Othón P. Blanco, Quintana Roo
Othón P. Blanco is one of the eleven subdivisions of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, it had a 2010 census population of 244,553 persons. Its municipal seat is the city of Chetumal, which serves as the state capital; the municipality is named after Othón P. Blanco Núñez de Cáceres; the municipal government is headed by the municipal president of Othón P. Blanco, it used to be the fifth-largest municipality in land area in Mexico, at 17,189.7 square kilometres, occupying more than a third of the entire state. But on February 2, 2011, it lost about 40% of its territory when Bacalar Municipality was created out of Othón P. Blanco; the 2010 census enumerated 727 populated localities plus 804 unpopulated localities. The largest localities are listed below. In early 2011, the municipality was split into two parts, with many of the localities now comprising part of the newly created Bacalar Municipality. A full list of those departing localities was not available. Dzibanché Kohunlich Oxtankah Chakanbakán Kinichna Ichkabal Zamora The vegetation found in the municipality of Othon P. Blanco is of medium forest, spanning most of the interior of the municipality and there are more representative plant species are the sapodilla, the ramon, the guayabillo and Chaco, more isolated areas within the municipality is populated by high forest, where you can find the siricote, the palo de tinte and mahogany, to the southwest of the town are engaged in areas of rainfed agriculture and irrigation, the main crop of sugarcane, along with the Caribbean coast can be traced mangroves.
The fauna is rich and varied, among the main species is the manatee, marine mammal that lives in bays and lagoons lictors and has become a symbol of the region, one can find species such as agouti, wild boar, white-tailed deer, otters and birds. For the protection of animal and plant species in Othon P. Blanco there are three zones of ecological reserve, the area of Protection of Flora and Fauna Uaymil located on the northeast coast of the territory, near Mahahual, the Manatee Sanctuary in the Bay of Chetumal and the Biosphere Reserve Banco Chinchorro. Located on the coast, the eco resort of Kabah-na offers only four cabins in a hexagon shape to circulate the air and thatched roofs which keep the interior temperature cool. A complex system of solar panels provides energy 24 hours a day as well as hot water; the resort offers restaurant, beach bar, outdoor showers, beach volleyball, snorkeling equipment and more. At Laguna de Bacalar is Rancho Encantado, located on the edge of a lagoon, it consists of twelve cabins palm-thatched roofs, handmade furniture and decorated with Mexican accents.
The cabins are surrounded by tropical gardens in which live more than 150 species of birds among the tropical fruit orchards
Britons in Mexico
Britons in Mexico or British Mexicans, are Mexicans of British descent or British-born persons who have become naturalized citizens of Mexico. The British have had a presence in Mexico since the Colonial era. However, the greatest exchange occurred following independence, notably with the Cornish miners in Hidalgo. During the Colonial era, the Spanish restricted the entrance of other Europeans, some non-Spanish Europeans were present. In 1556, the English adventurer Robert Thomson encountered the Scotsman Tomás Blaque, living in Mexico City for more than twenty years. Blaque is the first known Briton to have settled in. During his third voyage, the ship commanded by John Hawkins escaped destruction at the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa. However, after becoming lost in the Gulf of Mexico and with a bloated crew, Hawkins abandoned more than one hundred men near Tampico. A group of the men went north, while the rest were captured by the Spanish. Notable among this group was Miles Philips who wrote a narrative detailing his and the other Englishmen's struggles.
They were given care at a hospital and imprisoned. After attempting to escape, they were sold as slaves; some were able to accumulate wealth by rising to the position of overseers at mines and other operations. However, after the establishment of the Mexican Inquisition, the men were stripped of any wealth and imprisoned as Lutheran heretics. Three of the men were burned. Various British privateers and pirates attacked the coastal cities of New Spain, most famously in Campeche. In southern Baja California Sur, a few families retain the English surname "Green"; this surname is sometimes cited as a legacy of the British pirates. However, the founder was established to be Esteban Green, an English whaler that settled in the region in 1834; the first great power that recognized the independence of Mexico was the United Kingdom in 1824, shortly after the sale of mines from Pachuca and Real del Monte occurred. The majority of migrants to this region came from what is now termed the Cornish "central mining district" of Camborne and Redruth.
