Ricotta is an Italian whey cheese made from sheep, goat, or Italian water buffalo milk whey left over from the production of other cheeses. Like other whey cheeses, it is made by coagulating the proteins that remain after the casein has been used to make cheese, notably albumin and globulin. Ricotta protein can be harvested if the whey is first allowed to become more acidic by additional fermentation; the acidified whey is heated to near boiling. The combination of low pH and high temperature denatures the protein and causes it to precipitate, forming a fine curd. Once cooled, it is separated by passing the liquid through a fine cloth. Ricotta curds are creamy white in appearance, sweet in taste; the fat content changes depending on the type of milk used. In this form, it is somewhat similar in texture to some cottage cheese variants, though lighter, it is perishable. However, ricotta is made in aged varieties which are preservable for much longer; the production of ricotta in the Italian peninsula dates back to the Bronze Age.
In the second millennium BC, ceramic vessels called milk boilers started to appear and were unique to the peninsula. These were designed to prevent the milk from boiling over; the fresh acid-coagulated cheeses produced with these boilers were made with whole milk. However, the production of rennet-coagulated cheese overtook the production of fresh whole-milk cheeses during the first millennium BC. Bronze cheese graters found in the graves of the Etruscan elite prove that hard-grating cheeses were popular with the aristocracy. Cheese graters were commonly used in ancient Roman kitchens. Unlike the fresh acid-coagulated cheese, aged rennet-coagulated cheese could be preserved for much longer; the increased production of rennet-coagulated cheese led to a large supply of sweet whey as a byproduct. Cheesemakers started using a new recipe, which used a mixture of whey and milk to make the traditional ricotta as it is known today; the ancient Romans made ricotta, but writers on agriculture such as Cato the Elder, Marcus Terentius Varro, Columella do not mention it.
They described the production of rennet-coagulated cheese but did not write about milk boilers or acid-coagulated cheese. A reason is that ricotta was not profitable because its short shelf life did not allow distribution to urban markets. Ricotta was most consumed by the shepherds who made it. So, evidence from paintings and literature indicates that ricotta was known and eaten by Roman aristocrats as well. Ceramic milk boilers were still used by Apennine shepherds to make ricotta in the 19th century AD. Today, metal milk boilers are used. Whey protein is a kind of milk protein but there are numerous other milk proteins. Whey itself is less than 1% protein by weight; this means ricotta production is a low-yield process, considering the amount of whey required to produce it. The whey is heated, sometimes with additional acid such as vinegar or lemon juice to catalyze the coagulation through heat of albumin and globulin in the whey; the whey is heated to a near-boiling temperature, much hotter than during the production of the original cheese, of which the whey is a remnant.
The original ricotta is made of whey with the addition of a small amount of milk, but more ricotta has been made of whole milk as well. Whole-milk ricotta is popular in the USA, where whey ricotta is known by the name ricottone. Ricotta di Bufala Campana and Ricotta Romana are notable varieties produced in Italy and protected by the European Union's Protected Designation of Origin regulation. Ricotta di Bufala Campana is made from the whey left over after the production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected variety of buffalo mozzarella. Ricotta Romana is made from the whey of sheep milk. Fresh ricotta can be subject to extra processing to produce variants which have a much longer shelf life; these production methods include salting, baking and further fermentation. Ricotta salata is a pressed, salted and aged variety of the cheese, it is firm and used for grating or shaving. Ricotta salata is sold in wheels, decorated by a delicate basket-weave pattern. Ricotta infornata is produced by placing a large lump of soft ricotta in the oven until it develops a brown charred crust, sometimes until it becomes sandy brown all the way through.
