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Plains Indians

Plains Indians or Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have lived on the Great Plains and the Canadian Prairies in North America. While hunting-farming cultures have lived on the Great Plains for centuries prior to European contact, the region is known for the horse cultures that flourished from the 17th century through the late 19th century, their historic nomadism and armed resistance to domination by the government and military forces of Canada and the United States have made the Plains Indian culture groups an archetype in literature and art for American Indians everywhere. Plains Indians are divided into two broad classifications which overlap to some degree; the first group became a nomadic horse culture during the 18th and 19th centuries, following the vast herds of buffalo, although some tribes engaged in agriculture. These include the Blackfoot, Assiniboine, Comanche, Gros Ventre, Lakota, Plains Apache, Plains Cree, Plains Ojibwe, Sarsi and Tonkawa.

The second group of Plains Indians were sedentary and semi-sedentary, and, in addition to hunting buffalo, they lived in villages, raised crops, traded with other tribes. These include the Arikara, Iowa, Kitsai, Missouria, Osage, Pawnee, Quapaw and the Santee Dakota and Yankton Dakota. Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains are separated into Northern and Southern Plains tribes; the earliest people of the Great Plains mixed gathering wild plants. The cultures developed horticulture agriculture, as they settled in sedentary villages and towns. Maize from Mesoamerica and spread north from the Southwest, began widespread in the Great Plains south around 700 CE. Numerous Plains peoples hunted the American Bison to make items used in everyday life, such as food, decorations, crafting tools and clothing; the tribes followed the seasonal migration of the bison. The Plains Indians lived in tipis because they were disassembled and allowed the nomadic life of following game; the Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado was the first European to describe the Plains Indian culture.

He encountered cities of the Plains village cultures. While searching for a reputedly wealthy land called Quivira in 1541, Coronado came across the Querechos in the Texas panhandle; the Querechos were the people called Apache. According to the Spaniards, the Querechos lived "in tents made of the tanned skins of the cows, they dry the flesh in the sun, cutting it thin like a leaf, when dry they grind it like meal to keep it and make a sort of sea soup of it to eat.... They season it with fat, they empty a large gut and fill it with blood, carry this around the neck to drink when they are thirsty." Coronado described many common features of Plains Indians culture: skin tepees, travois pulled by dogs, Plains Indian Sign Language, staple foods such as jerky and pemmican. The Plains Indians found by Coronado had not yet obtained horses; when horses were obtained, the Plains tribes integrated them into their daily lives. People in the southwest began to acquire horses in the 16th century by trading or stealing them from Spanish colonists in New Mexico.

As horse culture moved northward, the Comanche were among the first to commit to a mounted nomadic lifestyle. This occurred by the 1730s, when they had acquired enough horses to put all their people on horseback; the horse enabled the Plains Indians to gain their subsistence with relative ease from the limitless buffalo herds. Riders were able to travel faster and farther in search of bison herds and to transport more goods, thus making it possible to enjoy a richer material environment than their pedestrian ancestors. For the Plains peoples, the horse became an item of prestige as well as utility, they were extravagantly fond of their horses and the lifestyle they permitted. The first Spanish conqueror to bring horses to the new world was Hernán Cortés in 1519. However, Cortés only brought about sixteen horses with his expedition. Coronado brought 558 horses with him on his 1539–1542 expedition. At the time, the Indians of these regions had never seen a horse, although they had heard of them from contacts with Indians in Mexico.

Only two of Coronado's horses were mares, so he was unlikely to have been the source of the horses that Plains Indians adopted as the cornerstone of their culture. In 1592, Juan de Onate brought 7,000 head of livestock with him when he came north to establish a colony in New Mexico, his horse herd included mares as well as stallions. Pueblo Indians learned about horses by working for Spanish colonists; the Spanish attempted to keep knowledge of riding away from Native people, but nonetheless, they learned and some fled their servitude to their Spanish employers—and took horses with them. Some horses were obtained through trade in spite of prohibitions against it. Other horses were captured by Native people. In all cases the horse was adopted into their culture and herds multiplied. By 1659, the Navajo from northwestern New Mexico were raiding the Spanish colonies to steal horses. By 1664, the Apache were trading captives from other tribes to the Spanish for horses; the real beginning of the horse culture of the plains began with the expulsion of the Spanish from New Mexico in 1680 when the victorious Pueblo people capture