Real del Monte's steep streets and small squares are lined with low buildings and many houses with high sloping roofs and chimneys which indicate a Cornish influence. Mexican remittances from these miners helped to build the Wesleyan Chapel in Redruth; the Panteón de Dolores, which became the largest cemetery in Mexico, was founded in 1875 by Juan Manuel Benfield, the son of Anglican immigrants. Benfield fulfilled his father's goal of creating a cemetery after his sister was refused burial in Catholic cemeteries and had to be interred at a beach. According to the 1895 National Census, 3,263 residents were from the United Kingdom; the twin silver mining settlements of Pachuca and Real del Monte are being marketed as of 2007 as'Mexico's Little Cornwall' by the Mexican Embassy in London and represent the first attempt by the Spanish speaking part of the Cornish diaspora to establish formal links with Cornwall. The Mexican Embassy in London is trying to establish a town twinning arrangement with Cornwall.
In 2008 thirty members of the Cornish Mexican Cultural Society travelled to Mexico to try and re-trace the path of their ancestors who set off from Cornwall to start a new life in Mexico. The Cornish introduced institutionalized football to Mexico. A plaque was placed at the site of the first game in Real del Monte; the English introduced other popular sports such as rugby union, cricket and chess. Football clubs founded by Britons included the British Club, Rovers FC Mexico and Reforma Athletic Club; the most successful club founded by Britons is C. F. Pachuca; the paste is a pastry with Cornish roots. Introduced by miners from Cornwall who were contracted in the towns of Real del Monte and Pachuca in Hidalgo; the Cornish miners may have introduced the turnip to Mexico. There were 3,589 UK-born residents in Mexico recorded during the 2010 census, up from the 3,172 individuals counted in the 2000 census; the census only requests place of birth, the government does not ask its citizens for ancestry nor additional citizenship, so according verbal sources, there are 10 to 15 million of mexicans of British Ancestry.
According to the British Embassy in Mexico, there were about 15,000 British citizens living in Mexico. British immigrants established several institutions of their own, among others: Saint Andrew's Society of Mexico Anglo Mexican Foundation British Honduras Las Pozas Mexicans in the United Kingdom Mexico–United Kingdom relations Dobson, Scots in Latin America, Genealogical Publishing Com. ISBN 9780806352022 Young, Virginia G; the British in Mexico, The British and Commonwealth Society, Los que llegaron - Ingleses from Canal Once
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, mathematics and astronomical system. The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador; this region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, the highlands of the Sierra Madre, running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and onwards into El Salvador, the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture and the earliest villages; the Preclassic period saw the establishment of the first complex societies in the Maya region, the cultivation of the staple crops of the Maya diet, including maize, beans and chili peppers. The first Maya cities developed around 750 BC, by 500 BC these cities possessed monumental architecture, including large temples with elaborate stucco façades.
Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC. In the Late Preclassic a number of large cities developed in the Petén Basin, the city of Kaminaljuyu rose to prominence in the Guatemalan Highlands. Beginning around 250 AD, the Classic period is defined as when the Maya were raising sculpted monuments with Long Count dates; this period saw the Maya civilization develop a large number of city-states linked by a complex trade network. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, the cities of Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful; the Classic period saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics. In the 9th century, there was a widespread political collapse in the central Maya region, resulting in internecine warfare, the abandonment of cities, a northward shift of population; the Postclassic period saw the rise of Chichen Itza in the north, the expansion of the aggressive Kʼicheʼ kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire colonized the Mesoamerican region, a lengthy series of campaigns saw the fall of Nojpetén, the last Maya city, in 1697.
Classic period rule was centred on the concept of the "divine king", who acted as a mediator between mortals and the supernatural realm. Kingship was patrilineal, power would pass to the eldest son. A prospective king was expected to be a successful war leader. Maya politics was dominated by a closed system of patronage, although the exact political make-up of a kingdom varied from city-state to city-state. By the Late Classic, the aristocracy had increased, resulting in the corresponding reduction in the exclusive power of the divine king; the Maya civilization developed sophisticated artforms, the Maya created art using both perishable and non-perishable materials, including wood, obsidian, sculpted stone monuments and finely painted murals. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, surrounded by an irregular sprawl of residential districts. Different parts of a city would be linked by causeways; the principal architecture of the city consisted of palaces, pyramid-temples, ceremonial ballcourts, structures aligned for astronomical observation.
