Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
Rosa rugosa is a species of rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China, Japan and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on beach coasts on sand dunes. It should not be confused with Rosa multiflora, known as "Japanese rose"; the Latin word "rugosa" means "wrinkled." Rosa rugosa is a suckering shrub which develops new plants from the roots and forms dense thickets 1–1.50 m tall with stems densely covered in numerous short, straight prickles 3–10 mm long. The leaves are 8–15 cm long, pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, most 7, each leaflet 3–4 cm long, with a distinctly corrugated surface; the leaf is a elliptical in shape with a rounded base or broadly cuneate with a leather feel, dark green top. The back of the leaf is composed of a green-grey colour with hair along the veins; the leaf margin is crenate-serrate. The flower has five petals that are 6-9 cm in width; the flower vary in style. The flowers are pleasantly scented, dark pink to white, 6–9 cm across, with somewhat wrinkled petals; the edible hips, which resembles cherry tomatoes, are large, 2–3 cm diameter, shorter than their diameter, not elongated.
The leaves turn bright yellow before falling in autumn. Rosa rugosa is used as an ornamental plant, it has been introduced to numerous areas of North America. It has many common names, several of which refer to the fruit's resemblance to a tomato, including beach tomato or sea tomato. In parts of the US the fruits are occasionally called beach plums, causing confusion with the plant properly bearing that name, Prunus maritima; the sweetly scented flowers are traditionally used to make flower dessert in China. They are used to make pot-pourri in Japan and China, it is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat irregular gastritis. This species hybridises with many other roses, is valued by rose breeders for its considerable resistance to the diseases rose rust and rose black spot, it is extremely tolerant of seaside salt spray and storms being the first shrub in from the coast. It is used in landscaping, being tough and trouble-free. Needing little maintenance due to it being disease resistant, it is suitable for planting in large numbers.
Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use, with flower colour varying from white to dark red-purple, with semi-double to double flowers where some or all of the stamens are replaced by extra petals. Popular examples include'Fru Dagmar Hastrup','Pink Grootendorst','Blanc Double de Coubert' and the more common'Roseraie de L'Haÿ', used for its successful rootstock and its ornamental rose hips; this type of plant species are known to be large and attractive flowers, hence why it is used as a windbreaker or to create hedges. Interested buyers of this plant can purchase the plant from any plant nurseries and can be used for breeding purposes of other types of roses; the rose rugosa is good at controlling erosion, why it is placed along highways and within the city of Germany and Norway. Rosa rugosa is naturalized in many parts of Europe, it is considered an invasive species in some habitats in seashores of Northern Europe, Eastern Russia, Korea and Northern China. To further understand the invasive process, was first introduced into England from Japan in 1976, in Germany in 1845.
This was the first presence of the flower within the European continent. In 1875, Rosa rugosa was found in Denmark and in Sweden in 1918. By 2001, the flower species had become well established within 61 European countries. Although, it is native within China, it has been labeled as an endangered species due to a noticeable high decline in population rates of the flower; the specie was able to spread due to birds and animals that eat the berries from the bush and people buying the rose and taking it with them overseas. It can outcompete native flora. On Sylt, an island in the north of Germany, it is sufficiently abundant to have become known as the "Sylt rose", it is considered noxious in some states of the USA. R. rugosa was first introduced into North America in 1845. The first report of it being naturalized far from the location in which it was planted occurred on Nantucket in 1899 and was spreading by 1911. By 1920, the rose had been well established in Connecticut. Ten years it was said to be "straying rapidly" and today it is naturalized on the entire coast of New England.
