Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England. It is its county town, it was important in Anglo-Saxon times. It is the seat of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester, with a 12th-century cathedral; the city is a hub of several main road routes, has a railway station, hospital and museums. The River Lavant runs through, beneath, the city; the area around Chichester is believed to have played significant part during the Roman invasion of AD 43, as confirmed by evidence of military storage structures in the area of the nearby Fishbourne Roman Palace. The city centre stands on the foundations of the Romano-British city of Noviomagus Reginorum, capital of the Civitas Reginorum; the Roman road of Stane Street, connecting the city with London, started at the east gate, while the Chichester to Silchester road started from the north gate. The plan of the city is inherited from the Romans: the North, South and West shopping streets radiate from the central market cross dating from medieval times.

The original Roman city wall was over 6 1⁄2 feet thick with a steep ditch. It survived for over one and a half thousand years but was replaced by a thinner Georgian wall; the city was home to some Roman baths, found down Tower Street when preparation for a new car park was underway. A museum, The Novium, preserving the baths was opened on 8 July 2012. An amphitheatre was built outside the city walls, close to the East Gate, in around 80 AD; the area is now a park, but the site of the amphitheatre is discernible as a gentle bank oval in shape. In January 2017, archaeologists using underground radar reported the discovery of the untouched ground floor of a Roman townhouse and outbuilding; the exceptional preservation is due to the fact the site, Priory Park, belonged to a monastery and has never been built upon since Roman times. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it was captured towards the close of the fifth century, by Ælle, renamed after his son, Cissa, it was the chief city of the Kingdom of Sussex.

The cathedral for the South Saxons was founded in 681 at Selsey. Chichester was one of the burhs established by Alfred the Great in 878–879, making use of the remaining Roman walls. According to the Burghal Hidage, a list written in the early 10th century, it was one of the biggest of Alfred's burhs, supported by 1500 hides, units of land required to supply one soldier each for the garrison in time of emergency; the system was supported by a communication network based on hilltop beacons to provide early warning. It has been suggested; when the Domesday Book was compiled, Cicestre consisted of 300 dwellings which held a population of 1,500 people. There was a mill named Kings Mill that would have been rented to local villeins. After the Battle of Hastings the township of Chichester was handed to Roger de Mongomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, for courageous efforts in the battle, but it was forfeited in 1104 by the 3rd Earl. Shortly after 1066 Chichester Castle was built by Roger de Mongomerie to consolidate Norman power.

In around 1143 the title Earl of Arundel became the dominant local landowner. In 1216, Chichester Castle, along with Reigate Castle, was captured by the French, but regained the following year, when the castle was ordered to be destroyed by the king. Between 1250 and 1262, the Rape of Chichester was created from the western half of Arundel rape, with the castle as its administrative centre. At Christmas 1642 during the First English Civil War the city was besieged and St Pancras church destroyed by gunfire. A military presence was established in the city in 1795 with the construction of a depot on land where the Hawkhurst Gang had been hanged, it was named the Roussillon Barracks in 1958. The military presence had ceased by 2014 and the site was being developed for housing. Chichester was a city and liberty, thereby self-governing. Although it has retained its city status, in 1888 it became a municipal borough, transferring some powers to West Sussex administrative county. In 1974 the municipal borough became part of the much larger Chichester District.

There is a city council but it only has the powers of a parish council. The City Council consists of twenty elected members serving four wards of the city – North, South and West. Chichester Council House on North Street dates from 1731. In addition to its own council offices, those of the Chichester District and the West Sussex County Council are located in the City; the current MP for the Chichester Constituency is Gillian Keegan. Chichester has an unusual franchise in its history. Chichester's residents had enjoyed political enfranchisement for 300 years before the 19th century Reform Bills expanded the right to vote for members of Parliament to include most ordinary citizens. However, when the mayor restricted the vote to Freemen in the election of 1660 for the Convention Parliament that organised the restoration of the monarchy, the House of Commons noted that "for One-and-twenty Parliaments, the Commonalty, as well as the Citizens, had had Voice in the electing of Members to serve in Parliament.

Libya–Spain relations

Libya–Spain relations are the bilateral and diplomatic relations between these two countries. Libya has an embassy in Madrid, Spain has one in Tripoli. Spain and Libya established diplomatic relations on 14 January 1961, during the reign of King Idris. During the 42 years of the Gaddafi regime, Hispanic–Libyan relations were influenced by Gaddafi's policy. After the years of the international embargo on Libya for Gaddafi's support for terrorism and its weapons of mass destruction program, in 2004 a timid normalization of Libya's relations with the international community began. In 2011 Spain was one of the first countries to position itself in favor of the 17 February revolution supporting it in the political and humanitarian assistance fields. In the political arena, Spain recognized in March 2011 the Transitional National Council, provisional government, a month moved a special envoy to Benghazi; the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Trinidad Jiménez, traveled to Benghazi in June 2011, when military conflict had not yet come to an end.

