleaved evergreen shrub in the heather family, native to the eastern United States. Its range stretches from southern Maine south to northern Florida, west to Indiana and Louisiana. Mountain laurel is the state flower of Pennsylvania, it is the namesake of the city of Laurel, Mississippi. It is an evergreen shrub growing to 3–9 m tall; the leaves are 3 -- 1 -- 4 cm wide. Its flowers are round, ranging from light pink to white, occur in clusters. There are several named cultivars today that have darker shades of pink, near red and maroon pigment, it blooms in June. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Roots are matted; the plant is found on rocky slopes and mountainous forest areas. It thrives in acidic soil; the plant grows in large thickets, covering great areas of forest floor. In the Appalachians, it is a shrub farther north; the species is a frequent component of oak-heath forests. In low, wet areas, it grows. Kalmia latifolia is notable for its unusual method of dispensing its pollen.
As the flower grows, the filaments of its stamens are bent and brought into tension. When an insect lands on the flower, the tension is released, catapulting the pollen forcefully onto the insect. Experiments have shown the flower capable of flinging its pollen up to 15 cm. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs became fascinated with this phenomenon in the 1950s after his retirement from the National Bureau of Standards and conducted a series of experiments in order to explain it, it is known as ivybush or spoonwood. The plant was first recorded in America in 1624, but it was named after the Finnish explorer and botanist Pehr Kalm, who sent samples to Linnaeus; the Latin specific epithet latifolia means "with broad leaves" – as opposed to its sister species Kalmia angustifolia, "with narrow leaves". The plant was brought to Europe as an ornamental plant during the 18th century, it is still grown for its attractive flowers and year round evergreen leaves. Elliptic, leathery, glossy evergreen leaves are dark green above and yellow green beneath and reminiscent to the leaves of rhododendrons.
All parts of this plant are toxic. Numerous cultivars have been selected with varying flower color. Many of the cultivars have originated from the Connecticut Experiment Station in Hamden and from the plant breeding of Dr. Richard Jaynes. Jaynes has numerous named varieties that he has created and is considered the world's authority on Kalmia latifolia. In the UK the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: The wood of the mountain laurel is heavy and strong but brittle, with a close, straight grain, it has never been a viable commercial crop as it does not grow large enough, yet it is suitable for wreaths, furniture and other household items. It was used in the early 19th century in wooden-works clocks. Root burls were used for pipe bowls in place of imported briar burls unattainable during World War II, it can be used for handrails or guard rails. Mountain laurel is poisonous to several different animals, including horses, cattle, deer and humans, due to grayanotoxin and arbutin.
The green parts of the plant, flowers and pollen are all toxic, including food products made from them, such as toxic honey that may produce neurotoxic and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans eating more than a modest amount. Symptoms of toxicity begin to appear about 6 hours following ingestion. Symptoms include irregular or difficulty breathing, repeated swallowing, profuse salivation, watering of the eyes and nose, cardiac distress, depression, frequent defecation, convulsions, paralysis and death. Necropsy of animals who have died from spoonwood poisoning show gastrointestinal hemorrhage; the Cherokee use the plant as an analgesic, placing an infusion of leaves on scratches made over location of the pain. They rub the bristly edges of ten to twelve leaves over the skin for rheumatism, crush the leaves to rub brier scratches, use an infusion as a wash "to get rid of pests", use a compound as a liniment, rub leaf ooze into the scratched skin of ball players to prevent cramps, use a leaf salve for healing.
They use the wood for carving. The Hudson Bay Cree use a decoction of the leaves for diarrhea, but consider the plant to be poisonous. Connecticut Botanical Society Profile: Kalmia latifolia Kalmia latifolia images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu
Hurricane Ivan was a large, long-lived, Cape Verde hurricane that caused widespread damage in the Caribbean and United States. The cyclone was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane and the fourth major hurricane of the active 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Ivan formed in early September, reached Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Ivan caused catastrophic damage to Grenada as a strong Category 3 storm, heavy damage to Jamaica as a strong Category 4 storm and Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands and the western tip of Cuba as a Category 5 storm. After peaking in strength, the hurricane moved north-northwest across the Gulf of Mexico to strike Pensacola/Milton and Alabama as a strong Category 3 storm, causing significant damage. Ivan dropped heavy rains on the Southeastern United States as it progressed northeast and east through the eastern United States, becoming an extratropical cyclone; the remnant low from the storm moved into the western subtropical Atlantic and regenerated into a tropical cyclone, which moved across Florida and the Gulf of Mexico into Louisiana and Texas, causing minimal damage.
Ivan caused an estimated $26.1 billion along its path, of which $20.5 billion occurred in the United States. On September 2, 2004, Tropical Depression Nine formed from a large tropical wave southwest of Cape Verde; as the system moved to the west, it strengthened becoming Tropical Storm Ivan on September 3 and reaching hurricane strength on September 5, 1,150 miles to the east of Tobago. That day, the storm intensified and by 5 pm EDT, Ivan became a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 125 miles per hour; the National Hurricane Center said that the rapid strengthening of Ivan on September 5 was unprecedented at such a low latitude in the Atlantic basin. As it moved east, Ivan weakened because of wind shear in the area; the storm passed over Grenada on September battering several of the Windward Islands. As it entered the Caribbean Sea, Ivan reintensified and became a Category 5 hurricane, just north of the Windward Netherlands Antilles and Aruba on September 9, with winds reaching 160 mph. Ivan weakened as it moved west-northwest towards Jamaica.