Ricotta infornata is popular in Sardinia and Sicily, is sometimes called ricotta al forno. Ricotta affumicata is similar to ricotta infornata and is produced by placing a lump of soft ricotta in a smoker until it develops a grey crust and acquires a charred wood scent of oak or chestnut wood, although, in Friuli, beech wood is used, with the addition of juniper and herbs. Ricotta forte known as ricotta scanta, is produced from leftovers of any combination of cow, goat, or sheep milk ricotta; these are allowed to age for about a year, during which the cheese is mixed every two or three days to prevent the growth of mold. Salt is added as well; the end result is a soft and creamy brown paste which has a pungent and piquant taste. It is sold in glass jars, it is mixed with tomato sauces for pasta, or added to vegetable dishes. Like mascarpone in northern Italian cuisine, ricotta is a favorite component of many Italian desserts, such as cheesecakes and cannoli. A variety of different cookies include ricotta as
Sponge cake is a cake based on flour, sugar and eggs, is sometimes leavened with baking powder. Sponge cakes, leavened with beaten eggs, originated during the Renaissance in Spain; the sponge cake is thought to be one of the first of the non-yeasted cakes, the earliest attested sponge cake recipe in English is found in a book by the English poet Gervase Markham, The English Huswife, Containing the Inward and Outward Virtues Which Ought to Be in a Complete Woman. Still, the cake was much more like a cookie: crispy. Sponge cakes became the cake recognized today when bakers started using beaten eggs as a rising agent in the mid 18th century; the Victorian creation of baking powder by English food manufacturer Alfred Bird in 1843 enabled the sponge to rise higher than cakes made resulting in the Victoria sponge. In the United Kingdom a sponge cake is produced using the batter method, while in the US cakes made using the batter method are known as butter or pound cakes. Two common British batter-method sponge cakes are the layered Victoria sponge cake and Madeira cake.
Cakes made using the foam method are not classed as sponge cakes in the UK. These cakes are common in Europe in Italian patisseries; the cake was first invented by the Italian pastry chef Giovan Battista Cabona, at the court of Spain with his lord, the Genoese marquis Domenico Pallavicini, around the middle of the 16th century. Variations on the theme of a cake lifted or wholly, by trapped air in the batter exist in most places where European patisserie has spread, including the Anglo-Jewish "plava", Italian génoise, the Portuguese pão-de-ló, the ancestral Italian pan di Spagna. Derivatives of the basic sponge cake idea include the American chiffon cake and the Latin American tres leches cake; the essential ingredients are eggs, fat and flour. An authentic British sponge cake is made by first mixing the fat with the sugar and beating the eggs with the sugar-fat mix until the mixture is light and creamy carefully sieving and folding in the flour. Depending on the recipe, the flour may be mixed with a small amount of baking powder though some recipes use only the air incorporated into the egg mixture, relying on the denaturing of the egg proteins and the thermal expansion of the air to provide leavening.
In the French version the yolks are beaten with the sugar first while the whites are beaten separately to a meringue-like foam, to be folded in later. The mixture is poured into a cake tin and baked. Both methods take great care to incorporate air in the beating and sieving stages. Before the cooked cake has cooled, it is still flexible; this allows the creation of rolled cakes such as the Swiss roll. This basic recipe is used for many treats and puddings, such as madeleines and trifles, as well as some versions of strawberry shortcake. In addition, the foam cake technique is used in angel food cake and some recipes for Belgian waffles; the Victoria sponge known as the Victoria sandwich or Victorian cake, was named after Queen Victoria, known to enjoy a slice of the sponge cake with her afternoon tea. The sponge part evolved from the classic pound cake – equal quantities of butter, sugar and flour; the difference was the Victorian creation of baking powder, discovered by English food manufacturer Alfred Bird in 1843, which enabled the sponge to rise higher.
This invention, writes cookery author Felicity Cloake, "was celebrated with a patriotic cake", Victoria sponge. A typical Victoria sponge filling consists of whipped double cream; the jam and cream are sandwiched between two sponge cakes. The Women's Institute publishes a variation on the Victoria sandwich that has strawberry jam as the filling and is dusted with caster sugar, not icing sugar. A Victoria sponge is made using one of two methods; the traditional method involves creaming caster sugar with fat, mixing with beaten egg folding flour and raising agent into the mixture. The modern method, using an electric mixer or food processor, involves whisking all the ingredients together until creamy. Additionally, the modern method uses an extra raising agent, some recipes call for an extra-soft butter or margarine. Both the traditional and modern methods are quick and simple, producing consistent results, making this type of mixture one of the most popular for children and people in a hurry; this basic "cake" mixture has been made into a wide variety of treats and puddings, including cupcakes, chocolate cake, Eve's pudding.
