Great Railroad Strike of 1877
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, sometimes referred to as the Great Upheaval, began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad cut wages for the third time in a year. This strike ended some 45 days after it was put down by local and state militias, federal troops; because of economic problems and pressure on wages by the railroads, workers in numerous other cities, in New York and Maryland, into Illinois and Missouri went out on strike. An estimated 100 people were killed in the unrest across the country. In Martinsburg, Pittsburgh and other cities, workers burned down and destroyed both physical facilities and the rolling stock of the railroads—engines and railroad cars. Local populations feared that workers were rising in revolution such as the Paris Commune of 1871. At the time, the workers were not represented by trade unions; the city and state governments organized armed militias, aided by national guard, federal troops and private militias organized by the railroads, who fought against the workers.
Disruption was widespread and at its height, the strikes were supported by about 100,000 workers. With the intervention of federal troops in several locations, most of the strikes were suppressed by early August. Labor continued to work to organize into unions to work for better conditions. Fearing the social disruption, many cities built armories to support their militias. With public attention on workers' wages and conditions, the B&O in 1880 founded an Employee Relief Association to provide death benefits and some health care. In 1884 it established a worker pension plan. Other improvements had to await further economic growth and associated wage increases; the Long Depression, beginning in the United States with the financial Panic of 1873 and lasting 65 months, became the longest economic contraction in American history, including the more famous, 45-month-long Great Depression of the 1930s. The failure of the Jay Cooke bank in New York, was followed by that of Henry Clews, set off a chain reaction of bank failures, temporarily closing the New York stock market.
Unemployment rose reaching 14 percent by 1876, many more were underemployed, wages overall dropped to 45% of their previous level. Thousands of American businesses failed. One in four laborers in New York were out of work in the winter of 1873-1874. National construction of new rail lines dropped from 7,500 miles of track in 1872 to just 1,600 miles in 1875, production in iron and steel alone dropped as much as 45%; when the Civil War ended, a boom in railroad construction ensued, with 55,000 kilometers of new track being laid from coast-to-coast between 1866 and 1873. The railroads the second largest employer outside of agriculture, required large amounts of capital investment, thus entailed massive financial risk. Speculators fed large amounts of money into the industry, causing abnormal growth and over-expansion. Jay Cooke's firm, like many other banking firms, invested a disproportionate share of depositors' funds in the railroads, thus paving the way for the ensuing collapse. In addition to Cooke's direct infusion of capital in the railroads, the firm had become a federal agent for the government in the government's direct financing of railroad construction.
As building new track in areas where land had not yet been cleared or settled required land grants and loans that only the government could provide, the use of Jay Cooke's firm as a conduit for federal funding worsened the effects that Cooke's bankruptcy had on the nation's economy. In the wake of the Panic of 1873, a bitter antagonism between workers and the leaders of industry developed. Immigration from Europe was underway, as was migration of rural workers into the cities, increasing competition for jobs and enabling companies to drive down wages and lay off workers. By 1877, 10 percent wage cuts, distrust of capitalists and poor working conditions led to workers conducting numerous railroad strikes that prevented the trains from moving, with spiraling effects in other parts of the economy. Suppressed by violence, workers continued to organize to try to improve their conditions. Management worked to break up such movements, mainstream society feared labor organizing as signs of revolutionary socialism.
Tensions lingered well after the depression ended in 1878–79. Many of the new immigrant workers were Catholics, their church had forbidden participation in secret societies since 1743 as a reaction against the anti-Catholicism of Freemasonry, but by the late 19th century, the Knights of Labor, a national and predominately Catholic organization, had 700,000 members seeking to represent all workers. In 1888 Archbishop James Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore sympathized with the workers and collaborated with other bishops to lift the prohibition against workers joining the KOL. Other workers took actions, unrest marked the following decades. In 1886 Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor for the skilled craft trades, attracting skilled workers from other groups. Other labor organizing followed; the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 started on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, in response to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad cutting wages of workers for the third time in a year. Striking workers would not allow any of the trains freight trains, to roll until this third wage cut was revoked.
West Virginia Governor Henry M. Mathews sent in state militia units to restore train service but the soldiers refused to fire on the strikers; the governor
Corning (city), New York
Corning is a city in Steuben County, New York, United States, on the Chemung River. The population was 11,183 at the 2010 census, it is named for Erastus Corning, an Albany financier and railroad executive, an investor in the company that developed the community. The city is best known as the headquarters of Fortune 500 company Corning Incorporated Corning Glass Works, a manufacturer of glass and ceramic products for industrial and technical uses; the city of Corning is situated at the western edge of the town of Corning and in the southeast part of Steuben County. It is home to the Corning Museum of Glass, which houses one of the world's most comprehensive collections of glass objects from antiquity to the present; the museum houses one of the world's major glass research centers. The city's other major cultural attraction is the Rockwell Museum, it contains an important collection of Western American painting and sculpture assembled over the past 40 years by Robert F. and Hertha Rockwell. The city has been cited several times by American Style magazine as one of the top twenty-five small city arts destinations in the U.
