Sedgwick station (CTA)
Sedgwick is an L station on the CTAs Brown Line, Purple Line Express trains stop at the station during weekday rush hours. It is a station with two side platforms, located in Chicagos Old Town neighborhood of the Near North Side community area. The adjacent stations are Armitage, which is located one mile to the northwest. The station was put into service in 1900 as part of Northwestern Elevated Railroads initial route, in 1979, a portion of The Hunter starring Steve McQueen was shot at Sedgwick. During 2007, the station entrance was closed for extensive renovation. As the outside express tracks had not been in service since 1963 they were removed and island platforms widened, the platforms were extended to allow eight-car trains to berth, and elevators were added along with other upgrades to meet ADA requirements. The historical station house was restored, and an extension was added behind it, CTA N9 Ashland 37 Sedgwick 72 North Media related to Sedgwick at Wikimedia Commons Train schedule at CTA official site Sedgewick Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
Works Progress Administration
In a much smaller but more famous project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects. Almost every community in the United States had a new park, the WPAs initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. At its peak in 1938, it provided jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration. Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people, most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. The stated goal of building programs was to end the depression or, at least, alleviate its worst effects. Millions of people needed subsistence incomes, Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, and kept skills sharp.
The WPA was a program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments. Usually the local sponsor provided land and often trucks and supplies, WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs. It was liquidated on June 30,1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the shortage of World War II. The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years, on May 6,1935, FDR issued Executive Order 7034, establishing the Works Progress Administration. The WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA. The WPA was largely shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, which was responsible for projects including education programs, recreation programs. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division, the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics, known as the Division of Social Research, the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety, the goal of the WPA was to employ most of the unemployed people on relief until the economy recovered
Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in the newly founded United States between c.1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815. This style shares its name with its era, the Federal Period, the name Federal style is used in association with furniture design in the United States of the same time period. The style broadly corresponds to the classicism of Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Regency architecture in Britain, in the early American republic, the founding generation consciously chose to associate the nation with the ancient democracies of Greece and the republican values of Rome. Grecian aspirations informed the Greek Revival, lasting into the 1850s, American Federal architecture typically uses plain surfaces with attenuated detail, usually isolated in panels and friezes. It had a flatter, smoother façade and rarely used pilasters and it was most influenced by the interpretation of ancient Roman architecture, fashionable after the unearthing of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
The bald eagle was a symbol used in this style. 1800, men such as Charles Bulfinch, architect of the Massachusetts State House, the two brothers, Robert Adam and James Adam, were Scottish architects who never visited America, but through their books were leading influences. Young Modern reassessment of the American architecture of the Federal period began with Fiske Kimball, Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies, Adam style Federal furniture Lyre arm Craig, Lois A. The Federal Presence, Architecture and National Design
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by tronc, Inc. formerly Tribune Publishing. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, publishing its first edition on June 10,1847. The paper saw numerous changes in ownership and editorship over the eight years. Initially, the Tribune was not politically affiliated but tended to either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was frequently running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners, about this time it became a strong proponent of temperance. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the editor, and Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles. Each purchased one third of the Tribune, under their leadership the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings and became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Press & Tribune, on October 25,1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors pushed an abolitionist agenda and strongly supported Abraham Lincoln, the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics for the song John Browns Body by William W. Patton, Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. Joseph McCarthy, when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicagos eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, by 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald, in 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed war with Hearsts Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922.
The Tribune won the battle, adding 250,000 readers to its ranks, in 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower. The competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, and more than 260 entries were received, the winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood. The newspaper sponsored an attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929
Passenger car (rail)
A passenger car is a piece of railway rolling stock that is designed to carry passengers. The term passenger car can be associated with a car, dining, railway post office. Up until about the end of the 19th century, most passenger cars were constructed of wood, the first passenger trains did not travel very far, but they were able to haul many more passengers for a longer distance than any wagons pulled by horses. As railways were first constructed in England, so too were the first passenger cars, one of the early coach designs was the Stanhope. It featured a roof and small holes in the floor for drainage when it rained, the only problem with this design is that the passengers were expected to stand for their entire trip. The first passenger cars in the United States resembled stagecoaches and they were short, often less than 10 ft long and had two axles. British railways had a start on American railroads, with the first bed-carriage being built there as early as 1838 for use on the London and Birmingham Railway.
Britains early sleepers, when made up for sleeping, extended the foot of the bed into a section at the end of the carriage. The cars were too short to allow more than two or three beds to be positioned end to end. Britains Royal Mail commissioned and built the first Travelling Post Office cars in the late 1840s as well. These cars resembled coaches in their short wheelbase and exterior design, when not in use, the hook would swivel down against the side of the car to prevent it from catching obstacles. As locomotive technology progressed in the century, trains grew in length. Passenger cars, particularly in America, grew along with them, first getting longer with the addition of a second truck, early American sleeping cars were not compartmented, but by the end of the 19th century they were. The compartments in the sleepers were accessed from a side hall running the length of the cars. Many American passenger trains, particularly the long ones, included a car at the end of the train called an observation car.