Although simple to make, Victoria sponge recipes are notoriously sensitive to cooking times and temperatures. As such, oven manufacturers use a Victoria sponge recipe to test their ovens. Competitive Victoria sponge baking is part of the classic British fête. Since sponge cakes are not leavened with yeast, they are popular dessert choices for the Passover feast. Passover sponges are made with matzo meal, shredded coconut, matzo flour, potato flour, or nut flour since raw wheat products may not be used. No raising agent may be used due to the strict prohibition of the appearance of a leavening effect. Therefore, the beating of egg whites in the mix to achieve the aeration is an essent
Bulgarian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of Eastern Europe. It shares characteristics with other Balkan cuisines. Bulgarian cooking traditions are diverse because of geographical factors such as climatic conditions suitable for a variety of vegetables and fruit. Aside from the vast variety of local Bulgarian dishes, Bulgarian cuisine shares a number of dishes with Persian and Greek cuisine. Bulgarian food incorporates salads as appetizers and is noted for the prominence of dairy products and other alcoholic drinks such as rakia; the cuisine features a variety of soups, such as the cold soup tarator, pastries, such as the filo dough based banitsa and the various types of börek. Main courses are typically water-based stews, either vegetarian or with lamb, goat meat, chicken or pork. Deep-frying is not common, but grilling - different kinds of sausages - is prominent. Pork is common mixed with veal or lamb, although fish and chicken are widely used. While most cattle are bred for milk production rather than meat, veal is popular for grilling meat appetizers and in some main courses.
As a substantial exporter of lamb, Bulgaria's own consumption is notable in the spring. To other Balkan cultures the per capita consumption of yogurt among Bulgarians is traditionally higher than the rest of Europe; the country is notable as the historical namesake for Lactobacillus bulgaricus, a microorganism chiefly responsible for the local variety of the dairy product. Bulgarian cuisine shares a number of dishes with the Middle Eastern Cuisine as well as a limited number with the Indian Gujarat cuisine; the culinary exchange with the East started as early as the 7th century, when traders started bringing herbs and spices to the First Bulgarian Empire from India and Persia via the Roman and Byzantine empires. This is evident from the wide popularity of dishes like moussaka, gyuvetch and baklava, which are common in Middle Eastern cuisine today. White brine cheese called "sirene", similar to feta, is a popular ingredient used in salads and a variety of pastries. Holidays are observed in conjunction with certain meals.
On Christmas Eve, for instance, tradition requires vegetarian stuffed peppers and cabbage leaf sarmi, New Year's Eve involves cabbage dishes, Nikulden fish, while Gergyovden is celebrated with roast lamb. As in many areas of the Balkans that were part of the Ottoman Empire, food in Bulgaria is influenced by Turkish cuisine and Ottoman cuisine—ayran, baklava and moussaka are all of Ottoman derivation. Bulgarian Breakfast Banitsa — breakfast pastry of eggs, white cheese, yogurt between phyllo layersCold cuts Banski starets — spicy sausage, native to the Bansko region. Elenski but — air-cured ham sausage, seasoned with herbs Lukanka — spicy salami of minced beef and pork Pastarma — spicy beef sausage. Ruska salata — salad with potatoes, carrots and mayonnaise Shopska salad — a common salad of chopped cucumbers, onions and tomatoes with white cheese Snezhanka — chopped cucumbers with yogurt, dill and walnuts Turshiya — pickled vegetables, such as celery, beets and cabbage, popular in wintertime.
