Canton of Fribourg
The canton of Fribourg canton of Friburg is located in western Switzerland. The canton is bilingual, with French spoken by two thirds of the citizens and German by about one third. Both are official languages in the canton, but it is considered part of the French-speaking region of Romandy; the canton takes its name from its capital city of Fribourg. On the shores of Lake Neuchâtel and Lake Morat significant traces of prehistoric settlements have been unearthed; the canton of Fribourg joined the Swiss Confederation in 1481. The area is made up of lands acquired by the capital Fribourg; the present extent was reached in 1803. The canton of Fribourg joined the separatist league of Catholic cantons in 1846; the following year, its troops surrendered to the federal army. The canton is bounded to the west by Lake Neuchâtel, to the west and the south by the canton of Vaud, to the east by the canton of Bern; the canton includes two enclaves within Vaud and one within the canton of Bern, as well as a large exclave on the lake.
The area of the canton is 1,669 square kilometers, including the small enclaves. The canton lies on the elevated Swiss Plateau. In the west the lands are flat, but towards the south east of the canton, the lands rise to a hilly region; this region is called pre-Alps but is part of the Bernese Alps. The highest elevation in the canton is the Vanil Noir with 2,389 m; the river Saane/Sarine flows from the south to the north of the canton. Together with its tributaries it drains most of the lands in the canton joins the river Aare; the river Broye flows northeast into Lake Morat. The southwest part of the canton is drained by the river Veveyse, which flows south into Lake Geneva; the Canton is divided into seven districts: Broye capital Estavayer-le-Lac Glâne capital Romont Gruyère capital Bulle Sarine capital Fribourg Lake capital Morat Sense capital Tafers Veveyse capital Châtel-Saint-Denis There are 165 municipalities in the canton of Fribourg as of January 2012. The number is decreasing. In contrast to the Protestant cantons of Vaud to its west and Bern to its east, the canton of Fribourg is a predominantly Roman Catholic enclave with a Protestant minority.
This explains the canton's existence though it straddles the French-German linguistic border, for in the past, denominational considerations were more important than linguistic when drawing Switzerland's cantons. The main centres of population are Bulle. Two thirds of the population speak French, the remainder speak Alemannic dialects of German; the French-speaking areas are in the west of the Alemannic-speaking areas in the east. The number of bilingual towns, the large number of people who can speak both French and German fluently, has attracted businesses such as telesales companies; the population of the canton is 315,074. As of 2007, the population included 43,838 foreign-born residents, or about 16.65% of the total population. Agriculture is important in the canton of Fribourg; the main agricultural activities are cattle dairy farming. The region is a major cheese producer the district of Gruyère, home of the cheese of the same name; the chocolate industry is well established in Broc, home to an international chocolate research centre.
Other agricultural produces include tobacco and cereals. Agriculture is predominant in the north of the canton. There is light industry concentrated around the capital Fribourg. Other centres of light industry are Bulle, Villars-sur-Glâne, Düdingen and Estavayer-le-Lac; these five centers have a large number of established small and medium-sized businesses, many of which are in the service sector. Forests are important in the La Gruyère district. Power plants in the district of Sarine export electricity; the mountain areas attract tourists all year round. The lake regions are frequented by tourists in autumn; the canton of Fribourg is well connected to other areas of Switzerland with motorways A1, A12 and fast rail links. The main railway between Geneva and Lausanne in the south west to Bern and Zürich connects Fribourg with other centres of the country. ^a FDP before 2009, FDP. The Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Included under "Other" in this election. List of castles and fortresses in Switzerland Franco-Provençal language Official site Official statistics
Fermentation in food processing
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation implies that the action of microorganisms is desired; the science of fermentation is known as zymurgy. The term fermentation sometimes refers to the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol, producing alcoholic drinks such as wine and cider. However, similar processes take place in the leavening of bread, in the preservation of sour foods with the production of lactic acid, such as in sauerkraut and yogurt. Other consumed fermented foods include vinegar and cheese. More localised foods prepared by fermentation may be based on beans, vegetables, honey, dairy products, meat, or tea. Natural fermentation precedes human history. Since ancient times, humans have exploited the fermentation process; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation is 13,000-year-old residues of a beer, with the consistency of gruel, found in a cave near Haifa in Israel.