Until about the 1930s, these had a platform at the rear. These evolved into the end car, usually with a rounded end which was still called an observation car. The interiors of observation cars varied, many had special chairs and tables
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States. As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War and he implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. His presidency has often criticized for tolerating corruption and for the severe economic depression in his second term. Grant graduated in 1843 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, after the war he married Julia Boggs Dent in 1848, their marriage producing four children. Grant initially retired from the Army in 1854 and he struggled financially in civilian life. When the Civil War began in 1861, he rejoined the U. S. Army, in 1862, Grant took control of Kentucky and most of Tennessee, and led Union forces to victory in the Battle of Shiloh, earning a reputation as an aggressive commander. He incorporated displaced African American slaves into the Union war effort, in July 1863, after a series of coordinated battles, Grant defeated Confederate armies and seized Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River and dividing the Confederacy in two.
After his victories in the Chattanooga Campaign, Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of bloody battles, trapping Lees army in their defense of Richmond. Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns in other theaters, as well, in April 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Historians have hailed Grants military genius, and his strategies are featured in history textbooks. After the Civil War, Grant led the armys supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states and he used the army to build the Republican Party in the South. After the disenfranchisement of some former Confederates, Republicans gained majorities, in his second term, the Republican coalitions in the South splintered and were defeated one by one as redeemers regained control using coercion and violence. In May 1875, Grant authorized his Secretary of Treasury Benjamin Bristow to shut down and his peace policy with the Indians initially reduced frontier violence, but is best known for the Great Sioux War of 1876.
Grant responded to charges of corruption in executive offices more than any other 19th Century president and he appointed the first Civil Service Commission and signed legislation ending the corrupt moiety system. In foreign policy, Grant sought to trade and influence while remaining at peace with the world. His administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims by the Treaty of Washington with Great Britain, Grant avoided war with Spain over the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic. His administration implemented a standard and sought to strengthen the dollar. Grant left office in 1877 and embarked on a two-year diplomatic world tour that captured the nations attention, in 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term
Red Line (CTA)
The Red Line, sometimes known as the Howard-Dan Ryan Line and the North-South Line, is a rapid transit line in Chicago, run by the Chicago Transit Authority as part of the Chicago L system. It is the busiest line on the L system, with an average of 251,813 passengers boarding each weekday in 2012. The route is 23.4 miles long with a total of 33 stations, from Howard station in Rogers Park on the side, through the State Street subway. Like the Blue Line, the Red Line runs 24 hours a day/365 days a year, a proposed extension adding four new stations would extend the Red Line south from 95th to 130th Street. The northern terminus of the Red Line is Howard Street in the Rogers Park neighborhood of Chicago, the Red Line extends southeasterly on an elevated embankment structure about a half-mile west of the lakefront to Touhy Avenue turns south along Glenwood Avenue to Morse station. From here, the transitions from concrete embankment to steel elevated structure. The L continues southward running adjacent the Graceland Cemetery, Irving Park Road, the Brown Line joins the Red Line tracks just north of Belmont Avenue.
South of Belmont, Red and Purple Line Express trains run side-by-side on the four track North Side L to Armitage, Red Line trains run on the two middle tracks, only making a stop at Fullerton and skipping Wellington and Armitage. Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago Cubs, is served by the Addison station. South of Roosevelt Road, there is a junction, with one pair of tracks curving to the east and leaving the subway at 13th Street and connects to the old South Side L at 18th and State Streets. This section was used from October 17,1943, until February 21,1993, the 13th street portal is now used for non-service train moves and emergency purposes. From the Red Line, passengers can transfer to any other Chicago L line. This is unique to it and the Purple Line, when the Purple Line runs its weekday rush hour route. At 13th Street, the subway swings away from State Street on a curve to the southwest rises to another portal at 16th Street adjacent Metras Rock Island District line. The Red Line leaves at 16th Street and continues southward on a structure to 24th Street.
There is a stop at Cermak–Chinatown on this portion, Chicago pioneered using expressway medians for local L train lines. The Red Line follows the Dan Ryan the rest of the way to the 95th Street terminal in Roseland, the 98th Yard lie just south and east of the Dan Ryan-Bishop Ford Expressway interchange. An extension to 130th Street is nearing its final planning stages and this extension includes three elevated stations at 103rd, 111th, and Michigan, plus an at-grade terminal station at 130th
Old Town, Chicago
Old Town is a neighborhood and historic district in North Side, Illinois, home to many of Chicagos older, Victorian-era buildings. Examples include St. Michaels Church, one of seven buildings to survive the Great Chicago Fire, in the 19th century, German immigrants moved to the meadows north of North avenue and began farming previous swampland, planting celery and cabbages. This gave the area the nickname The Cabbage Patch, the name stuck until around 1900. During World War II, the streets of North, Clark, in the years immediately after the war, The population of “North Town” sponsored annual art fairs called the “Old Town Holiday. In the 1950s, much of Old Town was an enclave to many of the first Puerto Ricans to emigrate to Chicago and they referred to this area as part of La Clark. There is no legal entity known as Old Town, although claims have made as to the nature of its unspecific borders. Old Town is where you make it and this neighborhood is supposed to be as much a sound as a place, and its from the bells of St.