The Maya elite were literate, developed a complex system of hieroglyphic writing, the most advanced in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Maya recorded their history and ritual knowledge in screenfold books, of which only three uncontested examples remain, the rest having been destroyed by the Spanish. There are a great many examples of Maya text found on stelae and ceramics; the Maya developed a complex series of interlocking ritual calendars, employed mathematics that included one of the earliest instances of the explicit zero in the world. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice; the Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. Mesoamerica was one of six cradles of civilization worldwide; the Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, cities, monumental architecture and calendrical systems. The set of traits shared by Mesoamerican cultures included astronomical knowledge and human sacrifice, a cosmovision that viewed the world as divided into four divisions aligned with the cardinal directions, each with different attributes, a three-way division of the world into the celestial realm, the earth, the underworld.
By 6000 BC, the early inhabitants of Mesoamerica were experimenting with the domestication of plants, a process that led to the establishment of sedentary agricultural societies. The diverse climate allowed for wide variation in available crops, but all regions of Mesoamerica cultivated the base crops of maize and squashes. All Mesoamerican cultures used Stone Age technology. Mesoamerica lacked draft animals, did not use the wheel, possessed few domesticated animals. Mesoamericans viewed the world as hostile and governed by unpredictable deities; the ritual Mesoamerican ballgame was played. Mesoamerica is linguistically diverse, with most languages falling within a small number of language families—the major families are Mayan, Mixe–Zoquean and Uto-Aztecan.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continent, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period. While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas cultures until those cultures were exterminated, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing. For this reason the alternative terms of Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are in use. In areas of Latin America the term used is Pre-Hispanic. Many pre-Columbian civilizations established hallmarks which included permanent settlements, agriculture and monumental architecture, major earthworks, complex societal hierarchies.
Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European colonies and the arrival of enslaved Africans, are known only through archaeological investigations and oral history. Other civilizations were contemporary with the colonial period and were described in European historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya civilization, had their own written records; because many Christian Europeans of the time viewed such texts as heretical, men like Diego de Landa destroyed many texts in pyres while seeking to preserve native histories. Only a few hidden documents have survived in their original languages, while others were transcribed or dictated into Spanish, giving modern historians glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge. Indigenous American cultures continue to evolve after the pre-Columbian era. Many of these peoples and their descendants continue traditional practices while evolving and adapting new cultural practices and technologies into their lives.
Before the development of archaeology in the 19th century, historians of the pre-Columbian period interpreted the records of the European conquerors and the accounts of early European travelers and antiquaries. It was not until the nineteenth century that the work of men such as John Lloyd Stephens, Eduard Seler and Alfred P. Maudslay, of institutions such as the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University, led to the reconsideration and criticism of the European sources. Now, the scholarly study of pre-Columbian cultures is most based on scientific and multidisciplinary methodologies. Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, now the Bering Strait and along the coast. Genetic evidence found in Amerindians' maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia. Over the course of millennia, Paleo-Indians spread throughout South America; when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate.
One of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago. However, older sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed; some genetic studies estimate the colonization of the Americas dates from between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago. The chronology of migration models is divided into two general approaches; the first is the short chronology theory with the first movement beyond Alaska into the Americas occurring no earlier than 14,000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. The second belief is the long chronology theory, which proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at a much earlier date 50,000–40,000 years ago or earlier. Artifacts have been found in both North and South America which have been dated to 14,000 years ago, accordingly humans have been proposed to have reached Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America by this time. In that case, the Eskimo peoples would have arrived separately and at a much date no more than 2,000 years ago, moving across the ice from Siberia into Alaska.
The North American climate was unstable. It stabilized by about 10,000 years ago. Within this time frame pertaining to the Archaic Period, numerous archaeological cultures have been identified; the unstable climate led to widespread migration, with early Paleo-Indians soon spreading throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes. The Paleo-Indians were hunter-gatherers characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of 20 to 50 members of an extended family; these groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. During much of the Paleo-Indian period, bands are thought to have subsisted through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon and ancient bison. Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools; these included distinctive projectile points and knives, as well as less distinctive implements used for butchering and hide processing. The vastness of the North American continent, the variety of its climates, vegetation and landforms, led ancient peoples to coalesce into many distinct linguistic and cultural groups.