Another early alcoholic drink, made from fruit and honey, dates from 7000-6600 BCE, in the Neolithic Chinese village of Jiahu, winemaking dates from ca. 6000 BCE, in Georgia, in the Caucasus area. Seven-thousand-year-old jars containing the remains of wine, now on display at the University of Pennsylvania, were excavated in the Zagros Mountains in Iran. There is strong evidence that people were fermenting alcoholic drinks in Babylon ca. 3000 BCE, ancient Egypt ca. 3150 BCE, pre-Hispanic Mexico ca. 2000 BCE, Sudan ca. 1500 BCE. The French chemist Louis Pasteur founded zymology; when studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by yeast, Pasteur concluded that the fermentation was catalyzed by a vital force, called "ferments", within the yeast cells. The "ferments" were thought to function only within living organisms. "Alcoholic fermentation is an act correlated with the life and organization of the yeast cells, not with the death or putrefaction of the cells", he wrote. It was known that yeast extracts can ferment sugar in the absence of living yeast cells.
While studying this process in 1897, the German chemist and zymologist Eduard Buchner of Humboldt University of Berlin, found that sugar was fermented when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture, by an enzyme complex secreted by yeast that he termed zymase. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research and discovery of "cell-free fermentation". One year earlier, in 1906, ethanol fermentation studies led to the early discovery of NAD+. Food fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates into alcohol or preservative organic acids and carbon dioxide. All three products have found human uses; the production of alcohol is made use of when fruit juices are converted to wine, when grains are made into beer, when foods rich in starch, such as potatoes, are fermented and distilled to make spirits such as gin and vodka. The production of carbon dioxide is used to leaven bread; the production of organic acids is exploited to flavor vegetables and dairy products.
Food fermentation serves five main purposes: to enrich the diet through development of a diversity of flavors and textures in food substrates. Worldwide: alcohol, olives, bread, cheese Asia East and Southeast Asia: amazake, bai-ming, burong mangga, com ruou, doenjang, jeruk, kimchi, leppet-so, miang, nata de coco, nata de pina, naw-mai-dong, pak-siam-dong, paw-tsaynob, ruou nep, seokbakji, soy sauce, stinky tofu, szechwan cabbage, tai-tan tsoi, tape, totkal kimchi, yen tsai, zha cai Central Asia: kumis, shubat South Asia: achar, dosa, dahi, kaanji, mixed pickle, hawaichaar, sinki, paneer Africa: fermented millet porridge, hibiscus seed, hot pepper sauce, lamoun makbouss, mageu, msir, oilseed, ogili, iru Americas: sourdough bread, cultured milk, elderberry wine, pickling, lupin seed, chocolate, hot sauce, pulque, muktuk Middle East: kushuk, lamoun makbouss, torshi, boza Europe: rakfisk, pickled cucumber, surströmming, elderberry wine, sucuk, cultured milk products such as quark, filmjölk, crème fraîche, skyr, rakı, tupí.
Oceania: poi, kaanga pirau, sago Cheonggukjang, fermented bean curd, natto, soy sauce, stinky tofu, oncom, soybean paste, Beijing mung bean milk, iru Amazake, bread, gamju, kvass, murri, rejuvelac, sikhye, sowans, rice wine, malt whisky, grain whisky, dosa, vodka and chicha, among others. Kimchi, mixed pickle, Indian pickle, tursu Wine, cider, brandy, nata de coco, burong mangga, pickling, vişinată, rakı Mead, metheglin Some kinds of cheese kefir, shubat, cultured milk products such as quark, filmjölk, crème fraîche, smetana and yogurt Bagoong, fish sauce, Garum, Hákarl, rakfisk, shrim
Gruyère is a hard yellow cheese that originated in the cantons of Fribourg, Neuchâtel and Berne in Switzerland. It is named after the town of Gruyères. Before 2001, when Gruyère gained the appellation d'origine contrôlée status as a Swiss cheese, some controversy existed whether French cheeses of a similar nature could be labelled Gruyère. Gruyère is sweet but salty, with a flavor that varies with age, it is described as creamy and nutty when young, becoming more assertive and complex as it matures. When aged it tends to have small cracks that impart a grainy texture. Gruyère cheese is known as one of the finest cheeses for baking, having a distinctive but not overpowering taste. In quiche, Gruyère adds savoriness without overshadowing the other ingredients, it is a good melting cheese suited for fondues, along with Vacherin Fribourgeois and Emmental. It is traditionally used in French onion soup, as well as in croque-monsieur, a classic French toasted ham and cheese sandwich. Gruyère is used in chicken and veal cordon bleu.
It is a fine table cheese, when grated, it is used with salads and pastas. It is used, atop le tourin, a type of garlic soup from France, served on dried bread. White wines, such as Riesling, pair well with Gruyère. Sparkling cider and Bock beer are beverage affinities. To make Gruyère, raw milk is heated to 34 °C in a copper vat, curdled by the addition of liquid rennet; the curd stirred, releasing whey. The curd is cooked at 43 °C, raised to 54 °C; the whey is strained, the curds placed into molds to be pressed. After salting in brine and smearing with bacteria, the cheese is ripened for two months at room temperature on wooden boards, turning every couple of days to ensure moisture distribution. Gruyère can be cured with long curing producing a cheese of intense flavor. In 2001, Gruyère gained the Appellation d'origine contrôlée status. Since the production and the maturation is defined in the Swiss law, all Swiss Gruyère producers must follow these rules. To be accepted throughout Europe as an AOC, the "Interprofession du Gruyère" in Switzerland plans to make a transnational AOC with the French producers of Gruyère.
Gruyère-style cheeses are popular in Greece, where the local varieties are known as γραβιέρα. Some Greek gruyères come from San Michálē from the island of Syros in the Cyclades, the Naxian varieties, that tend to be milder and more sweet and various graviéras from Crete. Gruyère-style cheeses are produced in the United States, Wisconsin with the name of Grand Cru, having the largest output. An important and the longest part of the production of the Le Gruyere Switzerland AOC is the affinage. According to the AOC, the cellars to mature a Swiss Gruyère must have a climate close to that of a natural cave; this means that the humidity should be between 94% and 98%. If the humidity is lower, the cheese dries out. If the humidity is too high, the cheese becomes smeary and gluey; the temperature of the caves should be between 13 °C and 14 °C. This high temperature is required for excellent quality cheese. Lower quality cheeses result from temperatures between 10 °C and 12 °C; the lower the temperature is, the less the cheese matures, resulting in a texture, harder and more crumbly.
Le Gruyère Switzerland AOC has many different varieties, with different aged profiles, an organic version of the cheese is sold. There is a special variety, produced only in summer on the Swiss Alps: the Le Gruyère Switzerland AOC Alpage. One can distinguish the age profiles of mild/doux and réserve known as surchoix. In Switzerland, other age profiles can be found, including mi-salé, salé, Höhlengereift, but these age profiles are not part of the AOC; the French Le Brouère cheese, made in nearby Vosges, is considered a variant of Gruyère. Le Gruyère Premier Cru is a special variety and matured in the canton of Fribourg and matured for 14 months in humid caves with a humidity of 95% and a temperature of 13.5 °C. It is the only cheese that has won the title of best cheese of the world at the World Cheese Awards four times: in 1992, 2002, 2005 and 2015. Brined cheese – Cheese, matured in a solution of brine Culinary Heritage of Switzerland – an online encyclopedia List of cheeses – A list of cheeses by place of origin Gruyère cheese in the online Culinary Heritage of Switzerland database.
An article on the history and controversy of Swiss versus French claims to Gruyère cheese
Casein pronounced "kay-seen" in British English, is a family of related phosphoproteins. These proteins are found in mammalian milk, comprising c. 80% of the proteins in cow's milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk. Sheep and buffalo milk have a higher casein content than other types of milk with human milk having a low casein content. Casein has a wide variety of uses, from being a major component of cheese, to use as a food additive; the most common form of casein is sodium caseinate. As a food source, casein supplies amino acids and two essential elements and phosphorus. Casein contains a high number of proline residues. There are no disulfide bridges; as a result, it has little tertiary structure. It is hydrophobic, making it poorly soluble in water, it is found in milk as a suspension of particles, called casein micelles, which show only limited resemblance with surfactant-type micelles in a sense that the hydrophilic parts reside at the surface and they are spherical. However, in sharp contrast to surfactant micelles, the interior of a casein micelle is hydrated.
The caseins in the micelles are held together by hydrophobic interactions. Any of several molecular models could account for the special conformation of casein in the micelles. One of them proposes the micellar nucleus is formed by several submicelles, the periphery consisting of microvellosities of κ-casein. Another model suggests; the most recent model proposes a double link among the caseins for gelling to take place. All three models consider micelles as colloidal particles formed by casein aggregates wrapped up in soluble κ-casein molecules; the isoelectric point of casein is 4.6. Since milk's pH is 6.6, casein has a negative charge in milk. The purified protein is water-insoluble. While it is insoluble in neutral salt solutions, it is dispersible in dilute alkalis and in salt solutions such as aqueous sodium oxalate and sodium acetate; the enzyme trypsin can hydrolyze a phosphate-containing peptone. It is used to form a type of organic adhesive. Casein paint is a water-soluble medium used by artists.
Casein paint has been used since ancient Egyptian times as a form of tempera paint, was used by commercial illustrators as the material of choice until the late 1960s when, with the advent of acrylic paint, casein became less popular. It is still used by scene painters, although acrylic has made inroads in that field as well. Casein-based glues, formulated from casein, hydrated lime and sodium hydroxide were popular for woodworking, including for aircraft, as late as the de Havilland Albatross airliner. Casein glue is used in transformer manufacturing due to its oil permeability. While replaced with synthetic resins, casein-based glues still have a use in certain niche applications, such as laminating fireproof doors and the labeling of bottles; the popular Elmer's School Glue was made from casein because it was non-toxic and would wash out of clothing. Several foods and toppings all contain a variety of caseinates. Sodium caseinate acts as a greater food additive for stabilizing processed foods, however companies could opt to use calcium caseinate to increase calcium content and decrease sodium levels in their products.
The main food uses of casein are for powders requiring rapid dispersion into water, ranging from coffee creamers to instant cream soups. Mead Johnson introduced a product in the early 1920s named Casec to ease gastrointestinal disorders and infant digestive problems which were a common cause of death in children at that time, it is believed to neutralize capsaicin, the active ingredient of peppers, jalapeños, other chili peppers. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep, it is produced by coagulation, caused by destabilization of the casein micelle, which begins the processes of fractionation and selective concentration. The milk is acidified and coagulated by the addition of rennet, containing a proteolytic enzyme known as rennin; the solids are separated and pressed into final form. Unlike many proteins, casein is not coagulated by heat. During the process of clotting, milk-clotting proteases act on the soluble portion of the caseins, κ-casein, thus originating an unstable micellar state that results in clot formation.
When coagulated with chymosin, casein is sometimes called paracasein. Chymosin is an aspartic protease that hydrolyzes the peptide bond in Phe105-Met106 of κ-casein, is considered to be the most efficient protease for the cheese-making industry. British terminology, on the other hand, uses the term caseinogen for the uncoagulated protein and casein for the coagulated protein; as it exists in milk, it is a salt of calcium. Some of the earliest plastics were based on casein. In particular, galalith was well known for use in buttons. Fiber can be made from extruded casein. Lanital, a fabric made from casein fiber, was popular in Italy during the 1930s. Recent innovations such as QMilch are offering a more refined use of the fiber for modern fabrics. An attractive property of the casein molecule is its ability to form a gel or clot in the stomach, which makes it efficient in nutrient supply; the clot is able to provide a sustained slow release of amino acids into the blood stream
Beginning with the Industrial Revolution era, a workshop may be a room, rooms or building which provides both the area and tools that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. Workshops were the only places of production until the advent of industrialization and the development of larger factories. In the 20th and 21st century, many Western homes contain a workshop in the garage, basement, or an external shed. Home workshops contain a workbench, hand tools, power tools and other hardware. Along with their practical applications for repair goods or do small manufacturing runs, workshops are used to tinker and make prototypes. Workshops may vary in industrial focus. For instance, some workshops may focus on automotive restoration. Woodworking is one of the most common focuses, but metalworking, electronics work, many types of electronic prototyping may be done. In some repair industries, such as locomotives and aircraft, the repair operations have specialized workshops called back shops or railway workshops.