Michaels Church. The story goes you only live in Old Town if you can hear them. it was said that all who lived within hearing distance of the churchs bells were Old Towners. The land known as Old Town originally served as a home and trade center to many Nations including Potawatomi, following the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, most of the indigenous people were forcibly removed, and the land was settled in the 1850s by German-Catholic immigrants. Clark Street is a leftover of the culture, it being an old road which followed a ridge along Lake Michigan. Old Town is home to many of Chicagos older, Victorian-era buildings, the neighborhood is home to St. Michaels Church, originally a Bavarian-built church, and one of 7 to survive the path of the Great Chicago Fire. Many of the streets and alleys, particularly in the Old Town Triangle section, predate the Great Chicago Fire, Old Town has one Brown-Purple Line L station at 1536-40 North Sedgwick Street. It is one of the oldest standing stations on the L, the first homophile organization in American history, the Society for Human Rights, was established by Henry Gerber at his home, the Henry Gerber House, on North Crilly Court in 1924.
The Henry Gerber House was designated a Chicago Landmark on June 6,2001, in June 2015 it was named a National Historic Landmark. In 1927, sculptors Sol Kogen and Edgar Miller purchased and subsequently rehabilitated a house on Burton Place, near Wells Street, through the 1930s, an art colony emerged in the neighborhood as artists moved from the Towertown neighborhood near Washington Square Park. The Young Lords a street gang with Jose Cha-Cha Jimenez had a branch of their group at Wieland and this dense storefront-laden area became the nexus of hippie culture, and gave rise to the boutiques in the neighborhood today. Seed Magazine was a staple of the neighborhood at the time. There is a piece of Chicago Real Estate, west of Lincoln Park, that is the pride of urban conservationists
The Chicago L is the rapid transit system serving the city of Chicago and some of its surrounding suburbs in the U. S. state of Illinois. It is operated by the Chicago Transit Authority, Chicagos L provides 24-hour service on some portions of its network, being one of only five rapid transit systems in the United States to do so. The oldest sections of the Chicago L started operations in 1892, making it the second oldest rapid transit system in the Americas, the L has been credited with fostering the growth of Chicagos dense city core that is one of the citys distinguishing features. The L consists of eight rapid transit lines laid out in a spoke–hub distribution paradigm focusing transit towards the Loop. Although the L gained its name because large parts of the system are elevated, portions of the network are in subway tunnels, at grade level, or open cut. In 2014, the L had an average of 752,734 passenger boardings each weekday,486,267 each Saturday, over the next year service was extended to 63rd Street and Stony Island Avenue, the Transportation Building of the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Jackson Park.
In 1893, trains running on the Lake Street Elevated Railroad and in 1895 on the Metropolitan West Side Elevated, which had lines to Douglas Park, Garfield Park, Humboldt Park. Two years the South Side L introduced multiple-unit control, in which the operator can control all the cars in a train. Electrification and MU control remain standard features of most of the rapid transit systems. A drawback of early L service was none of the lines entered the central business district. The Union Loop opened in 1897 and greatly increased the rapid transit systems convenience, insull instituted many improvements, including free transfers and through routing, although he did not formally combine the original firms into the Chicago Rapid Transit Company until 1924. The construction of the Subway created the necessity to tunnel under the Chicago River, the State Street Subway opened on October 17,1943, the Dearborn Subway, on which work had been suspended during World War II, opened on February 25,1951. The subways were constructed with a purpose of serving as bomb shelters.
The subways bypassed a number of curves and circuitous routings on the original elevated lines. In 1947, the Chicago Transit Authority acquired the assets of the Chicago Rapid Transit Company and the Chicago Surface Lines, operator of the citys streetcars. Over the next few years CTA modernized the L, replacing wooden cars with new ones and closing lightly used branch lines and stations. Later, after assuming control of the L, the CTA introduced a service known as the A/B skip-stop service. Under this service, trains were designated as either A or B trains, a trains would only stop at A or AB stations, and B trains would only stop at B or AB stations
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
Henry Ives Cobb
Henry Ives Cobb was an architect from the United States. Based in Chicago in the last decades of the 19th century, he was known for his designs in the Richardsonian Romanesque, Cobb was born in Brookline, Massachusetts to Albert Adams and Mary Russell Candler Cobb. Cobb moved to Washington, D. C. in 1897 to escape the Chicago grime, Cobb is responsible for The University of Chicago Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, WI, constructed from 1895 to 1897, with its Greco-Roman terra-cotta architectural detail. Henry Ives Cobbs grandmother, Augusta Adams Cobb, controversially abandoned her husband, Henry Cobb, and seven of her nine children in 1843, Cobb and wife Emma Martin Smith had 10 children, seven of whom survived into adulthood. The children were and author Henry Ives Cobb, Jr. Cleveland Cobb, Leonore Cobb, Candler Cobb, Elliot Cobb, Priscilla Cobb, Alice Cobb, Boughton Cobb, Russell Cobb, architecture of Chicago Cobb and Frost