There has been no negative effects on human health besides allergies such as pollen or fragrance of rose. In Japanese, it is called hamanasu "beach aubergine", hamanashi "beach pear" or 玫瑰 "rose"; the Chinese call it méiguī huā 玫瑰花. In Korean, the species is called haedanghwa "flowers near the seashore". Hort.net profile Rosa rugosa Media related to Rosa rugosa at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Rosa rugosa at Wikispecies
The classical or traditional Mongolian script known as the Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created for the Mongolian language, was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels; the Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian and experimentally, Evenki. Computer operating systems have been slow to adopt support for the Mongolian script, all have incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties; the Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Old Uyghur alphabet for the Mongolian language. From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern and western dialects; the principal documents of the middle period are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese–Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century, materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc..
The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme. The development over this period explains why the Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script. Minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries and more angular versions of the letter tsadi became associated with and and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial. Zain was dropped. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity. Mongolian is written vertically; the Uyghur script and its descendants — Mongolian, Oirat Clear and Buryat — are the only vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters; the reed pen was the writing instrument of choice until the 18th century, when the brush took its place under Chinese influence.
Mongols learned their script as a syllabary, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels. The Traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Due to its shape like Uighur script, it became known as the Uighurjin Mongol script. During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script, in contrast to the New script, referring to Cyrillic; the name Old Mongol script stuck, it is still known as such among the older generation, who didn't receive education in the new script. See also: SASM/GNC romanization § Mongolian and Sino–Mongolian TransliterationsThe traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script, is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language, it does not distinguish several vowels and consonants that were not required for Uyghur, the source of the Mongol script.
The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography. Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character; the below rules for writing apply for the Mongolian language, unless stated otherwise. Traditional: n q/k, /g, b, p, s, š, t, d, l, m, č... Modern: n, b, p, q/k, ү/g, m, l, s, š, t, d, č... Other modern orderings that apply to specific dictionaries exist. Final letterforms with a right-pointing tail may have the notch preceding it in printed form, handwritten in a span between more or less tapered to a rounded curve.
For a visual comparison of how letterforms may differ between styles see § Comparison of writing styles. Mongolian vowel harmony separates the vowels of words into three groups – two mutually exclusive and one neutral: The back, hard, or yang vowels a, o, u; the front, soft, or yin vowels e, ö, ü. The neutral vowel i. Any Mongolian word can contain the neutral vowel i, but only vowels from either of the other two groups; the vowel quality of visually separated vowels and suffixes are affected by those of the preceding wor
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities. A prefectural level city is a "city" and "prefecture" that have been merged into one consolidated and unified jurisdiction; as such it is a city, a municipal entry with subordinate districts, a prefecture with subordinate county-level cities and counties, an administrative division of a province. A prefectural level city is not a "city" in the usual sense of the term, but instead an administrative unit comprising a main central urban area, its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities and villages; the larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres. Prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, other such sub-divisions.
This results from the fact that the predominant prefectures, which prefectural level cities have replaced, were themselves large administrative units containing cities, smaller towns, rural areas. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its actual urban area, the term 市区 shìqū, is used; the first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983. Over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures. Most provinces are composed or nearly of prefectural level cities. Of the 22 provinces and 5 autonomous regions of the PRC, only 9 provinces and 3 autonomous regions have at least one or more second level or prefectural level divisions that are not prefectural level cities. Criteria that a prefecture must meet to become a prefectural level city: An urban centre with a non-rural population over 250,000 gross output of value of industry of 200,000,000 RMB the output of tertiary industry supersedes that of primary industry, contributing over 35% of the GDP15 large prefectural level cities have been granted the status of sub-provincial city, which gives them much greater autonomy.
Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities. There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city: Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, districts subdivisions. Consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. There are only 12 cities are under this classification: Ezhou, Guangzhou, Karamay, Sanya, Wuhai, Xiamen, Zhuhai Prefectural level city with no county-level divisions are cities that are not governed by any county-level divisions such as counties, county level cities, or legal administrative districts. There are only 5 cities are under this classification: Danzhou, Jiayuguan, Zhongshan In Europe and North America, cities are represented as points, while counties are represented as areas.