This is reflected in the oral histories of the indigenous peoples, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories which say that a given people have been living in a certain territory since the creation of the world. Over the course of thousands of years, paleo-Indian
Chetumal Bay is a large bay of the western Caribbean Sea on the southern coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. It is located in southeastern Mexico; the mouth of Chetumal Bay is directed southward and buffered by the large Belizean island of Ambergris Caye. Corozal Bay is a smaller inland inlet, that extends to the southwest in the upper region of Chetumal Bay, it is named after the town of Corozal on it. Chetumal is a major city on the bay, located in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Bays of the Caribbean Bays of the Gulf of Mexico
The Yucatán Peninsula, in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel. The peninsula lies east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, a northwestern geographic partition separating the region of Central America from the rest of North America, it is 181,000 km2 in area, is entirely composed of limestone. The proper derivation of the word Yucatán is debated. Hernán Cortés, in the first of his letters to Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, claimed that the name Yucatán comes from a misunderstanding. In this telling, the first Spanish explorers asked what the area was called and the response they received, "Yucatan", was a Yucatec Maya word meaning "I don't understand what you're saying." Others claim that the source of the name is the Nahuatl word Yocatlān, "place of richness". The Yucatán Peninsula is the site of the Chicxulub crater impact, created 66 million years ago by an asteroid of about 10 to 15 kilometres in diameter at the end of the Cretaceous Period.
The Yucatán Peninsula comprises a significant proportion of the ancient Maya lowlands, was the center of the Mayan civilization. There are many Maya archaeological sites throughout the peninsula. Indigenous Maya and Mestizos of partial Maya descent make up a sizable portion of the region's population, Mayan languages are spoken there; the peninsula comprises the Mexican states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo, as well as large parts of Belize and Guatemala's Petén Department. In the late historic and early modern eras, the Yucatán Peninsula was a cattle ranching, logging and henequen production area. Since the 1970s, the Yucatán Peninsula has reoriented its economy towards tourism in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Once a small fishing village, Cancún in the northeast of the peninsula has grown into a thriving city; the Riviera Maya, which stretches along the east coast of the peninsula between Cancún and Tulum, houses over 50,000 beds. The best-known locations are the former fishing town of Playa del Carmen, the ecological parks Xcaret and Xel-Há and the Maya ruins of Tulum and Coba.
The peninsula is the exposed portion of the larger Yucatán Platform, all of, composed of carbonate and soluble rocks, being limestone although dolomite and evaporites are present at various depths. The whole of the Yucatán Peninsula is an unconfined flat lying karst landscape. Sinkholes, known locally as cenotes, are widespread in the northern lowlands. According to the Alvarez hypothesis, the mass extinction of the dinosaurs at the transition from the Cretaceous to the Paleogene Period, the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, 65 million years ago was caused by an asteroid impact somewhere in the greater Caribbean Basin; the buried Chicxulub crater is centered off the north coast of the peninsula near the town of Chicxulub. The now-famous "Ring of Cenotes" outlines one of the shock-waves from this impact event in the rock of ~66 million years of age, which lies more than 1 km below the modern ground surface near the centre, with the rock above the impact strata all being younger in age; the presence of the crater has been determined first on the surface from the Ring of Cenotes, but by geophysical methods, direct drilling with recovery of the drill cores.
The Arrowsmith Bank is a submerged bank located off the northeastern end of the peninsula. Due to the extreme karst nature of the whole peninsula, the northern half is devoid of rivers. Where lakes and swamps are present, the water is marshy and unpotable. Due to its coastal situation, the whole of the peninsula is underlain by an extensive contiguous density stratified coastal aquifer, where a fresh water lens formed from meteoric water floats on top of intruding saline water from the coastal margins; the thousands of sinkholes known as cenotes throughout the region provide access to the groundwater system. The cenotes have long been relied on by contemporary Maya people. Short and tall tropical jungles are the predominant natural vegetation types of the Yucatán Peninsula; the boundaries between northern Guatemala and western Belize are still occupied by the largest continuous tracts of tropical rainforest in Central America. However, these forests are suffering extensive deforestation. Like much of the Caribbean, the peninsula lies within the Atlantic Hurricane Belt, with its uniformly flat terrain it is vulnerable to these large storms coming from the east.
The 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season was a bad season for Mexico's tourism industry, with two forceful category 5 storms hitting, Hurricane Emily and Hurricane Wilma. The 2006 Atlantic Hurricane Season was a typical year which left the Yucatán untouched, but in the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season Yucatán was hit by Hurricane Dean Dean left little damage on the peninsula despite heavy localized flooding. Strong storms called nortes can descend on the Yucatán Peninsula any time of year. Although these storms pummel the area with heavy rains and high winds, they tend to be short-lived, clearing after about an hour; the average percentage of days with rain per month ranges from a monthly low of 7% in April to a high of 25% in October. Breezes can have a cooling effect, humidity is high, particularl
Hurricane Dean was the strongest tropical cyclone of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the most intense North Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Wilma of 2005, tying for seventh overall. Additionally, it made the third most intense Atlantic hurricane landfall. A Cape Verde hurricane that formed on August 13, 2007, Dean took a west-northwest path from the eastern Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lucia Channel and into the Caribbean, it strengthened into a major hurricane, reaching Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale before passing just south of Jamaica on August 20. The storm made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula on August 21 as a powerful Category 5 storm, it crossed the peninsula and emerged into the Bay of Campeche weakened, but still remained a hurricane. It strengthened before making a second landfall near Tecolutla in the Mexican state of Veracruz on August 22. Dean drifted to the northwest, weakening into a remnant low which dissipated uneventfully over the southwestern United States.