Celypha is a genus of tortrix moths. It belongs to the tribe Olethreutini of subfamily Olethreutinae; the related genus Syricoris is sometimes included in Celypha. The 20 recognized species of Celypha are: Obsolete scientific names for this genus are: Celypa Celyphoides Obraztsov, 1960 Cleyphoides Euchroma Euchromia Stephens, 1829 Loxoterma Busck, 1906Due to the close relationship between Celypha and the "wastebin genus" Olethreutes, there has been some confusion about the former's synonymy. Celyphoides and Loxoterma are sometimes listed as a synonym of Olethreutes, but the type species of the first is Tortrix flavipalpana, that of the second is T. latifasciana. This makes Celyphoides and Loxoterma junior subjective synonyms of Celypha, at least in its present delimitation. Celyphoides, was a nomen nudum for 5 years, it was first used by R. Agenjo Cecilia in 1955, but only properly established by N. S. Obraztsov in 1960. Baixeras, J.. W. & Gilligan, T. M.: Online World Catalogue of the Tortricidae – Genus Celypha account.

Version 1.3.1. Retrieved 2009-JAN-20. Baixeras, J.. W. & Gilligan, T. M.: Online World Catalogue of the Tortricidae – Celypha species list. Version 1.3.1. Retrieved 2009-JAN-20. Savela, Markku: Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Celypha. Version of 2005-SEP-14. Retrieved 2010-APR-15. Savela, Markku: Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Olethreutes. Version of 2005-SEP-16. Retrieved 2010-APR-15

Half sphere exposure

Half Sphere Exposure is a protein solvent exposure measure, first introduced by Hamelryck. Like all solvent exposure measures it measures, it is found by counting the number of amino acid neighbors within two half spheres of chosen radius around the amino acid. The calculation of HSE is found by dividing a contact number sphere in two halves by the plane perpendicular to the Cβ-Cα vector; this simple division of the CN sphere results in two strikingly different measures, HSE-up and HSE-down. HSE-up is defined as the number of Cα atoms in the upper half and analogously HSE-down is defined as the number of Cα atoms in the opposite sphere. If only Cα atoms are available, a related measure, called HSEα, can be used. HSEα uses a pseudo-Cβ instead of the real Cβ atom for its calculation; the position of this pseudo-Cβ atom is derived from the positions of preceding Cα−1 and the following Cα+1. The Cα-pCβ vector is calculated by adding the Cα − Cα +1-Cα0 vectors. HSE is used in predicting discontinuous B-cell epitopes.

Song et al. have developed an online webserver termed HSEpred to predict half-sphere exposure from protein primary sequences. HSEpred server can achieve the correlation coefficients of 0.72 and 0.68 between the predicted and observed HSE-up and HSE-down measures when evaluated on a well-prepared non-homologous protein structure dataset. Moreover, residue contact number can be predicted by HSEpred webserver using the summation of the predicted HSE-up and HSE-down values, which has further enlarged the application of this new solvent exposure measure. Heffernan et al. has developed the most accurate predictor for both HSEα and HSEβ based on a big dataset by using multiple-step iterative deep neural-network learning. The predicted HSEa shows a higher correlation coefficient to the stability change by residue mutants than predicted HSEβ and ASA; the results, together with its easy Ca-atom-based calculation, highlight the potential usefulness of predicted HSEa for protein structure prediction and refinement as well as function prediction