Thus, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, distinct from, enclosed by, the area of Monroe County, Indiana. In China, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose other cities. On a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States, County of Tongshan would be drawn as a smaller area within City of Xianning; this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources. For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town: Shawan, because it is too small, Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled "Leshan."
A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, but Jiading would still be missing. Statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, the city covers an area 100 kilometers across. Furthermore, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the urban
Ethnic minorities in China
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China. China recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups within China in addition to the Han majority; as of 2010, the combined population of recognized minority groups comprised 8.49% of the population of mainland China. In addition to these recognized ethnic minority groups, there are Chinese nationals who classify themselves as members of unrecognized ethnic groups; the ethnic minority groups recognized by the PRC reside within mainland China and Taiwan, whose minorities are called the Taiwanese aborigines. The Republic of China in Taiwan recognises 14 Taiwanese aborigine groups, while the PRC classifies them all under a single ethnic minority group, the Gaoshan. Hong Kong and Macau do not use this ethnic classification system, figures by the PRC government do not include the two territories. By definition, these ethnic minority groups, together with the Han majority, make up the greater Chinese nationality known as Zhonghua Minzu.
Chinese minorities alone are referred to as "Shaoshu Minzu". The Chinese-language term for ethnic minority is shaoshu minzu. In early PRC documents, such as the 1982 constitution, the word "minzu" was translated as "nationality", following the Soviet Union's use of Marxist-Leninist jargon. However, the Chinese word does not imply that ethnic minorities in China are not Chinese citizens, as in fact they are. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and scholarly publications have retranslated "minzu" in the ethnic minority sense into English as "ethnic groups"; some scholars, to be more precise, use the neologism zuqun to unambiguously refer to ethnicity when "minzu" is needed to refer to nationality. Throughout much of recorded Chinese history, there was little attempt by Chinese authors to separate the concepts of nationality and ethnicity; those outside of the reach of imperial control and dominant patterns of Chinese culture were thought of as separate groups of people regardless of whether they would today be considered as a separate ethnicity.
The self-conceptualization of Han revolved around this center-periphery cultural divide. Thus, the process of Sinicization throughout history had as much to do with the spreading of imperial rule and culture as it did with actual ethnic migration; this understanding persisted up until the Communists took power in 1949. Their understanding of minorities had been influenced by the Soviet models of Joseph Stalin—as has been the case for the neighbouring Communist regimes of Vietnam and Laos—and the Soviet's definition of minorities did not map cleanly onto this Chinese historical understanding. Stalinist thinking about minorities was that a nation was made up of those with a common language, historical culture, territory; each nation of these people had the theoretical right to secede from a proposed federated government. This differed from the previous way of thinking in that instead of defining all those under imperial rule as Chinese, the nation and ethnicity were now separate; the Stalinist model as applied to China gave rise to the autonomous regions in China.
During World War II, the American Asiatic Association published an entry in the text "Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40", concerning the problem of whether Chinese Muslims were Chinese or a separate "ethnic minority", the factors which lead to either classification. It tackled the question of why Muslims who were Chinese were considered a different race from other Chinese, the separate question of whether all Muslims in China were united into one race; the first problem was posed with a comparison to Chinese Buddhists, who were not considered a separate race. It concluded that the reason Chinese Muslims were considered separate was because of different factors like religion, military feudalism, that considering them a "racial minority" was wrong, it came to the conclusion that the Japanese military spokesman was the only person, propagating the false assertion that Chinese Muslims had "racial unity", disproven by the fact that Muslims in China were composed of multitudes of different races, separate from each other as were the "Germans and English", such as the Mongol Hui of Hezhou, Salar Hui of Qinghai, Chan Tou Hui of Turkistan, Chinese Muslims.
