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The subphylum Chelicerata constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda. It contains the sea spiders and several extinct lineages, such as the eurypterids; the Chelicerata originated as marine animals in the Middle Cambrian period. The surviving marine species include the four species of xiphosurans, the 1,300 species of pycnogonids, if the latter are indeed chelicerates. On the other hand, there are over 77,000 well-identified species of air-breathing chelicerates, there may be about 500,000 unidentified species. Like all arthropods, chelicerates have segmented bodies with jointed limbs, all covered in a cuticle made of chitin and proteins; the chelicerate bauplan consists of two tagmata, the prosoma and the opisthosoma, except that mites have lost a visible division between these sections. The chelicerae, which give the group its name, are the only appendages. In most sub-groups, they are modest pincers used to feed. However, spiders' chelicerae form fangs; the group has the open circulatory system typical of arthropods, in which a tube-like heart pumps blood through the hemocoel, the major body cavity.

Marine chelicerates have gills, while the air-breathing forms have both book lungs and tracheae. In general, the ganglia of living chelicerates' central nervous systems fuse into large masses in the cephalothorax, but there are wide variations and this fusion is limited in the Mesothelae, which are regarded as the oldest and most primitive group of spiders. Most chelicerates rely on modified bristles for touch and for information about vibrations, air currents, chemical changes in their environment; the most active hunting spiders have acute eyesight. Chelicerates were predators, but the group has diversified to use all the major feeding strategies: predation, herbivory and eating decaying organic matter. Although harvestmen can digest solid food, the guts of most modern chelicerates are too narrow for this, they liquidize their food by grinding it with their chelicerae and pedipalps and flooding it with digestive enzymes. To conserve water, air-breathing chelicerates excrete waste as solids that are removed from their blood by Malpighian tubules, structures that evolved independently in insects.

While the marine horseshoe crabs rely on external fertilization, air-breathing chelicerates use internal but indirect fertilization. Many species use elaborate courtship rituals to attract mates. Most lay eggs that hatch as what look like miniature adults, but all scorpions and a few species of mites keep the eggs inside their bodies until the young emerge. In most chelicerate species the young have to fend for themselves, but in scorpions and some species of spider the females protect and feed their young; the evolutionary origins of chelicerates from the early arthropods have been debated for decades. Although there is considerable agreement about the relationships between most chelicerate sub-groups, the inclusion of the Pycnogonida in this taxon has been questioned, the exact position of scorpions is still controversial, though they were long considered the most primitive of the arachnids. Venom has evolved three times in the chelicerates. In addition there have been undocumented descriptions of venom glands in Solifugae.

Chemical defense has been found in whip scorpions, shorttailed whipscorpions, beetle mites and sea spiders. Although the venom of a few spider and scorpion species can be dangerous to humans, medical researchers are investigating the use of these venoms for the treatment of disorders ranging from cancer to erectile dysfunction; the medical industry uses the blood of horseshoe crabs as a test for the presence of contaminant bacteria. Mites can cause allergies in humans, transmit several diseases to humans and their livestock, are serious agricultural pests; the Chelicerata are arthropods as they have: segmented bodies with jointed limbs, all covered in a cuticle made of chitin and proteins. Chelicerates' bodies consist of two tagmata, sets of segments that serve similar functions: the foremost one, called the prosoma or cephalothorax, the rear tagma is called the opisthosoma or abdomen. However, in the Acari there is no visible division between these sections; the prosoma is formed in the embryo by fusion of the ocular somite, which carries the eyes and labrum, with six post-ocular segments, which all have paired appendages.

It was thought that chelicerates had lost the antennae-bearing somite 1, but investigations reveal that it retain and correspond to a pair of chelicerae or chelifores, small appendages that form pincers. Somite 2 has a pair of pedipalps that in most sub-groups perform sensory functions, while the remaining four cephalothorax segments have pairs of legs. In primitive forms the ocular somite has a pair of compound eyes on the sides and four pigment-cup ocelli in the middle; the mouth is between somite 1 and 2. The opisthosom

Nancy Peters

Nancy Joyce Peters is an American publisher, co-owner with Lawrence Ferlinghetti of City Lights Books and Publishers in San Francisco. Nancy Peters was born in Seattle, took a BA in literature and an MLS at the University of Washington. After travel and life abroad between 1961 and 1967, she was employed as a librarian at the Library of Congress. In 1971 she began working as an editor with City Lights. In addition to editorial work Peters was involved in coordinating collaborations with literary and community organizations sponsoring readings and benefits for progressive social action. Among the authors Peters worked with are Allen Ginsberg, Charles Bukowski, Harold Norse, Diane di Prima, Julian Beck, Andrei Vozsesnesky, Anne Waldman, Andrei Codrescu, Sam Shepard, Ron Kovic, Ellen Ullman, Michael Parenti, Peter Lamborn Wilson, Rikki Ducornet, Alejandro Murguia. Peters helped City Lights avoid a financial crisis in the early 1980s, become a co-owner of the business in 1984, she and Ferlinghetti bought the Columbus Avenue building that houses the bookstore in 1999.