After the beginning of the political transition in Libya, Spain has sought to relaunch bilateral relations by showing its willingness to accompany Libya in the democratization process. With this objective, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation José Manuel García-Margallo, accompanied by the Minister of Development Ana Pastor, visited Tripoli on 16 and 17 December 2012 to convey a message of support from the Spanish government to the new Libyan authorities, to boost economic and business relations between the countries. Spain was the fifth European donor in humanitarian aid during the Libyan revolution of 2011, contributing more than 7 million euros; the process of political and social changes in Libya and other countries in the wake of the Arab Spring in January–February 2011 has led to a reformulation of the development cooperation policy in the region focusing on the accompaniment of the processes of democratic change. The Masar Program is a Spanish Cooperation program initiated in June 2012, whose purpose is to accompany democratic governance processes in the Arab World, contributing to the modernization and strengthening of institutions and of the key actors in the development of the rule of law, so that public authorities can respond to the needs of their societies, civil society can be one of the engines of change.

The strategic objective of Spanish cooperation in Libya is to contribute to strengthening the country's capacities in its process of reconstruction and political transition. In 2012, Spain financed a demining program of the MAG NGO and the electoral assistance program of the United Nations Mission in Libya. Within the framework of the Masar program, Libya's Deputy Minister of Justice of Libya, Sahar Banoon, traveled to Spain on 17 June 2013 together with a delegation from his ministry to learn about the Spanish prison system with a view to starting collaboration on prison reform in Libya; the promotion of exchanges at the institutional and civil society level between Spain and Libya is one of the main aspects of Spanish cooperation through study visits to Spanish institutions and participation in conferences and seminars organized by institutions such as Casa Árabe, Casa Mediterráneo, Club de Madrid. In the cultural field, the promotion of Spanish culture and language stands out, with the creation of a Spanish reading place at the University of Tripoli in the 2013–2014 academic year

Isabelle Kabatu

Isabelle Kabatu is a Belgian operatic soprano. She has appeared internationally, with a focus on the Italian repertoire such as Verdi's La traviata and Aida, Puccini's Manon Lescaut and Tosca, she appeared as Bess in Gershwin's Porgy and Bess beginning at the Houston Grand Opera and touring the world. In 2012, she appeared in the world premiere of Franck's youthful work Stradella. Born in Montignies-sur-Sambre, Kabatu studied voice and at the Royal Conservatories of Belgium in Mons and Ghent, she improved her skills with Jessye Norman. She was a laureate of the Queen Elisabeth Competition in May 1992. Kabatu was ranked 12th out of 12 finalists, two years in 1994, she won first prize in the Viotti Competition; that same year, she made her operatic debut in the title role of Verdi's La traviata in Lisbon. Kabatu furthered her studies at the Conservatory of Nice with Jean-Pierre Blivet in 1995. In 1996, she appeared in a production of the Houston Grand Opera as Bess in a production of Gershwin's Porgy and Bess that toured to La Scala in Milan, the Opéra Bastille in Paris, the Bunkamura of Tokyo.

At the Glimmerglass Festival in New York, she had a great success in the title role of Puccini's Madama Butterfly. Her roles include Verdi's Aida, Amelia in Un ballo in maschera and Leonora in La forza del destino, Puccini's Tosca and Manon Lescaut, Dolly in Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari's Sly, alongside José Carreras in the title role, in a production, recorded. In 1999, she married the director and painter Stefano Giuliani in Ixelles and in 2000 founded with him a lyrical workshop, "Da Tempesta Company", to help young artists musicians, scenographers and visual artists. Since its creation, this workshop has produced about ten operas with orchestra. Kabatu won the Prix des arts de la scène in 2003, she sang Aida in Rome in 2005 and there met the tenor Placido Domingo, with whom she collaborated. In 2008 she sang Chimène in the new production of Massenet's Le Cid at the Opernhaus Zürich alongside José Cura, supervised by Michel Plasson and Nicolas Joel, in 2009 she performed the role of Madame Lidoine in Poulenc's Dialogues des Carmélites at the Théâtre du Capitole de Toulouse.

In September 2012, she played the role of Leonor in the world premiere of Franck's Stradella at the Opéra Royal de Wallonie in Liège. Dolly in E. Wolf-Ferrari's Sly ovvero La leggenda del dormiente risvegliato, Koch International, 2001, alongside José Carreras Aïda, conductor Fabio Mastrangelo Stradella, by César Franck, conductor Paolo Arrivabeni, direction Jaco Van Dormael, DVD label: Dynamic Carmen, Festival of Avenche Vénus in Wagner's Tannhäuser conducted by Franz Welser-Möst, Zurich, 2004 Bess in Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, Sony Music Entertainment, 2009, conducted by Nikolaus Harnoncourt Literature by and about Isabelle Kabatu in the German National Library catalogue Isabelle Kabatu discography at Discogs Official website Isabelle Kabatu on Bases spectacle