The Japanese were trying to spread the lie that Chinese Muslims were one race, in order to propagate the claim that they should be separated from China into an "independent political organization". To determine how many of these nations existed within China after the revolution of 1949, a team of social scientists was assembled to enumerate the various ethnic nations; the problem that they ran into was that there were many areas of China in which villages in one valley considered themselves to have a separate identity and culture from those one valley over. According each village the status of nation would be absurd and would lead to the nonsensical result of filling the National People's Congress with delegates all representing individual villages. In response, the social scientists attempted to construct coherent groupings of minorities using language as the main criterion for
Mongols in China
Chinese Mongols are citizens of the China who are ethnic Mongols. They form one of the 55 ethnic minorities recognized by the People's Republic of China. There are 5.8 million people classified as ethnic Mongols living in China. Most of them live in Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, etc; the Mongol population in China is over twice that of the sovereign state of Mongolia. The Mongols in China are divided between autonomous regions and provinces as follows: 68.72%: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 2.96%: Jilin Province 2.92%: Hebei Province 2.58%: Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 2.43%: Heilongjiang Province 1.48%: Qinghai Province 1.41%: Henan Province 5.98%: Rest of mainland ChinaBesides the Inner Mongolia autonomous region, there are other Mongol autonomous administrative subdivisions in China. On prefecture level: Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture On county level: Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County Harqin Left Mongol Autonomous County Fuxin Mongol Autonomous County Qian Gorlos Mongol Autonomous County Dorbod Mongol Autonomous County Subei Mongol Autonomous County Henan Mongol Autonomous County Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County China classifies different Mongolian groups like Buryats and Oirats into the same single category as Mongol along with Inner Mongols.
A non-Mongolic ethnic group, the Tuvans are classified as Mongols by China. The official language used for all of these Mongols in China is a literary standard based on the Chahar dialect of Mongol. Not all groups of people related to the medieval Mongols are classified as Mongols under the current system. Other official ethnic groups in China which speak Mongolic languages include: the Dongxiang of Gansu Province the Monguor of Qinghai and Gansu Provinces the Daur of Inner Mongolia the Bonan of Gansu Province some of the Yugurs of Gansu Province Sengge Rinchen, Qing dynasty nobleman and general Ulanhu, former Chairman of Inner Mongolia, former Vice President of the People's Republic Bayanqolu, Communist Party Secretary of Jilin province, former Party Secretary of Ningbo Uyunqimg, former Vice-Chair of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Fu Ying, Deputy Foreign Minister, former ambassador to the United Kingdom and the Philippines Li Siguang, founder of China's geomechanics Yang Shixian, chancellor of Nankai University Siqin Gaowa, actress Mengke Bateer, CBA and NBA basketball player Bao Xishun, one of the tallest people in the world Tengger, a pop/rock musician Buren Bayaer, composer and a disc jockey Uudam, child singer Huugjilt, man wrongfully executed in 1996 Zhang Xiaoping, linguist, one of the world's few experts on the Khitan language Jalsan and Buddhist leader Batdorj-in Baasanjab, actor Xiao Qian academic Bai Xue lawyer and legal academic Bai Yansong, TV anchor Han Lei, pop singer Wang Lijun, disgraced police chief and political figure Bai Wenqi, lieutenant general of the PLA Air Force Ulan - deputy party chief of Hunan province Mongols Demographics of China Sichuan Mongols Upper Mongols Upper Mongolia Western Mongolia Yunnan Mongols Mongolians in Taiwan Human Rights in China: China, Minority Exclusion and Rising Tensions, Minority Rights Group International, 2007 de Rachewiltz, Igor.
1981. “ON A RECENT TRANSLATION OF THE MENG-TA PEI-LU AND HEI-TA SHIH-LÜEH: A REVIEW ARTICLE”. Monumenta Serica 35. Maney Publishing: 571–82. Https://www.jstor.org/stable/40726521. 蒙韃備錄 https://archive.org/details/02081581.cn 黑鞑事略 http://ctext.org/library.pl?if=gb&res=80917 http://www.chinaknowledge.de/Literature/Historiography/heidashilve.html The Mongolian ethnic minority Chinese government information
The Kangxi Emperor, personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world. However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang; the Kangxi Emperor is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan and assorted Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing rule, blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River, retaining Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China; the Kangxi Emperor's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong" or "High Qing", which lasted for several generations after his death.
