The Appalachian Mountains called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period, they once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before experiencing natural erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east–west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east–west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians; the United States Geological Survey defines the Appalachian Highlands physiographic division as consisting of thirteen provinces: the Atlantic Coast Uplands, Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic, Maritime Acadian Highlands, Maritime Plain, Notre Dame and Mégantic Mountains, Western Newfoundland Mountains, Blue Ridge and Ridge, Saint Lawrence Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, New England province, the Adirondack areas. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which geologically belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians.
The mountain range is in the United States but it extends into southeastern Canada, forming a zone from 100 to 300 mi wide, running from the island of Newfoundland 1,500 mi southwestward to Central Alabama in the United States. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which comprise an overseas territory of France; the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the highest point in the United States east of the Mississippi River; the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Most broadly, it refers to the entire mountain range with its surrounding hills and the dissected plateau region; the term is used more restrictively to refer to regions in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains including areas in the states of Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, as well as sometimes extending as far south as northern Alabama and western South Carolina, as far north as Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, parts of southern upstate New York.
The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were part of the Appalachians as well but became disconnected through geologic history. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, Florida whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen; the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian," it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrez's map of 1562. The name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century.
A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania". In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the southern regions of the Appalachians, the word is pronounced, with the third syllable sounding like "latch". In northern parts of the mountain range, it is pronounced or. There is great debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is, with the last two syllables "-ian" pronounced as in the word "Romanian"; the whole system may be divided into three great sections: Northern: The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. It includes the Long Range Mountains and Annieopsquotch Mountains on the island of Newfoundland, Chic-Choc Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec and New Brunswick, scattered elevations and small ranges elsewhere in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Longfellow Mountains in Maine, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, the Green Mountains in Vermont, The Berkshires in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
The Metacomet Ridge Mountains in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts, although contained within the Appalachian province, is a younger system and not geologically associated with the Appalachians. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians. Central: The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia, it comprises the Valley Ridges between the Allegheny Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York–New Jersey Highlands, the Taconic Mountains in New York, a large portion of the Blue Ridge. Southern: The southern section runs from the New River onwards, it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, the Cumberland Plateau. The Adirondack Mountains in New Y
Mont Chapman is the highest peak in the Stoke Mountains of the southern Notre Dame mountain range located in Stoke, Canada. It is accessible from trails maintained by Les Sentiers de l'Estrie. From the summit, one is able to see Mont Ham, Mont Ste-Cécile, Mont Mégantic. Neighboring Bald Peak is accessible by these same trails. Les Sentiers de l'Estrie inc. Peakbagger.com page
Mont Saint-Grégoire is a mountain in the Montérégie region of southern Quebec, Canada. It is composed of essexite and syenite contrasting with the surrounding sedimentary rocks; the area around Mont Saint-Grégoire is known for its maple syrup production, as well as some wine production. The name was changed in 1923 from Mount Johnson, it is thought that Mont Saint-Grégoire might be the deep extension of a vastly eroded ancient volcanic complex, active about 125 million years ago. The mountain was created when the North American Plate moved westward over the New England hotspot, along with the other mountains of the Monteregian Hills, it forms part of the vast Great Meteor hotspot track
Mont Shefford is a Monteregian Hill located in Shefford in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada. Mont Shefford is 526 metres tall, was home to the Ski Shefford ski resort which closed in 2006. Mount Shefford was formed some 125 million years ago during an underground intrusion of magma; this magma remained in a deep freeze. The mountain appeared following the erosion of nearby sedimentary rocks by glaciers; the sedimentary rock was more fragile than the metamorphic rock formed by the contact of the magma and the surrounding sedimentary rock
Mount Caubvick is a mountain located in Canada on the border between Labrador and Quebec in the Selamiut Range of the Torngat Mountains. Mount Caubvick is the highest point in mainland Canada east of the Rockies; the mountain contains a massive peak that rises from nearby sea level. Craggy ridges, steep cirques and glaciers are prominent features of the peak; the alp was named Mont D'Iberville by the Quebec government in 1971. It remained nameless on the Labrador side for several years. In 1981, at the suggestion of Dr. Peter Neary, the provincial government named the mountain after Caubvick, one of the five Inuit who accompanied George Cartwright to England in 1772. Mount Caubvick hosts the highest point in both the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec, although the summit itself lies about 10 metres northeast of the Quebec provincial border and is within Labrador. Due to difficult access and unpredictable, snowy weather at any time of the year, there is no easy way to the top; the summit can be gained from the east to the west by the Koroc Ridge.
The final sections on both routes become technical in nature. American climbers Michael Adler and Christopher Goetze were the first to scale the peak in 1973; the first Canadian party climbed the mountain on August 14, 1978. In that party were Ray Chipeniuk, Ron Parker, Erik Sheer. In August 2003, two climbers from Mississauga, Ontario perished during their descent from the summit. A search was initiated in late August; the approaching winter weather forced an early end to the search in 2003. In August 2004, their bodies were discovered high up on the mountain; the most plausible scenario appears to be that one of the climbers became injured and was unable to continue the descent. The other climber made an attempt to seek help, taking an alternate route down and fell about 150 feet down a steep headwall. List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories List of mountain peaks of North America Mountain peaks of Canada Climbing Mount Caubvick and Mont D'Iberville Mount Caubvick in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia Peakbagger.com page
The Gatineau Hills are a geological formation in Canada that makes up part of the southern tip of the Canadian Shield, acts as the northern shoulder of the Ottawa Valley. They are the foothills of the Laurentian Mountains which stretch east through Quebec, beginning north of Montreal and joining up with others into Vermont and New Hampshire; the geology of Gatineau Park, which encompasses these foothills, is related to the Eardley Escarpment, a fault line that lies along the southern edge of the hills. This escarpment makes the park an attractive location for rock climbers and hikers, offering a beautiful view of the flat fields below, which extend to the Ottawa River; the Eardley Escarpment is part of the northern side of the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, an ancient rift valley. The Algonquin people settled in the Ottawa valley more than 4000 years ago. French explorers arrived in the early seventeenth century; the Gatineau Hills' pine forests were logged extensively in the early 1800s, with many roads built for mining and farming.
The deforestation raised increasing concern from the public. Historical records show interest for the creation of a wilderness park in the Gatineau Hills in 1903; the Gatineau Hills are significant as a skiing destination, serving the neighbouring communities of Ottawa and Gatineau, Quebec. Gatineau Park contains over 190 km of cross-country trails, plays host to the annual Gatineau Loppet competition. Downhill skiing is available at locations including Camp Fortune, Mont Cascades, Mont Ste. Marie and Vorlage; the hills are small compared to the ski areas in the northeast, such as Mont Tremblant and Mont-Sainte-Anne, or in Vermont, New Hampshire and New York. The location of the hills are useful for communications, Ryan Tower, a prominent communications tower at Camp Fortune, provides a large portion of the area's broadcast television and radio signals; the area is a prime tourist attraction during the October weeks when the foliage is turning colour. Photographs and paintings of the area are a popular tourist item.
The Gatineau Hills are located in the city of Gatineau, in Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais Regional County Municipality, Quebec. Hike and photos of the Gatineau Hills #1 Ridgeline Trail. October 2007
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List