The Bucks

The Bucks were a band who played music based on Irish folk and recording and releasing one album for WEA Records in 1994. While remaining obscure, the band was formed by well-known Irish musicians Ron Kavana and Terry Woods. Paddy Keenan played pipes. James McNally was a member, as were several members of Kavana's primary group, The Alias Band. Despite positive reviews of both the album and the live shows, the band broke up after failing to attract enough attention. Kavana lays the blame on WEA for not promoting the band, he maintains he “never got a penny” for the album. Released in 1994 Warner Music – WEA Dancin' To The Ceili Band – 3:23 Gra Geal Mo Chroi – 4:47 Rashers'n' Eggs – 3:25 The Ghost Of Winters Gone – 4:34 Auld Time Waltzes – 4:51 Courtin' In The Kitchen – 4:27 What A Time – 2:56 An Puc Ar Buille – 3:02 Hurray Me Boys, Hurray – 3:38 Psycho Ceili In Claremorris – 3:52 The Bucks Set – 5:46 Terry Woods – Vocals, Concertina Ron Kavana – Vocals, Mandolin, Guitar & Percussion Miriam Kavana – Fiddle, Harmony vocals James McNally – Piano Accordion, Bodhran, Backing Vocals Paddy Keenan – Uilleann pipes Rod Demick – Fender Bass, Backing Vocals Fran ByrneDrums, Button Accordion, Backing Vocals Mick MacAulay – Button AccordionWith Guests Olly Blanchflower – String Bass Chopper – Cello Thomas Lynch – Uilleann pipes Tim Russell – Backing vocals Duncan Cowell – Car Crash Recorded at Alias & Marcus Studios, March 1994.

Produced by Ron Kavana & Terry Woods. Warner Music – WEA 1994 WMCD 16 "Dancing To The Ceili Band" – 3:25 "The Ghost Of Winters Gone" – 4:12 "Dancing To The Ceilie Band" – 3:34 "Album review". Pay The Reconing. Retrieved 2010-02-14

Battle of Kaiserslautern

The Battle of Kaiserslautern saw a Coalition army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel oppose a Republican French army led by Lazare Hoche. Three days of conflict resulted in a victory by the Prussians and their Electoral Saxon allies as they turned back repeated French attacks; the War of the First Coalition combat was fought near the city of Kaiserslautern in the modern-day state of Rhineland-Palatinate, located about 60 kilometres west of Mannheim. In the First Battle of Wissembourg, the Coalition army of Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser broke through the frontier defenses and drove the French Army of the Rhine south to Strasbourg. In response to this crisis, the French government appointed Hoche to command the Army of the Moselle and Jean-Charles Pichegru to lead the Army of the Rhine, while urging to relieve the Siege of Landau. In November, Hoche launched an offensive which pressed back the Duke of Brunswick's army to Kaiserslautern. On 28 November, French troops moved on Brunswick's defenses from the north and west, but for two days the Coalition army fended off the piecemeal attacks of their adversaries.

Hoche got his entire army into action on the 30th, but the professional Prussian soldiers proved more than a match for the enthusiastic but indifferently-trained French. After the setback, Hoche changed his strategy and turned a large part of his army against Wurmser's exposed western flank in Alsace; the next engagement was the Battle of Froeschwiller in December. The 36,850-man Coalition army of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick concluded the Siege of Mainz on 23 July 1793; the French garrison of 18,675 men surrendered and was released on the promise of not fighting the Coalition for one year. The French government sent the released troops to fight in the internal War in the Vendée. During the siege, the French suffered 4,000 casualties while the Coalition lost about 3,000; the 60,000-strong Army of the Rhine under Alexandre de Beauharnais and the 40,000-strong Army of the Moselle under Jean Nicolas Houchard were poised to march to the relief of Mainz. However, Beauharnais had not informed the Mainz garrison that help was on the way and took too long to start his movement.

After the fall of Mainz, both French armies retreated, the Army of the Rhine to Wissembourg and the Army of the Moselle to the Saar River. Blamed for the loss of Mainz, Beauharnais fell into a funk, begged to be relieved of command and on 23 August 1793 he was replaced by Charles-Hyacinthe Le Clerc de Landremont. Meanwhile, Houchard had been replaced by Balthazar Alexis Henri Schauenburg on 5 August. Beauharnais was executed by guillotine on 23 July 1794, his widow Joséphine de Beauharnais married Napoleon Bonaparte. Landremont was soon ordered to send 12,000 soldiers to the Army of the North; this reduced the strength of his field force to 45,000 with an additional 39,000 in garrisons or in the Upper Rhine Division under Jean-Charles Pichegru. Brunswick pressed forward toward the fortress of Bitche, driving back the Corps of the Vosges and the Army of the Moselle. At this moment, the French government dismissed Schauenburg for the crime of being an aristocrat. During his short tenure he had drilled the troops into better shape.