Lyutenitsa — purée of tomatoes, red peppers, carrots served on bread and topped with white cheese Kyopulu — roasted eggplant and bell peppers, mashed with parsley and garlic and other ingredients Ljutika — spicy sauce Podluchen sauce or yogurt sauce — yogurt with garlic, paprika and sometimes dill. Katino meze—Hot starter with chopped pork meat, mushrooms with fresh butter and spices. Drob po selski — chopped liver with onion and peppers Ezik v maslo — sliced tongue in butter Sirene pane — breaded Bulgarian brine white cheese bites Kashkaval pane — breaded kashkaval bites Mussels in butter — with onion and fresh herbs, traditionally from Sozopol Kyufte Kebapche Parjola Shishcheta Karnache Nadenitsa Tatarsko kyufte Nevrozno kyufte Chicken in caul Cheverme (used in celebrations such as weddings and birthdays: a whole animal, traditionally a pig, but chicken o
Lychee is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae. It is a tropical tree native to the Guangdong and Fujian provinces of China, where cultivation is documented from 1059 AD. China is the main producer of lychees, followed by India, other countries in Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and South Africa. A tall evergreen tree, the lychee bears small fleshy fruits; the outside of the fruit is pink-red textured and inedible, covering sweet flesh eaten in many different dessert dishes. Lychee seeds contain methylenecyclopropylglycine which can cause hypoglycemia associated with outbreaks of encephalopathy in undernourished Indian and Vietnamese children who had consumed lychee fruit. Litchi chinensis is the sole member of the genus Litchi in Sapindaceae, it was described and named by French naturalist Pierre Sonnerat in his account "Voyage aux Indes orientales et à la Chine, fait depuis 1774 jusqu'à 1781", published in 1782. There are three subspecies, determined by flower arrangement, twig thickness and number of stamens.
Litchi chinensis subsp. Chinensis is the only commercialized lychee, it grows wild in southern China, northern Vietnam, Cambodia. It has thin twigs, flowers have six stamens, fruit are smooth or with protuberances up to 2 mm. Litchi chinensis subsp. Philippinensis Leenh, it is common in the wild in the Philippines and cultivated. It has thin twigs, six to seven stamens, long oval fruit with spiky protuberances up to 3 mm. Litchi chinensis subsp. Javensis, it is only known in Malaysia and Indonesia. It has thick twigs, flowers with seven to eleven stamens in sessile clusters, smooth fruit with protuberances up to 1 mm. Litchi chinensis is an evergreen tree, less than 15 m tall, sometimes reaching 28 m, its evergreen leaves, 5 to 8 in long, are pinnate, having 4 to 8 alternate, elliptic-oblong to lanceolate, abruptly pointed, The bark is grey-black, the branches a brownish-red. Its evergreen leaves are 12.5 to 20 cm long, with leaflets in two to four pairs. Lychee have a similar foliage to the Lauraceae family due to convergent evolution.
They are adapted by developing leaves that repel water, are called laurophyll or lauroid leaves. Flowers grow on a terminal inflorescence with many panicles on the current season's growth; the panicles grow in clusters of ten or more, reaching 10 to 40 cm or longer, holding hundreds of small white, yellow, or green flowers that are distinctively fragrant. The lychee bears fleshy fruits that mature in 80–112 days depending on climate and cultivar. Fruits vary in shape from round to ovoid to heart-shaped, up to 5 cm long and 4 cm wide, weighing 20 g; the thin, tough skin is green when immature, ripening to red or pink-red, is smooth or covered with small sharp protuberances textured. The rind is inedible but removed to expose a layer of translucent white fleshy aril with a floral smell and a fragrant, sweet flavor; the skin turns dry when left out after harvesting. The fleshy, edible portion of the fruit is an aril, surrounding one dark brown inedible seed, 1 to 3.3 cm long and 0.6 to 1.2 cm wide.
Some cultivars produce a high percentage of fruits with shriveled aborted seeds known as'chicken tongues'. These fruit have a higher price, due to having more edible flesh. Since the perfume-like flavour is lost in the process of canning, the fruit is eaten fresh. Cultivation of lychee began in the region of southern China, going back to 1059 AD, northern Vietnam. Unofficial records in China refer to lychee as far back as 2000 BC. Wild trees still grow on Hainan Island. There are many stories of the fruit's use as a delicacy in the Chinese Imperial Court, it was first described and introduced to the West in 1656 by Michal Boym, a Polish Jesuit missionary. In the 1st century, fresh lychees were in such demand at the Imperial Court that a special courier service with fast horses would bring the fresh fruit from Guangdong. There was great demand for lychee in the Song Dynasty, in his Li chi pu, it was the favourite fruit of Emperor Li Longji's favoured concubine Yang Yuhuan. The emperor had the fruit delivered at great expense to the capital.