S. – most in June 2010. Many of the cultural events and historic landmarks in the city are in Corning's Gaffer District. Corning Country Club annually hosted the Corning Classic, a stop on the Ladies Professional Golf Association tour, from 1979 to 2009; the city has commercial air service available at Elmira/Corning Regional Airport in the nearby town of Big Flats. Corning is home to the 2006 New York State Class A Football Champions. In 2003, Charles R. Mitchell and Kirk W. House produced Corning, a historic photo book in Arcadia Publishing's "Images of America" series. Photos were drawn from the archives of the Corning-Painted Post Historical Society. In 2013, Rand McNally's list of best small towns in America named Corning the "Most Fun" town out of all the list's finalists. In 2008, the City of Corning banned public water fluoridation. In 2006, the city council approved public water fluoridation. In 2007, a petition had been launched by local resident Kirk Huttleston which became known as Proposition 1.
Proposition 1 passed the ban by a close vote of 1,287 to 1,222 according to unofficial results. The first settlement in the town of Corning was made near the site of the future city in 1796; the community was set apart from the town as a village in 1848. Corning was incorporated as a city in 1890; as the glass industry developed, Corning became known as the "Crystal City", supported by companies such as Hawkes and Hunt - which produced some of the finest American Brilliant Period cut glass between 1880-1915. The Corning area's first real industry was lumber; the first settlers used the area's river systems to transport logs and finished lumber in fleets downstream to buyers. This gave rise to large mills. Rafting of lumber began to wane. At one time the mills of the Corning area were reputed to be among the biggest in the world. After the lumber was depleted the great mills moved north to new forests. East, across the Chemung River from Corning, lies Gibson, the site of a feeder canal for the Chemung Canal system.
Some of Corning's early prosperity came from the feeder canal system exposure. Canal cargoes from Corning included soft coal, tobacco and whiskey. From April 22 to December 11, 1850, the canal season that year, the newspaper reported that 1,116 boats left the port of Corning. Tolls for the year totaled $54,060.39. Among items shipped were 46,572,400 pounds of coal; the canal's best peacetime year was 1854. The Civil War brought an abnormal amount of business, with a peak of 307,151 tons hauled in one year. After the Civil War, an industrial boom occurred in the region. Ingersoll Rand opened during this period in Painted Post, just north of Corning. Corning became a railroad town in the 1880s, many smaller railroad lines busily weaving webs of tracks connecting the major trunk line to smaller communities. In 1912, the Corning train wreck three miles east of Corning in Gibson left 39 dead; the Jenning's Tavern, Corning Armory, Market Street Historic District, Southside Historic District, World War Memorial Library, United States Post Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Corning is located at 42°8′53″N 77°3′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.3 square miles, of which, 3.1 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Just upstream from Corning, the Cohocton River and the Tioga River merge to form the Chemung River which flows through downtown; the river was an important source of power in the early history, is part of the attractiveness of the region today. The river is prone to floods, as rain water runs off from the steep hillsides of the area, the worst recent flood being in 1972, as the remnants of Hurricane Agnes dropped fifteen or more inches of rain in the area within a short time. Eighteen people were killed in the immediate Corning-Painted Post area; the entire downtown area was flooded, with severe damage. Downtown has become somewhat gentrified. Flooding is now controlled by a system of dams upstream from Corning. Interstate 86, New York State Route 17, New York State Route 352, New York State Route 414, New York State Route 415 are major highways connecting in Corning.
County Road 40 leads into the city from County Road 41 from the north. Interstate 99 and U. S. Route 15 proceeds southward from Painted Post, west of Corning; as of the census of 2010, there were 11,183 people in 5,114 households residing in the city. T
Tompkins County, New York
Tompkins County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,564; the county seat is Ithaca. The name is in honor of Daniel D. Tompkins, who served as Governor of New York and Vice President of the United States. Tompkins County comprises NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is home to Ithaca College and Tompkins Cortland Community College. When counties were established in the British Province of New York in 1683, the present Tompkins County was part of Albany County; this was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County.
One of the other pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion. The eastern boundary of Tryon County was five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River; the area designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State. The county was named for colonial governor of New York. In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, the name of Tryon County was changed to Montgomery County in honor of the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, replacing the name of the hated British governor. In 1789, Montgomery County was reduced in size by the splitting off of Ontario County; the actual area split off from Montgomery County was much larger than the present county including the present Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Monroe, Orleans, Wyoming and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties.