Dean was the second-most intense tropical cyclone worldwide of 2007 in terms of pressure, only behind Cyclone George in the Australian region, tied with Felix as the most intense worldwide in terms of 1-minute sustained winds. The hurricane's intense winds, waves and storm surge were responsible for at least 45 deaths across ten countries and caused estimated damages of US$1.66 billion. First impacting the islands of the Lesser Antilles, Dean's path through the Caribbean devastated agricultural crops those of Martinique and Jamaica. Upon reaching Mexico, Hurricane Dean was a Category 5 storm, but it missed major population centers and its exceptional Category 5 strength landfall caused no deaths and less damage than in the Caribbean islands it passed as a Category 2 storm. Through the affected regions, clean up and repair took months to complete. Donations solicited by international aid organizations joined national funds in clearing roads, rebuilding houses, replanting destroyed crops. In Jamaica, where the damage was worst, banana production did not return to pre-storm levels for over a year.
Mexico's tourist industry, took a year to rebuild its damaged cruise ship infrastructure. Dean was the first hurricane to make landfall in the Atlantic basin at Category 5 intensity since Hurricane Andrew on August 24, 1992. Dean's Category 5 landfall was in a sparsely populated area and thus far less damaging than Andrew's though Dean was much larger, but its long swath of damage resulted in its name retirement from the World Meteorological Organization's Atlantic hurricane naming lists. On August 11, 2007, a tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa, encountering favorable conditions developed into Tropical Depression Four, about 520 miles west-southwest of Cape Verde on August 13; the depression moved briskly westward, was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dean at 1500 UTC on August 14. The storm's intensity continued to build although dry air and cooler air inflow from the north were slowing structural development. Ragged bands formed on August 15 and the formation of a partial eyewall was observed that day.
Intensification continued, the storm was upgraded to Hurricane Dean at 5 am EDT August 16. The deep-layered ridge to the north continued to steer the system west, towards the Caribbean Sea; the storm strengthened to a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm's development slowed but a reconnaissance aircraft discovered a closed eyewall on August 17 as the storm passed through the Lesser Antilles. Data from the aircraft indicated that Hurricane Dean had strengthened to a Category 3 hurricane and its trailing bands were still over the Lesser Antilles. During the evening of August 17, Dean strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane and continued to grow in both size and intensity through the night. On August 18 the presence of a double eyewall was noted, indicating an eyewall replacement cycle and causing short term fluctuations in intensity; these fluctuations did not affect the storm's well defined satellite presentation. Operationally, Dean was thought to have only been a Category 4 on the 18th, but post-storm analysis shows that Dean had become a 165 miles per hour Category 5 on that day.
Dean weakened slightly on the morning of August 19 as it finished the eyewall replacement cycle and began to interact with the island of Jamaica. Hurricane Dean passed south of Jamaica on the evening of August 19 and began to intensify again that night, its eyewall replacement cycle was thought to be completed. A concentric eyewall was observed again on the morning of August 20, but did not last long; the hurricane, still tracking west-northwest under the influence of a strengthening deep-layered high pressure system to the north, moved over waters with high heat content and began to strengthen once again. The eyewall became better defined during the day, and, at 8:35 pm AST on August 20, Dean restrengthened to a Category 5 hurricane, the highest rating on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, it made landfall as a Category 5 storm in Quintana Roo's Costa Maya region, 40 mi northeast of the border between Mexico and Belize, weakened on its way over land, reemerging on the western side of Yucatán as a Category 1 storm.
Dean regained strength as it crossed the Gulf of Mexico, made its second landfall as a Category 2 storm on August 22, at around 11:30 CDT, near Tecolutla, Veracruz, to the south of Tuxpan, where after it moved westward, losing strength and disintegrating over central Mexico. A small remnant circulation reached the Pacific Ocean moving northwestward around an anticyclone parallel to the Mexican coast and back inland