The late commander of the Corps of the Vosges Jean René Moreaux was named to succeed him, but declined because an old wound had reopened. A division commander, Jacques Charles René Delauney reluctantly took over the army on 30 September. Landremont was dismissed and arrested but his intended replacement, Antoine Guillaume Delmas was trapped in the Siege of Landau. Pichegru was offered command of the Army of the Rhine but he refused. Since the generals saw that leading the army led to arrest or execution, none wanted to accept the command. On 2 October, Jean Pascal Carlenc took command of the Army of the Rhine, he would prove to be unfitted for the job. On 13 October 1793, a 43,185-man Coalition army led by Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser defeated Carlenc's 34,400-strong army in the First Battle of Wissembourg; the government ordered Carlenc's arrest on the 23rd. The Army of the Rhine withdrew to the Zorn River near Strasbourg while Wurmser's army occupied northern Alsace. On 22 October, Delauney sent six battalions to Saverne where they helped repel an attack by one of Wurmser's divisions.

Pichegru took command of the Army of the Rhine on 29 October. That same day Delaunay was dismissed from command of the Army of the Moselle; the representatives on mission wanted Eustache Charles d'Aoust to replace Delauney but Lazare Hoche arrived from Paris to take command on 31 October. His rank was general of division rather than army commander because he was supposed to act under the orders of Pichegru. On 18 November, Pichegru began a series of attacks on Wurmser's defensive lines in the Battle of Haguenau; the French government reinforced the Army of the Moselle with 15,000 troops taken from the Army of the Rhine and 5,000 from the Army of the Ardennes. Both Hoche and Pichegru were well aware. In mid-November 1793, Hoche advanced from the Saar with 36,000 troops while the rest of the army guarded the passes through the Vosges. Hoche used rough language with his subordinates. On 17 November, a Prussian raid on the fort at Bitche failed. Leopold Alexander von Wartensleben's column of 1,200 picked soldiers overran the outer defenses with the help of a French traitor.

However, they were soon repulsed with casualties of 120 killed and 251 captured. The French lost few other losses; the same day, the French divisions of Ale

Annisquam Harbor Light

Annisquam Harbor Light Station is a historic lighthouse on Wigwam Point in the Annisquam neighborhood of Gloucester, Massachusetts. It can be viewed from nearby Wingaersheek Gloucester, it lies on the Annisquam River and is one of the four oldest lighthouses to surround the Gloucester peninsula as well as. The first light station, a 40-foot wooden tower, was established in 1801, after Congress gathered $2000 in April for the completion; the original building was 32 feet tall, made of wood with a light resting 40 feet above the water. The building fell into disrepair and, in 1851, was replaced by an octagonal wooden tower of the same height; the original lighthouse keeper's house was repaired and, with alterations, has remained to this day. It is a gabled roofed, wood-framed building. In 1869, a covered walkway was built between the tower. In 1897, the current brick lighthouse was built on the same foundation as the previous two constructions; some time after 1900, the covered walkway, added in 1867, to the keeper's house was replaced by an uncovered wooden footbridge.

In 1931, a foghorn was installed, but until 1949, it was used only from October 15 to May 15 to spare summer residents the noise. But was activated in the summer of 1949 only during day hours; the lighthouse's fourth-order Fresnel lens and foghorn was automated in 1974, became occupied by the Coast Guard. The fog signal was first removed by the Coast Guard, but after complaints by fishermen and local boaters, it was re-activated and automated as well. In August 2000 Matty Nally and his crew completed the replacement of 3,000 bricks in efforts of restoration; the interior of the lighthouse is equipped with a circular cast-iron staircase that leads to the top. The lighthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1987, is one of the oldest lighthouses in Massachusetts; the original wooden keeper's house from 1801 is still used as a housing for United States Coast Guard personnel who manage the site. In 2000, a major restoration of the tower was conducted by the Coast Guard. In 2008, the building made an appearance as a lighthouse in Maine, in the film remake The Women.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Gloucester, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts