The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous people of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne comprise two Native American tribes, the Só'taeo'o or Só'taétaneo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese; these tribes merged in the early 19th century. Today, the Cheyenne people are split into two federally recognized Nations: the Southern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes in Oklahoma, the Northern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana. At the time of their first contact with the Europeans, the Cheyenne were living in the area of what is now Minnesota. At times they have been allied with the Lakota and Arapaho, at other points enemies of the Lakota. In the early 18th century they migrated west across the Mississippi River and into North and South Dakota, where they adopted the horse culture. Having settled the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Powder River Country of present-day Montana, they introduced the horse culture to Lakota bands about 1730.
Allied with the Arapaho, the Cheyenne pushed the Kiowa to the Southern Plains. In turn, they were pushed west by the more numerous Lakota; the Cheyenne Nation or Tsêhéstáno was at one time composed of ten bands that spread across the Great Plains from southern Colorado to the Black Hills in South Dakota. They fought their traditional enemies, the Crow and the United States Army forces. In the mid-19th century, the bands began to split, with some bands choosing to remain near the Black Hills, while others chose to remain near the Platte Rivers of central Colorado; the Northern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne either as Notameohmésêhese, meaning "Northern Eaters" or as Ohmésêhese meaning "Eaters", live in southeastern Montana on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. Tribal enrollment figures, as of late 2014, indicate that there are 10,840 members, of which about 4,939 reside on the reservation. 91% of the population are Native Americans, with 72.8% identifying themselves as Cheyenne. More than one quarter of the population five years or older spoke a language other than English.
The Southern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetaneo'o meaning "Roped People", together with the Southern Arapaho, form the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, in western Oklahoma. Their combined population is 12,130, as of 2008. In 2003 8,000 of these identified themselves as Cheyenne, although with continuing intermarriage it has become difficult to separate the tribes; the Cheyenne Nation is composed of two tribes, the Só'taeo'o or Só'taétaneo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese, which translates to "those who are like this". These two tribes had always traveled together, becoming merged sometime after 1831, when they were still noted as having separate camps; the Suhtai were said to have had different speech and customs from their traveling companions. The name "Cheyenne" may be derived from Dakota Sioux exonym for Šahíyena. Though the identity of the Šahíya is not known, many Great Plains tribes assume it means Cree or some other people who spoke an Algonquian language related to Cree and Cheyenne; the Cheyenne word for Ojibwe is a word that sounds similar to the Dakota word Šahíya.
Another of the common etymologies for Cheyenne is "a bit like the alien speech". According to George Bird Grinnell, the Dakota had referred to themselves and fellow Siouan-language bands as "white talkers", those of other language families, such as the Algonquian Cheyenne, as "red talkers"; the etymology of the name Tsitsistas, which the Cheyenne call themselves, is uncertain. According to the Cheyenne dictionary, offered online by Chief Dull Knife College, there is no definitive consensus and various studies of the origins and the translation of the word has been suggested. Grinnell's record is typical, it most means related to one another bred, like us, our people, or us. The term for the Cheyenne homeland is Tsiihistano." The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma speak the Cheyenne language, known as Tsêhésenêstsestôtse. 800 people speak Cheyenne in Oklahoma. There are only a handful of vocabulary differences between the two locations; the Cheyenne alphabet contains 14 letters. The Cheyenne language is one of the larger Algonquian-language group.
The Só'taeo'o or Suhtai bands of Southern and Northern Cheyenne spoke Só'taéka'ękóne or Só'taenęstsestôtse, a language so close to Tsêhésenêstsestôtse, that it is sometimes termed a Cheyenne dialect. The earliest known written historical record of the Cheyenne comes from the mid-17th century, when a group of Cheyenne visited the French Fort Crevecoeur, near present-day Peoria, Illinois; the Cheyenne at this time lived between the Mississippi River and Mille Lacs Lake in present-day Minnesota. The Cheyenne economy was based on the collection of wild rice and hunting of bison, which lived in the prairies 70–80 miles west of the Cheyenne villages. According to tribal history, during the 17th century, the Cheyenne had been driven by the Assiniboine from the Great Lakes region to present-day Minnesota and N
Františkovy Lázně is a spa town in Cheb District of Karlovy Vary Region, in the Czech Republic. Together with neighbouring Karlovy Vary and Mariánské Lázně, it is part of the renowned West Bohemian Spa Triangle; the historic town centre, under monumental protection since 1992, was nominated for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage roster. The town is located in the Chebsko region near the border with Germany, it is situated in the Ohře river basin, north of the regional capital Cheb. The municipal area comprises the cadastral communities of Dlouhé Mosty, Františkovy Lázně proper, Horní Lomany, Jedličná, Slatina u Františkových Lázní, Žírovice; the salutary effects of the surrounding springs were known from the late 14th century on. The physician Georgius Agricola mentioned the mineral water available to Eger citizens; the sources from which, according to ancient law, water was drafted and brought to the city, were first used locally for salutary purposes. The water was shipped in earthenware bottles and in 1700, it sold more water than all other spas in the Empire combined.