The lychee attracted attention of European travellers, such as Juan González de Mendoza in his History of the great and mighty kingdom of China, based on the reports of Spanish friars who had visited China in the 1570s gave the fruit high praise: hey haue a kinde of plummes, that they doo call lechias, that are of an exceeding gallant tast, neuer hurteth any body, although they shoulde eate a great number of them. Lychees are extensively grown in China, Thailand and the rest of tropical Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, in South Africa, the Caribbean, Australia and the southeastern United States, they require a tropical climate, frost-free and is not below the temperature of −4 °C. Lychees require a climate with high summer heat and humidity. Growth is best on well-drained acidic soils rich in organic matter and mulch. A wide range of cultivars are available, with early and late maturing forms suited to warmer and cooler climates, respectively, they are grown as an ornamenta
Chocolate is a sweet, brown food preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods; the earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs, with evidence of chocolate beverages dating to 1900 BC. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including Aztecs. Indeed, the word "chocolate" is derived from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl; the seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried and roasted; the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor; the liquor may be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Baking chocolate called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar.
Powdered baking cocoa, which contains more fiber than it contains cocoa butter, can be processed with alkali to produce dutch cocoa. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter and milk, but no cocoa solids. Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, many foodstuffs involving chocolate exist desserts, including cakes, mousse, chocolate brownies, chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, bars of solid chocolate and candy bars coated in chocolate are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Valentine's Day, Hanukkah. Chocolate is used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao.
Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply. With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018. However, international attempts to improve conditions for children were failing because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, continued exploitation of child labor. Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC. On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating earlier, to 1900 BC; the residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cacao was not as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.
An early Classic-period Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD. Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life; the Maya grew cacao trees in their backyards, used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink. By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture, they associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans, identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice. In contrast to the Maya, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice and honey; the Aztecs were not able to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire.
Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed "tribute". Cocoa beans were used as currency. For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans; the Maya and Aztecs associated cacao with human sacrifice, chocolate drinks with sacrificial human blood. The Spanish royal chronicler Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo described a chocolate drink he had seen in Nicaragua in 1528, mixed with achiote: "because those people are fond of drinking human blood, to make this beverage seem like blood, they add a little achiote, so that it turns red.... and part of that foam is left on the lips and around the mouth, when it is red for having achiote, it seems a horrific thing, because it seems like blood itself." Until the 16th century, no European had heard of the popular drink from the Central American peoples. Christopher Columbus and his son Ferdinand encountered the cacao bean on Columbus's fourth mission to the Americas on 15 August 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain cacao beans among other goods for trade.
Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first European to encounter it, as the frothy drink was part of t
Plasticine, a brand of modelling clay, is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids. Plasticine is used extensively for children's play, but as a modelling medium for more formal or permanent structures; because of its non-drying property, it is a popular choice of material for stop-motion animation. The brand-name clay is sometimes mentioned in British music, such as the "plasticine porters" in the Beatles' "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", the Oasis songs "Little James" and "Shakermaker", the Placebo song "Plasticine". William Harbutt, an art teacher in Bath, formulated Plasticine in 1897. Harbutt wanted a non-drying clay for his sculpture students, he created a non-toxic, sterile and malleable clay that did not dry on exposure to air. Harbutt received a patent in 1899 and commercial production started at a factory in Bathampton in 1900; the original Plasticine was grey. Four colours were produced for initial sale to the public. Plasticine was popular with children, was used in schools for teaching art, has found a wide variety of other uses.