City Lights became a registered landmark in 2001, the first time this recognition had been granted to a cultural institution as well as a building. In the book Literary San Francisco, she wrote about the bohemian and radical Bay Area literary scene, from the beginnings through the early 20th century. Co-editor of Unamerican Activities: The Campaign against the Underground Press, Howl on Trial, Reclaiming San Francisco, she edited Free Spirits: Annals of the Insurgent Imagination and a series of City Lights Reviews. Among other journals, her writing has appeared in Arsenal: Surrealist Subversion, Cultural Correspondence, The Beats: A Graphic History, she is the translator of Antonio Tabucchi’s Dreams of Dreams and The Last Three Days of Fernando Pessoa and was a longtime member of the board of directors of the Istituto Italiano Scuola. In 2007, after 23 years as City Lights’ executive director, Peters stepped down but remains on the board of directors and is president of City Lights Foundation.

In 2010, she was given the Northern California Book Association’s Fred Cody Award for Lifetime Achievement. Ferlinghetti has praised her as "one of the best literary editors in the country."In 1978, she married the Surrealist-Beat Generation poet Philip Lamantia, who lectured at the Art Institute and San Francisco State University. Peters participated with Lamantia in the World Surrealist Exhibition in Chicago in 1976, they sometimes read together at such events as a benefit for Hopi and Navajo traditional peoples and the Santa Barbara Poetry Festival, they recorded for the San Francisco Poetry Center Archives. Fourteen of her poems were published in a Black Swan Press chapbook entitled, her poetry was included in Surrealist Women, An International Anthology and in Anthologie des Poètes Surréalistes Américains. Photos of Peters and Ferlinghetti at the landmark celebration. Webcast from University of California. Needs Realplayer. Works by or about Nancy Peters in libraries

Jack Brownlow

Jack Brownlow was an American jazz piano player. Brownlow was born in Spokane and after serving in the Navy in World War II he lived in Los Angeles from 1945–46, playing with Lester Young, Boyd Raeburn and others, he returned to Wenatchee after. In the mid-1960s he returned to playing music full-time. Jack Brownlow was the most respected jazz pianist working in Seattle from the late 1960s until his death. JazzTimes noted of him that per their contributing writer Doug Ramsey's liner notes, "Brownlow is a legend in the Pacific Northwest." At a party at Ramsey's house in 1971, saxophone player Paul Desmond heard Jack play and said "If I played piano, that's how I'd want to play it." "Ray Blagoff a lead trumpeter in name bands and the Hollywood studios, was with Jack at the Farragut Naval Base in Idaho. “We were all in awe of his ear,” Blagoff says. “He could play anything in any key." Brownlow died on 27 October 2007 of kidney failure. He was 84. Dark Dance Audio CD 1996 Featuring Clipper Anderson, Mark Ivestor,Andy Zadronzny, Marty Tuttle Dark Dance based on Dancing in the Dark For Evans' Sake I Didn't Know What Time it Was Seascape All of You Jim-nopodie Nobody Else But Me On A Trumpet Cloud I Wish I Knew Summer Night I Hear a Rhapsody Goodbye Suddenly It's Bruno Audio CD 1999 Jack Brownlow Trio featuring Dean Hodges and Jason Vontver, Jeff Johnson Suddenly It's Spring The Thrill is Gone Lament Moonlight When You Wish Upon a Star Orbits - Unless It's You I Do It for your Love Gone with the Breeze The Leaves I Fall in love Too Easily As Long as there's Music If I Should Lose You Detour Ahead

Carpenters' Hall

Carpenters' Hall is the official birthplace of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and a key meeting place in the early history of the United States. It is located in Independence National Historical Park of Pennsylvania. Completed in 1775, the two-story brick meeting hall was built for and still privately-owned by the Carpenters' Company of the City and County of Philadelphia, the country's oldest extant craft guild; the First Continental Congress met here in 1774 and it was the location of the Pennsylvania Provincial Conference in June 1776. Their proceedings declared the Province of Pennsylvania's independence from the British Empire and established the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, mobilized the Pennsylvania militia for the American Revolutionary War, set up the machinery for the Pennsylvania Provincial Convention which framed the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, enabled the United States Declaration of Independence to proceed, it was occupied in 1777 by the British Army during the war. The site was designated a National Historic Landmark on April 15, 1970.