His court accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary. Born on 4 May 1654 to the Shunzhi Emperor and Empress Xiaokangzhang in Jingren Palace, the Forbidden City, the Kangxi Emperor was given the personal name Xuanye, he was enthroned at the age of seven, on 7 February 1661. His era name "Kangxi", only started to be used on 18 February 1662, the first day of the following lunar year. Sinologist Herbert Giles, drawing on contemporary sources, described the Kangxi Emperor as "fairly tall and well proportioned, he loved all manly exercises, devoted three months annually to hunting. Large bright eyes lighted up his face, pitted with smallpox." Before the Kangxi Emperor came to the throne, Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang had appointed the powerful men Sonin, Suksaha and Oboi as regents. Sonin died after his granddaughter became Empress Xiaochengren, leaving Suksaha at odds with Oboi in politics. In a fierce power struggle, Oboi seized absolute power as sole regent; the Kangxi Emperor and the rest of the imperial court acquiesced to this arrangement.
In the spring of 1662, the regents ordered a Great Clearance in southern China that evacuated the entire population from the seacoast to counter a resistance movement started by Ming loyalists under the leadership of Taiwan-based Ming general Zheng Chenggong titled Koxinga. In 1669, the Kangxi Emperor had Oboi arrested with the help of his grandmother Grand Dowager Empress Xiaozhuang, who had raised him, and began taking personal control of the empire. He listed three issues of concern: flood control of the Yellow River; the Grand Empress Dowager influenced him and he took care of her himself in the months leading up to her death in 1688. The main army of the Qing Empire, the Eight Banners Army, was in decline under the Kangxi Emperor, it was smaller than it had been at its peak under Hong Taiji and in the early reign of the Shunzhi Emperor. In addition, the Green Standard Army was still powerful with generals such as Tuhai, Fei Yanggu, Zhang Yong, Zhou Peigong, Shi Lang, Mu Zhan, Shun Shike and Wang Jingbao.
The main reason for this decline was a change in system between the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors' reigns. The Kangxi Emperor continued using the traditional military system implemented by his predecessors, more efficient and stricter. According to the system, a commander who returned from a battle alone would be put to death, for a foot soldier; this was meant to motivate both commanders and soldiers alike to fight valiantly in war because there was no benefit for the sole survivor in a battle. By the Qianlong Emperor's reign, military commanders had become lax and the training of the army was deemed less important as compared to during the previous emperors' reigns; this was. The Revolt of the Three Feudatories broke out in 1673 when Wu Sangui's forces overran most of southwest China and he tried to ally himself with local generals such as Wang Fuchen; the Kangxi Emperor employed generals including Zhou Peigong and Tuhai to suppress the rebellion, granted clemency to common people caught up in the war.
He intended to lead the armies to crush the rebels but his subjects advised him against it. The Kangxi Emperor used Han Chinese Green Standard Army soldiers to crush the rebels while the Manchu Banners took a backseat; the revolt ended with victory for Qing forces in 1681. In 1683, the naval forces of the Ming loyalists on Taiwan—organized under the Zheng dynasty as the Kingdom of Tungning—were defeated off Penghu by 300-odd ships under the Qing admiral Shi Lang. Koxinga's grandson Zheng Keshuang surrendered Tungning a few days and Taiwan became part of the Qing Empire. Zheng Keshuang moved to Beijing, joined the Qing nobility as the "Duke Haicheng", was inducted into the Eight Banners as a member of the Han Plain Red Banner, his soldiers—including the rattan-shield troops —were entered into the Eight Banners, notably serving against Russian Cossacks at Albazin. A score of Ming princes had joined the Zheng dynasty on Taiwan, including Prince Zhu Shugui of Ningjing and Prince Honghuan, the son of Zhu Yihai.