Most repairs are carried out except where an industrial service is needed. The New Yankee Workshop Laboratory Hackspace Studio
Local food is a movement of people who prefer to eat foods which are grown or farmed close to the places of sale and preparation. Local food movements aim to connect food producers and food consumers in the same geographic region, in order to develop more self-reliant and resilient food networks; the term has been extended to include not only the geographic location of supplier and consumer but can be "defined in terms of social and supply chain characteristics." For example, local food initiatives promote sustainable and organic farming practices, although these are not explicitly related to the geographic proximity of producer and consumer. Local food represents an alternative to the global food model, a model which sees food traveling long distances before it reaches the consumer. A local food network involves relationships between food producers, distributors and consumers in a particular place, where they work together to increase food security and ensure economic and social sustainability of a community.
In the USA, the local food movement has been traced to the creation of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, which spawned today's controversial agricultural subsidies and price supports. The contemporary American movement associated with the term can be traced back to proposed resolutions to the Society for Nutrition Education's 1981 guidelines; these unsuccessful resolutions encouraged increased local production to slow farmland loss. The program described "sustainable diets" - a term new to the American public. At the time, the resolutions were met with strong criticism from pro-business institutions, but have had a strong resurgence of backing since 2000. In 2008, revisions were made to the United States Farm Bill which put an emphasis on nutrition: "it provides low-income seniors with vouchers for use at local produce markets, it added more than $1 billion to the fresh fruit and vegetable program, which serves healthy snacks to 3 million low-income children in schools". No single definition of "local" or "local food systems" exists.
The geographic distances between production and consumption varies within the movement. However, the general public recognizes. There are "a number of different definitions for local have been used or recorded by researchers assessing local food systems most informed by political or geographic boundaries. Among the more circulated and popular defining parameters is the concept of food miles, suggested for policy recommendations." The Food and Energy Act of 2008 includes a definition, with "locally" and "regionally" grouped together and defined as: ‘‘ the locality or region in which the final product is marketed, so that the total distance that the product is transported is less than 400 miles from the origin of the product. In May 2010 the USDA acknowledged this definition in an informational leaflet; the concept of "local" is seen in terms of ecology, where food production is considered from the perspective of a basic ecological unit defined by its climate, watershed and local agrisystems, a unit called an ecoregion or a food shed.
Similar to watersheds, food sheds follow the process of where it ends up. The term "local" is understood by the general public as a description of regional distribution of food, though that does not involve a regulation of distance between the farmer, their food and the consumer, it is the consumer's responsibility to conclude. The USDA included statistics about the growing local food market in the leaflet released in May 2010; the statistics are as follows: "Direct-to-consumer marketing amounted to $1.2 billion in current dollar sales in 2007, according to the 2007 Census of Agriculture, compared with $551 million in 1997. Direct-to-consumer sales accounted for 0.4 percent of total agricultural sales in 2007, up from 0.3 percent in 1997. If non-edible products are excluded from total agricultural sales, direct-to-consumer sales accounted for 0.8 percent of agricultural sales in 2007. The number of farmers' markets rose to 5,274 in 2009, up from 2,756 in 1998 and 1,755 in 1994, according to USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service.
In 2005, there were 1,144 community-supported agriculture organizations in operation, up from 400 in 2001 and 2 in 1986, according to a study by the nonprofit, nongovernmental organization National Center for Appropriate Technology. In early 2010, estimates exceeded 1,400; the number of farm to school programs, which use local farms as food suppliers for school meals programs, increased to 2,095 in 2009, up from 400 in 2004 and 2 in the 1996-97 school year, according to the National Farm to School Network. Data from the 2005 School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment Survey, sponsored by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, showed that 14 percent of school districts participated in Farm to School programs, 16 percent reported having guidelines for purchasing locally grown produce."Using metrics including some of those cited above, a Vermont-based farm and food advocacy organization, Strolling of the Heifers, publishes the annual Locavore Index, a ranking of the 50 U. S. states the District of Columbia.
In the 2016 Index, the three top-ranking states were Vermont and Oregon, while the three lowest-ranking states were Nevada and Florida. Networks of local farmers and producers are
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae and protozoa. Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote; this cycle is known as alternation of generations. The spores of seed plants, are produced internally and the megaspores, formed within the ovules and the microspores are involved in the formation of more complex structures that form the dispersal units, the seeds and pollen grains.
The term spore derives from the ancient Greek word σπορά spora, meaning "seed, sowing", related to σπόρος sporos, "sowing," and σπείρειν speirein, "to sow." In common parlance, the difference between a "spore" and a "gamete" is that a spore will germinate and develop into a sporeling, while a gamete needs to combine with another gamete to form a zygote before developing further. The main difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores are unicellular, while seeds contain within them a multicellular gametophyte that produces a developing embryo, the multicellular sporophyte of the next generation. Spores germinate to give rise to haploid gametophytes, while seeds germinate to give rise to diploid sporophytes. Vascular plant spores are always haploid. Vascular plants heterosporous. Plants that are homosporous produce spores of the same type. Heterosporous plants, such as seed plants, spikemosses and ferns of the order Salviniales produce spores of two different sizes: the larger spore in effect functioning as a "female" spore and the smaller functioning as a "male".
Such plants give rise to the two kind of spores from within separate sporangia, either a megasporangium that produces megaspores or a microsporangium that produces microspores. In flowering plants, these sporangia occur within anthers, respectively. Fungi produce spores, as a result of sexual, or asexual, reproduction. Spores are haploid and grow into mature haploid individuals through mitotic division of cells. Dikaryotic cells result from the fusion of two haploid gamete cells. Among sporogenic dikaryotic cells, karyogamy occurs to produce a diploid cell. Diploid cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores. Spores can be classified in several ways: In fungi and fungus-like organisms, spores are classified by the structure in which meiosis and spore production occurs. Since fungi are classified according to their spore-producing structures, these spores are characteristic of a particular taxon of the fungi. Sporangiospores: spores produced by a sporangium in many fungi such as zygomycetes.
Zygospores: spores produced by a zygosporangium, characteristic of zygomycetes. Ascospores: spores produced by an ascus, characteristic of ascomycetes. Basidiospores: spores produced by a basidium, characteristic of basidiomycetes. Aeciospores: spores produced by an aecium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Urediniospores: spores produced by a uredinium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Teliospores: spores produced by a telium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Oospores: spores produced by an oogonium, characteristic of oomycetes. Carpospores: spores produced by a carposporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Tetraspores: spores produced by a tetrasporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Chlamydospores: thick-walled resting spores of fungi produced to survive unfavorable conditions. Parasitic fungal spores may be classified into internal spores, which germinate within the host, external spores called environmental spores, released by the host to infest other hosts. Meiospores: spores produced by meiosis.
Examples are the precursor cells of gametophytes of seed plants found in flowers or cones, the zoospores produced from meiosis in the sporophytes of algae such as Ulva. Microspores: meiospores that give rise to a male gametophyte. Megaspores: meiospores that give rise to a female gametophyte. Mitospores: spores produced by mitosis. Fungi in which only mitospores are found are called "mitosporic fungi" or "anamorphic fungi", are classified under the taxon Deuteromycota. Spores can be differentiated by. Zoospores: mobile spores that move by means of one or more flagella, can be found in some algae and fungi. Aplanospores: immobile spores that may potentially grow flagella. Autospores: immobile spores that cannot develop flagella. Ballistospores: spores that are forcibly discharged or ejected from the fungal fruiting body as the result of an internal force, such as buildup of pressure. Most basidiospores are ballistospores, another notable e