About 1705, an inn was erected at the site of a mineral spring known as Franzensquelle. In 1793, the town was founded under the name Kaiser Franzensdorf, after Emperor Francis II, renamed Franzensbad, under which name it became a famous spa; the spa was founded by Eger-based doctor Bernhard Adler. He promoted the expansion of spa facilities and the accommodation for those seeking healing and promoted the transformation of the swampy moorland with paths and footbridges to well-known sources; when in 1791 Adler had a pavilion and a water basin erected at the Franzensquelle, he sparked the Egerer Weibersturm by numerous women who earned their livelihood in the scooping and sale of the water in Eger. Feeling their water-bearing rights threatened, they demolished his premises; the town council of Eger intervened and made the extension of Franzensbad as a health resort possible. The result was an extensive recreation area, with easy access from the city of Cheb. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was one of the most famous guests in the early days.
Another famous visitor was Ludwig van Beethoven, accompanied by Antonia Brentano and her family. During the 19th century, patients included numerous aristocrats Russian nobles, at the same time known doctors bolstered the reputation of Franzensbad as a therapeutic resort. Franzensbad offered one of the first peat pulp baths in Europe, popular with female guests. A public spa house was built in 1827; the writer Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach portrayed her stay in her early work Aus Franzensbad in 1858. Other notable guests included Theodor Herzl, Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria and Archduke Charles I of Austria. In 1862, Franzensbad became an autonomous municipality and obtained town privileges three years later; until 1918 it was part of the Bohemian crown land of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. After World War I, the town's reputation began to fade. Part of the new state of Czechoslovakia, the spa lost much of its patronage and was hit hard by the Great Depression of 1929. After World War II, the German-speaking population was expelled under the Beneš decrees.
The spa renamed Františkovy Lázně in Czech, was nationalized under the rule of the Communist Party. After the Velvet Revolution of 1989, a stock company was established to revive the status of Františkovy Lázně as a venue for international guests; the local natural mineral water has a high content of dissolved carbon dioxide. The effects of the carbonic baths are shown in the better performance of the cardiovascular system, in the mild decrease of blood pressure in the pulse, in the lower occurrence of chronic inflammatory processes in the body, in terms of rheumatics, in the improved blood circulation in tissues and the vegetative stabilisation; the local mud treatments represent a traditional curative method which has thermal and mechanical effects. The mud treatment consists of a thick mushy combination of mud and mineral water, heated up to a temperature, higher than body temperature; the treatment has a positive effect on the pain in treated tissues. The local spa corporation is the biggest spa corporation in the Czech Republic..
It operated 24 mineral springs. The townscape of Františkovy Lázně is shaped by neoclassical and Belle Époque buildings of the Habsburg era, as well as by extended parks and gardens with numerous springs and bathhouses; the Social House is the venue of congresses and other social events and the building houses a casino. Town museum 50.1215756°N 12.345736°E / 50.1215756.
Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciência is a Brazilian scientific society created in 1948 by several prominent scientists, with the aim of promoting science and education in the country by means of publications and political actions on behalf of science's advancement and progress. It was formed in the same spirit of two venerable institutions in the Anglo-Saxon world, the British Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the first president was Prof. Jorge Americano, among the founders there were important scientific personalities of the country, such as Paulo Sawaya, José Reis, Maurício Rocha e Silva, Gastão Rosenfeld and José Ribeiro do Vale, Otto Guilherme Bier, Henrique da Rocha Lima, Alberto Carvalho da Silva, Helena Nader and others; the Society has individual members as well as other Brazilian scientific societies and associations which can become affiliate to SBPC. The current president is a physicist. Honour presidents are Aziz Ab'Sáber, Crodowaldo Pavan, José Goldemberg, José Leite Lopes, Oscar Sala, Ricardo de Carvalho Ferreira, Sérgio Henrique Ferreira and Warwick Estevam Kerr.
SBPC's first flagship publication was Ciência e Cultura, started in 1951 under the editorship of Dr. José Reis, a respected biomedical scientist and the dean of popularization of science in Brazil; the journal's ambition was to be like AAAS' scientific publication. The greatest endeavour of SBPC has been the organization of yearly scientific conferences at national and regional level, since its year of birth, without interruption. In the 1970s, during the oppression of civil liberties by the military regime, these conferences became an important public forum for discussion of issues on political freedom, since they were more or less left alone by the military repression apparatus, which acted hugely and mercilessly against mass media communication, student and political organizations; the first conference had 104 participants. In the next meetings, in Curitiba and Belo Horizonte, increasing participation and enthusiasm followed, with the Brazilian Academy of Sciences first involvement, as well as of other scientific societies.
Another significant publications are Jornal da Ciência, a daily news email service and printed publication. SBPC has spawned a number of initiatives with the objective of popularizing science and serving science education. One of them is the Instituto Ciência Hoje, a not-for-profit non-governmental organization of public interest. ICH publishes Ciência Hoje magazine since 1982, Ciência Hoje das Crianças since 1986, a series of complementary didactic books for schools titled Ciência Hoje na Escola since 1996. Since 1997, the Institute maintains an Internet site, "Ciência Hoje On-line". Fernandes, A. M. A construção da ciência no Brasil e a SBPC: Editora da UnB/CNPq/ANPOCS. Brasília, 1990. SBPC Home Page. Official site. Ciência e Cultura. Official scientific journal. Jornal da Ciência. Daily science news bulletin. Com Ciência. On-line scientific journalism review. Ciência Hoje, a magazine with articles, current issues and news on science Ciência Hoje On-Line. A Web site devoted to the popularization of science.
Ciência Hoje para Crianças. A magazine with science subjects for school-age adolescents. Brazilian science and technology