As Ivan approached the island late on September 10, it began a westward jog that kept the eye and the strongest winds to the south and west. However, because of its proximity to the Jamaican coast, the island was battered with hurricane-force winds for hours. After passing Cuba, Ivan regained Category 5 strength. Ivan's strength continued to fluctuate as it moved west on September 11, the storm attained its highest winds of 163 mph as it passed within 30 miles of Grand Cayman. Ivan reached its peak strength with a minimum central pressure of 910 millibars on September 12. Ivan passed through the Yucatán Channel late on September 13, while its eyewall affected the westernmost tip of Cuba. Once over the Gulf of Mexico, Ivan weakened to Category 4 strength, which it maintained while approaching the Gulf Coast of the United States. Just before it made landfall in the United States, Ivan's eyewall weakened and its southwestern portion disappeared. Around 2 a.m. CDT September 16, Ivan made landfall on the U.
S. mainland in Alabama, as a Category 3 hurricane with 120 mph winds. Ivan continued inland, maintaining hurricane strength until it was over central Alabama. Ivan weakened that evening and became a tropical depression on the same day, still over Alabama. Ivan lost tropical characteristics on September 18 while crossing Virginia; that day, the remnant low of Ivan drifted off the U. S. mid-Atlantic coast into the Atlantic Ocean, the low-pressure disturbance continued to dump rain on the United States. On September 20, Ivan's remnant surface low completed an anticyclonic loop and moved across the Florida peninsula; as it continued west across the northern Gulf of Mexico, the system reorganized and again took on tropical characteristics. On September 22, the National Weather Service, "after considerable and sometimes animated in-house discussion the demise of Ivan," determined that the low was in fact a result of the remnants of Ivan and thus named it accordingly. On the evening of September 23, the revived Ivan made landfall near Cameron, Louisiana as a tropical depression.
Ivan weakened into a remnant low on September 24. The remnant circulation of Ivan persisted for another day, before dissipating on September 25. Ivan set 18 new records for intensity at low latitudes; when Ivan first became a Category 3 hurricane on September 3, it was centered near 10.2 degrees north from the equator. This is the most southerly location on record for a major hurricane in the Atlantic basin. Just six hours Ivan became the most southerly Category 4 hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin when it reached that intensity while located at 10.6 degrees north. At midnight on September 9 while centered at 13.7 degrees north, Ivan became the most southerly Category 5 hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin. The latter record would not be surpassed until Hurricane Matthew in 2016, which reached Category 5 intensity at 13.4 degrees north. Ivan had held the world record of 33 six-hour periods of intensity above Category 4 strength; this record was broken two years by Pacific Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke, which had 36 six-hour periods at Category 4 strength.
This contributed to Ivan's tota
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth, it provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds such as cumulonimbus which can organize into narrow rainbands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of mountains. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by downslope flow which causes heating and drying of the air mass.
The movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes. The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Global warming is causing changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions across eastern North America and drier conditions in the tropics. Antarctica is the driest continent; the globally averaged annual precipitation over land is 715 mm, but over the whole Earth it is much higher at 990 mm. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Rainfall is measured using rain gauges. Rainfall amounts can be estimated by weather radar. Rain is known or suspected on other planets, where it may be composed of methane, sulfuric acid, or iron rather than water. Air contains water vapor, the amount of water in a given mass of dry air, known as the mixing ratio, is measured in grams of water per kilogram of dry air.
The amount of moisture in air is commonly reported as relative humidity. How much water vapor a parcel of air can contain before it becomes saturated and forms into a cloud depends on its temperature. Warmer air can contain more water vapor than cooler air before becoming saturated. Therefore, one way to saturate a parcel of air is to cool it; the dew point is the temperature. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation.
The main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet land, transpiration from plants, cool or dry air moving over warmer water, lifting air over mountains. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. Elevated portions of weather fronts force broad areas of upward motion within the Earth's atmosphere which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus. Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass, it can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. Coalescence occurs. Air resistance causes the water droplets in a cloud to remain stationary; when air turbulence occurs, water droplets collide. As these larger water droplets descend, coalescence continues, so that drops become heavy enough to overcome air resistance and fall as rain.
Coalescence happens most in clouds above freezing, is known as the warm rain process. In clouds below freezing, when ice crystals gain enough mass they begin to fall; this requires more mass than coalescence when occurring between the crystal and neighboring water droplets. This process is temperature dependent, as supercooled water droplets only exist in a cloud, below freezing. In addition, because of the great temperature difference between cloud and ground level, these ice crystals may melt as they fall and become rain. Raindrops have sizes ranging from 0.1 to 9 mm mean diameter. Smaller drops are called cloud droplets, their shape is spherical; as a raindrop increases in size, its shape becomes more oblate, with its largest cross-section facing the oncoming airflow. Large rain drops become flattened on the bottom, like hamburger buns. Contrary to popular beli