Plasticine is 65% bulking agent, 10% petroleum jelly, 5% lime and 10% lanolin and stearic acid. It cannot be hardened by firing, melts when exposed to heat, is flammable at higher temperatures. Harbutt patented a different formulation in 1915, which added wool fibres to give plasticine a stronger composition intended for ear plugs, as a sterile dressing for wounds and burns; the Harbutt company marketed Plasticine as a children's toy by producing modelling kits based on characters from children's stories, such as Noddy, the Mr. Men and Paddington Bear; the original Plasticine factory was replaced by a modern building. The Harbutt company produced Plasticine in Bathampton until 1983, when production was moved to Thailand; the Colorforms company was the major American licensee of Plasticine from 1979 until at least 1984. The use of a different chalk compound caused a product inconsistency, the US version was considered inferior to the original mix. Bluebird Toys plc acquired Plasticine through its purchase of Harbutt's parent company.
In 1998, Mattel bought Bluebird and the brand was sold to Humbrol Ltd, famous for its model paints and owner of the Airfix model kit brand. Flair Leisure licensed the brand from Humbrol in relaunched Plasticine, it acquired the brand outright. A similar product, "Kunst-Modellierthon", was invented by Franz Kolb of Munich, Germany in 1880; this product is still available, known as "Münchner Künstler Plastilin". In Italy, the product Pongo is marketed as "plastilina" and shares the main attributes of Plasticine. Play-Doh, based on flour and water, dries on exposure to air. In France, it is made by Herbin, marketed as Plastiline. Plasticine and similar materials are used in clay animation. One of its main proponents is Aardman Animations' Nick Park, who used characters modelled in Plasticine in his four Oscar-winning Wallace and Gromit short films A Grand Day Out, The Wrong Trousers, A Close Shave and A Matter of Loaf and Death, as well as the feature film The Curse of the Were-Rabbit; this technique is popularly known as claymation in the US, is a form of stop motion animation.
Plasticine-like materials are appealing to animators because the material can be used with ease: it is mouldable enough to create a character, flexible enough to allow that character to move in many ways, dense enough to retain its shape when combined with a wire armature, it does not melt under hot studio lighting. Plasticine is used in long jump and triple jump competitions to help officials determine if the competitors are making legal jumps. A 10 cm wide'indicator board' is placed beyond and above the take-off line; the edges of this are edged with plasticine. If an athlete leaves a mark in the plasticine, it is considered proof that the jump was a foul, the attempt is not measured. Plasticine is used rather than sand, so that several boards may be prepared in advance: if a board is marked it may be replaced by a smoothed board to avoid delaying the competition, but keeping the marked board available in case of challenges. An indicator board is used, rather than a wide strip of plasticine, as this provides a firm footing should the athlete step on it.
Plasticine-like clays are used in commercial party games such as Cranium and Barbarossa. Television presenter James May together with Chris Collins, Jane McAdam Freud, Julian Fullalove and around 2000 members of the public created a show garden made of Plasticine for the 2009 Chelsea Flower Show. Called'Paradise in Plasticine', it took 6 weeks and 2.6 tons of Plasticine in 24 colours to complete. May said, "This is, to our knowledge, the largest and most complex model of this type created." It couldn't be considered as part of the standard judging criteria as it contained no real plants, but was awarded an honorary gold award made from Plasticine. The garden was popular with the public and went on to win the Royal Horticultural Society's'peoples choice' for best small garden. During World War II, Plasticine was used by bomb disposal officer Major John P. Hudson R. E. as part of the defuzing process for the new German "Type Y" battery-powered bomb fuze. The "Type Y" fuze has an anti-disturbance device that had to be disabled before the fuze could be removed.
Plasticine was used to build a dam around the head of the fuze to hold some liquid o
In baking, a crust is the outer, hard skin of bread or the shell of a pie. It is made up of at least shortening or another fat, water and salt, it may include milk, sugar, or other ingredients that contribute to the taste or texture. An egg or milk wash can be used to decorate the outside, as well as coarse sugar. A crust contributes to a pastry; the ratio of ingredients and mixing method determines the texture of the crust. If the flour is not well mixed with the shortening water can bind to the available flour causing the gluten protein matrix to become over developed; this would result in a tough crust, as opposed to a flaky crust, more desirable. Depending on the type of pastry, the crust can be baked, or in baked. In pies, two different types of crust exist: two-crust pie. A two-crust pie can have either a complete upper crust, a lattice top, or any of a variety of other decorative tops. Graham cracker crust – a pie crust made from crushed crackers