Herkimer County was one of three counties split off from Montgomery County in 1791. Onondaga County was formed in 1794 by the splitting of Herkimer County. Cayuga County was formed in 1799 by the splitting of Onondaga County; this county was, much larger than the present Cayuga County. It included the present Seneca and Tompkins counties. In 1804, Seneca County was formed by the splitting of Cayuga County. On April 7, 1817, Tompkins County was created by combining portions of Seneca and the remainder of Cayuga County; the county was named after Vice-President and former New York Governor Daniel Tompkins. Tompkins certainly never visited the county named for him. In 1854, the county lost the town of Hector and the west line of lots in Newfield to the newly formed Schuyler County, New York. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 492 square miles, of which 475 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. Tompkins County is in the west central part of New York State, south of Syracuse and northwest of Binghamton.
It is geographically grouped with the Finger Lakes region, but some locals consider themselves to be part of Central New York or the Southern Tier. As of the census of 2000, there were 96,501 people, 36,420 households, 19,120 families residing in the county; the population density was 203 people per square mile. There were 38,625 housing units at an average density of 81 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 85.50% White, 3.64% African American, 0.28% Native American, 7.19% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 2.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.08% of the population. 12.4% were of German, 11.7% English, 11.1% Irish, 9.2% Italian and 6.0% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 2.85% of the population reported speaking Spanish at home, while 1.86% speak Chinese, 1.07% Korean, 1.00% French. There were 36,420 households out of which 25.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.20% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.50% were non-families.
32.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.00% under the age of 18, 26.00% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 19.30% from 45 to 64, 9.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 97.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,272, the median income for a family was $53,041. Males had a median income of $35,420 versus $27,686 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,659. About 6.80% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.00% of those under age 18 and 5.40% of those age 65 or over. Ithaca Cayuga Heights Dryden Freeville Groton Lansing Trumansburg East Ithaca Forest Home Newfield Hamlet Northeast Ithaca Northwest Ithaca South Hill Podunk Varna Brooktondale West Danby Tompkins County was once a reliable Republican county.
From 1916 to 1980, the only Democrat to carry it in a presidential election was President Johnson in 1964. However, Demo
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Schuyler County, New York
Schuyler County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,343, making it the second-least populous county in New York; the county seat is Watkins Glen. The name is in honor of General Philip Schuyler, one of the four major generals in the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War; when counties were established in New York State in 1683, the present Schuyler County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion.
Tryon County's eastern boundary was five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State; the county was named for colonial governor of New York. In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Tryon County's name was changed to Montgomery County in honor of the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, replacing the name of the hated British governor. In 1789, Ontario County was split off from Montgomery; the actual area split off from Montgomery County was much larger than the present county including the present Allegany, Chautauqua, Genesee, Monroe, Orleans, Wyoming and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties.
Herkimer and Tioga counties were two of three counties split off from Montgomery County in 1791. In 1794, Onondaga County was formed by the splitting of Herkimer County; this county was larger than the present Onondaga County, including the present Cayuga and Tompkins counties. In 1796, Steuben County was split off from Ontario County, it was larger than the present county, however. In 1798, Chemung County was formed from Tioga County, but the county at that time was rather larger than the present county, containing a portion of what would become Schuyler County. In 1799, Cayuga County was formed by the splitting of Onondaga County; this county was, much larger than the present Cayuga County. It included the present Seneca and Tompkins counties, as well as part of what would become Schuyler County. In 1804, Seneca County was formed by the splitting of Cayuga County. In 1817, in turn, a portion of Seneca County was combined with a piece of the remainder of Cayuga County to form Tompkins County. In 1823, Steuben County was reduced in size by the combination of a portion of the county with a portion of Ontario County to form Yates County.
In 1854, portions of Steuben and Tompkins counties were combined to form Schuyler County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 342 square miles, of which 328 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Schuyler County is in the western part of New York State, west of Ithaca at the south end of Seneca Lake; the Finger Lakes National Forest is in the north part of the county. Seneca County - north Tompkins County - east Chemung County - south Steuben County - west Yates County - northwest New York State Route 14 New York State Route 79 New York State Route 224 New York State Route 226 New York State Route 414 Finger Lakes National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 19,224 people, 7,374 households, 5,191 families residing in the county; the population density was 58 people per square mile. There were 9,181 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.48% White, 1.45% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.22% of the population. 17.3% were of German, 15.5% English, 13.9% Irish, 11.8% American and 11.4% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 97.1% spoke English and 1.1% Spanish as their first language. There were 7,374 households out of which 32.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 26.60% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,010, the median income for a family was $41,441.
Males had a median income of $31,549 versus $21,928 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,039. About 8.80% of families and 11.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.10% of those u