On November 30, 1982, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission succeeded in passing Pennsylvania General Assembly 166 HR180 to recognize "Carpenters' Hall as the official birthplace of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania". The land upon which Carpenter's Hall is built was purchased on behalf of the Carpenters' Company of Philadelphia in 1768 by Benjamin Loxley, Robert Smith, Thomas Nevell; the hall was designed by Robert Smith in the Georgian style based on both the town halls of Scotland, where Smith was born, the villas of Palladio in Italy. The carpenters' guild held their first meeting there on January 21, 1771, continued to do so until 1777 when the British Army captured Philadelphia. On April 23, 1773, it was used for the founding meeting of the Society of Englishmen and Sons of Englishmen; the First Continental Congress of the United Colonies of North America met here from September 5 to October 26, 1774, as the Pennsylvania State House was being used by the moderate Provincial Assembly of Pennsylvania.

It was here that Congress resolved to ban further imports of slaves and to discontinue the slave trade within the colonies, a step toward phasing out slavery in British North America. The building has a long history as an assembly place and has been the home to numerous tenants in the arts and commerce; the meeting hall served as a hospital for both British and American troops in the Revolutionary War, other institutions in Philadelphia have held meetings in Carpenters' Hall, including Franklin's Library Company of Philadelphia, the American Philosophical Society, the First and Second Banks of the United States. The federal Custom House in Philadelphia was located at Carpenter's Hall between 1802 and 1819, save for a brief interruption between January and April, 1811, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1970. Numerous dignitaries have visited Carpenters' Hall, including United States Supreme Court Chief Justice Warren Burger, King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia of Sweden, President Václav Havel of the Czech Republic, President Guntis Ulmanis of Latvia, Texas Governor George W. Bush with Pennsylvania governor Tom Ridge.

Today, Carpenters' Hall is free to the public, visited annually by more than 150,000 tourists from around the world. The structure still serves the purpose for which it was built: a meeting place for the Carpenters' Company meetings; the Carpenters Company was founded in 1724, but had no meeting house of their own, resorting to rented tavern rooms for their meetings. Carpenters Company members selected a new building site in 1768 on Chestnut Street, a few hundred feet from Benjamin Franklin's home. Robert Smith did not supervise the construction of the hall; the decision to proceed with construction was made January 30, 1770. Construction was completed in August 1774. Continental Association, the system created by the First Continental Congress for implementing a trade boycott with Great Britain List of National Historic Landmarks in Philadelphia National Register of Historic Places listings in Center City, Philadelphia Philadelphia portal Carpenters' Hall homepage Historic American Buildings Survey No.

PA-1398, "Carpenters' Company Hall", 10 photos, 1 color transparency, 3 measured drawings, 11 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Historic American Buildings Survey No. PA-1398-D, "Carpenters' Company, Rule Book", 39 photos, 1 photo caption page The Carpenters' Company of the City and County of Philadelphia published 1887

Gangs of the Dead

Gangs of the Dead Last Rites, is a zombie survival film released in 2006, starring Enrique Almeida and Reggie Bannister. The film takes place in the city of Los Angeles and follows two intertwined plots; the main plot concerns a meteorite. It carries alien spores; the other story is about two rival gangs, "The Lords of Crenshaw" and "El Diablo", who continue to fight for dominance of Los Angeles as it falls to the zombie horde. Enrique Almeida as Santos Howard Alonzo as Jerome Reggie Bannister as Mitchell Stephen Basilone as O'Bannon James C. Burns as Campbell The film was first released under its original title of Last Rites at the Los Angeles Film Festival on June 30, 2006, it was released direct to video on May 1, 2007 under the new title of Gangs of the Dead. In both Germany and Italy, the film was released under the title of City of the Dead. In the United Kingdom, the film was released under the title of 48 Weeks Later, in an effort to capitalise on the success of 28 Weeks Later, released in 2007.

Gangs of the Dead on IMDb

Cotton Minahan

Edmund Joseph "Cotton" Minahan was a professional baseball player, American track and field athlete who competed at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. Minahan was born in Springfield and was one of 10 brothers and sisters, while young his family moved to Orange, New Jersey, was educated at Georgetown University and Manhattan College, he competed for the Georgetown Hoyas, he was a right-handed pitcher for one season with the Cincinnati Reds. For his career, he compiled a 0–2 record, with a 1.29 earned run average, 4 strikeouts in 14 innings pitched. In June 1900, Minahan set sail for England with fellow club teammates William Holland and Arthur Duffey to compete in the Amateur Athletic Association of England Games they headed to Paris to compete in the 1900 Summer Olympics. Minahan competed in the 60 metres event, he placed second in his initial heat with an unknown time before coming in fourth of four in the final with an estimated time of 7.2 seconds. Minahan went on to run in the 100 metres, finishing in 12th or 13th place overall.

He took second in his heat behind Norman Pritchard to advance to the semifinals, but placed fourth in his semi final so didn't advance to the final or the repechage. Minahan died on May 20, 1958 in East Orange, New Jersey at the age of 75. De Wael, Herman. Herman's Full Olympians: "Athletics 1900". Accessed 18 March 2006. Available electronically at. Mallon, Bill; the 1900 Olympic Games, Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. Publishers. ISBN 0-7864-0378-0. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference