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Chichester Cathedral

Chichester Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Chichester. It is located in Sussex, United Kingdom, it was founded as a cathedral in 1075. Chichester Cathedral has fine architecture in both the Norman and the Gothic styles, has been described by the architectural critic Ian Nairn as "the most typical English Cathedral". Despite this, Chichester has two architectural features that are unique among England's medieval cathedrals—a free-standing medieval bell tower and double aisles; the cathedral contains two rare medieval sculptures, many modern art works including tapestries, stained glass and sculpture, many of these commissioned by Walter Hussey. The city of Chichester, though it retains two main cross streets laid out by the Romans, has always been small enough for the city's entire population to fit inside the cathedral at once, causing Daniel Defoe to comment: I cannot say much of Chichester, in which, if six or seven good families were removed, there would not be much conversation, except what is to be found among the canons, the dignitaries of the cathedral.

The spire of Chichester Cathedral, rising above its green copper roof, can be seen for many miles across the flat meadows of West Sussex and is a landmark for sailors, Chichester being the only medieval English cathedral, visible from the sea. Chichester Cathedral was built to replace the cathedral founded in 681 by St Wilfrid for the South Saxons at Selsey; the seat of the bishop was transferred in 1075. It was consecrated in 1108 under bishop Ralph de Luffa. An early addition was the Chapel of Saint Pantaleon off the south transept begun just before an 1187 fire which burnt out the cathedral and destroyed much of the town; that fire necessitated a substantial rebuilding, which included refacing the nave and replacing the destroyed wooden ceiling with the present stone vault by Walter of Coventry. The cathedral was reconsecrated in 1199. In the 13th century, the central tower was completed, the Norman apsidal eastern end rebuilt with a Lady chapel and a row of chapels added on each side of the nave, forming double aisles such as are found on many French cathedrals.

The spire was completed about 1402 and a free-standing bell tower constructed to the north of the west end. In 1262, Richard de la Wyche, bishop from 1245 to 1253, was canonised as Saint Richard of Chichester, his shrine made the cathedral a place of pilgrimage. The shrine was ordered to be destroyed in 1538 during the first stages of the English Reformation. In 1642 the cathedral came under siege by Parliamentary troops; the towers at Chichester have had a unfortunate history because of subsidence, which explains the positioning of the 15th century bell tower at some distance from the cathedral. The south-west tower of the façade was rebuilt; the north-west tower collapsed in 1635 and was not rebuilt until 1901. The masonry spire was built in the 14th century and was repaired in the 17th century by Christopher Wren, it survived a lightning strike in 1721 and stood for 450 years before it telescoped in on itself on 21 February 1861, without loss of life. A fund was set up to raise the £48,000 needed for the rebuilding, the contributors included Queen Victoria.

A replica of the old tower and spire was rebuilt. The construction was raised by about 6 feet, by George Gilbert Scott and was completed in five years, it now rises to a height of 82 metres. The rubble from the original spire was used to construct the former West Ashling Congregational Chapel. For English cathedrals, Chichester has had a long and varied building history marked by a number of disasters; the architectural history of the building is revealed in its fabric because the builders of different periods constructed in different styles and with changing technology. Both inside and outside portions of the original Norman cathedral can be distinguished from the Gothic work by the massive construction and round-topped windows. Different Gothic styles from the late 12th century through to the 15th can be identified; the plan of Chichester is in the shape of a cross, with an aisled nave and choir, crossed by a transept. In English manner, the eastern end of the building is long by comparison with the nave, is square ended and has a projecting Lady chapel.

English is the arrangement of paired towers on the western front, a taller central tower over the crossing. Its plan is unusual for England in having double aisles. Chichester has a cloister on the south side of the building. Chichester is small for a Norman cathedral when compared to Winchester and Peterborough. Much of the original Norman construction remains in the nave, transept and adjacent bays of the choir; the elevation rises in the usual three stages of arcade and clerestory. It is similar to remaining Norman work at Winchester, where the arcade is proportionally low, rests on solid piers rather than columns. In the gallery above, each wide space is divided into two by a colonnettes in a manner typical of Romanesque architecture. After the fire of 1187, the clerestory was rebuilt and the entire building given a ribbed vault; the eastern end was extended from the round ambulatory to form a square retrochoir or presbytery with lancet windows in a style, transitional between Norman and Gothic.

The newer arcades and the clerestory maintain the round arches of the earlier Norman architecture. The vault is in the Early English Gothic style, supported externally by flying buttresses and large terminal pinnacles at the eastern end. At this time the entire interior was refurbished, much of it

Ansett-ANA Flight 149

On 22 September 1966 a Vickers Viscount departed from Mount Isa, Australia for a 73-minute flight to Longreach. Forty-four minutes after takeoff a fire started in one of the engines; the crew were unable to extinguish the fire or feather the propeller so made an emergency descent with the intention of landing at Winton, a small town along the route. The fire spread to the fuel tank and weakened the wing structure so that a large part of the left wing broke away and the aircraft crashed. All twenty-four occupants were killed; the accident remains the fifth-worst in Australia's civil aviation history. Ansett-ANA Flight 149, a Vickers Viscount registered VH-RMI, took off from Mount Isa at 12:08 pm Eastern Standard Time and climbed to an altitude of 17,500 feet for the flight of 316 nautical miles to Longreach. On board were two pilots, two air hostesses and twenty passengers. At 12:52 pm the Flight Service Unit at Longreach heard a radio transmission from the crew of Flight 149 saying they were making an emergency descent.

Two minutes the crew notified Longreach they had a fire warning for number 2 engine and had been unable to feather the propeller. At 12:59 pm Longreach received a message relayed by the crew of a Douglas DC-3 saying fire in the engine nacelle was visible to the crew of Flight 149 and they were diverting to land at Winton airport, 92 nautical miles from Longreach. At 1:03 pm when only 13.5 nautical miles from the airport VH-RMI crashed on Nadjayamba Station and was engulfed in flames. Clouds of black smoke were observed by several people on agricultural properties to the west of Winton. One was a station hand working on the tower of a windmill, he was aware of the noise of an aircraft in the distance. The noise stopped so he looked up and saw a cloud of black smoke in the sky. Two burning objects were falling from the smoke towards the ground; when one of the falling objects struck the ground he saw a bright flash followed by a rising column of black smoke. A number of people in Winton observed the cloud of black smoke in the air to the west of the town, followed by two columns of dense black smoke rising from ground level.

The main wreckage consisting of the forward fuselage, right wing, inner part of the left wing and number 2, 3 and 4 engines was badly burned. A short distance away were the tail and rear fuselage aft of the rear cabin door, both unburned and with little damage. Scattered about were bodies, passenger seats, pieces of cabin flooring, sections of fuselage structure, some with cabin windows and cabin lining; the bodies of eleven of the passengers were still strapped to their seats. The bodies of the two air hostesses and three other passengers were found free of their seats; the bodies of six passengers and the two pilots were incinerated in the main wreckage. The outer part of the left wing and number 1 engine were about 900 yards away from the main wreckage. On the morning after the crash a team of 22 members of the Department of Civil Aviation reached Winton to investigate the accident; the crash site on Nadjayamba Station was dry, with only a few trees. Investigation was difficult because most of the aircraft was destroyed in the impact and subsequent fire.

After two weeks of investigation at the crash site, most of the wreckage was catalogued and secured in crates. The crates were transported to Melbourne, where an empty wool store was hired for the purpose of laying out all items of wreckage in their original position in the aircraft; the aircraft was equipped with an early-model flight data recorder, so this was the first accident investigation in Australia to be aided by information from such a recorder. Housed in the forward belly locker, the recorder was damaged in the crash and subsequent fire, but it provided sufficient information to allow reconstruction of the aircraft's flight path until the moment of impact; the aircraft was not equipped with a cockpit voice recorder. The investigation determined that the rotors in the cabin pressurisation blower on number 2 engine began to break up, resulting in severe vibration that loosened the nuts securing the oil metering unit to the blower and allowed oil to escape freely; the rear bearing of one of the rotors came free, so the rotor gyrated, causing metal-to-metal contact and great heat.

The blower was located aft of the firewall, a fire started in the rear of the nacelle when the escaping oil was ignited by contact with the hot metal in the damaged blower. The fire burned the engine control rods. Burning oil flowed into the wheel bay and from there into the leading edge of the left wing, where the fire breached the wall of a fuel tank; the abundant supply of fuel caused the fire to spread throughout much of the left wing and become so intense it caused softening of aluminium alloy and loss of strength of the upper boom in the wing spar. The spar was critically weakened in the region between 2 engines. With the aircraft at a height between 3,500 feet and 4,000 feet the outer part of the left wing folded upwards and the remainder of the aircraft rolled to the left to meet it; the propeller of number 1 engine slashed the roof of the cabin before the detached part of the left wing separated from the remainder of the aircraft. With the roof slashed open, the airstream entered the fuselage and peeled away large segments of the cabin roof.

The fuselage disintegrated aft of the propeller slash. Passengers and passenger seats from the rear of the cabin were ejected into the airstream, some passing through the ball of fire created by fuel from the severed left wing; the tail and rear fuselage aft of the rear cabin door remained intact but broke away from the rest of the fuselage. The invest

Penelope Coelen

Penelope Anne Coelen is a South African actress and beauty queen, Miss World 1958. In 1958, the Miss World Pageant was still in its early years. A total of 22 contestants from Europe, the Americas and Africa competed in the finals. Europeans dominated the semi-finals with 9 out of 12 places secured by women from the host continent. Five of the 6 finalists were from Europe as well, but it was a striking young woman from the Union of South Africa who took home the coveted crown. Penelope Anne Coelen, or Penny to her friends and fans, was elected Miss World and was the first major international titleholder to come from Africa; the 18-year-old secretary from Durban enraptured the audience with her beauty. She gained widespread international attention during her reign and received several lucrative modelling offers. After her reign as Miss World 1958, she tried her luck out in Hollywood with the help of James Garner, but failed her screen test, she managed her own line of clothing and endorsed beauty products perfumes.

Coelen swore that she would never go through the terror of competing again, noting that it was "too nerve-wracking," yet that being a Miss World contestant and titleholder was "something I would not have liked to miss."She appeared as a contestant on the television game show To Tell the Truth on 25 November 1958. She returned to South Africa, married wealthy sugar cane farmer Michel Rey from the Natal Province and she remains today a prominent socialite in South Africa, she has five sons and five grandchildren from one son. "It's just wonderful. Just think - I was only Miss South Africa yesterday. Now I'm Miss World, and I feel on top of the world." Penny Coelen excited call back home after winning Miss World

King Crimson Live in Mainz

King Crimson Live in Mainz is a live album by the band King Crimson, released through the King Crimson Collectors' Club in March 2001. The album was recorded at Elzer Hof, Germany, March 30, 1974. Like other concerts from the European tour of early 1974, this show was recorded directly from the soundboard. Four tracks were improvisations; the liner notes were written by John Wetton in December 2000. "Improv: The Savage" – 2:12 "Doctor Diamond" – 5:48 "Improv: Arabica" – 2:29 "Exiles" – 7:01 "Improv: Atria" – 6:14 "The Night Watch" – 5:07 "Starless" – 12:27 "Lament" – 4:20 "Improv: Trio" – 4:36 "Easy Money" – 7:51 Robert Fripp - guitar, electric piano John Wetton - bass guitar, vocals David Cross - violin, electric piano Bill Bruford - drums, percussionProduced by David Singleton and Alex R. Mundy King Crimson Live in Mainz at Discogs

Lathyrus vestitus

Lathyrus vestitus is a species of wild pea known by the common name Pacific pea. It is native to western North America, where it is found in the forests and chaparral of California; the ranges of some subspecies extend into Baja California. This is a perennial pea vine. Leaves are made up of several leaflets of various shapes up to 5 centimeters long; the leaves bear coiling tendrils and the stipules may be large or small. The inflorescence is a showy array of up to 15 pea flowers, sometimes densely packed together, some shade of light to medium purple or white. Lathyrus vestitus is discussed as comprising several varieties; these are: L. vestitus var. alefeldii L. vestitus var. ochropetalus L. vestitus var. vestitus Calflora Database: Lathyrus vestitus Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Lathyrus vestitus USDA Plants Profile "Lathyrus vestitus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. UC CalPhotos gallery: Lathyrus vestitus

Chad Boat

Chad Boat is an American professional stock car racing driver and the son of Billy Boat. He competes part-time in Indy Lights for Belardi Auto Racing. Boat began his racing career in quarter midgets at the age of 5. At 7, he won the Arizona state quarter midget championship, the following year won the Light Modified and Light 160 midget championships. After competing in USAC competition, Boat moved to NASCAR in 2010, running in seven K&N Pro Series West events between 2010 and 2012, with a best finish of fourth in 2010 at Iowa Speedway. Boat competed in ten ARCA Racing Series events in 2012 and 2013, posting third-place finishes twice at Iowa. In January 2014, Boat announced that he would be competing for Rookie of the Year in the Nationwide Series in 2014, running 15 events for family-owned Billy Boat Motorsports. Boat finished 29th in points with a best finish of 22nd at Iowa Speedway. In 2015 he raced in both the Xfinity Series and Camping World Truck Series for Billy Boat Motorsports, he made 4 truck series starts.

He ran for the Truck Series championship and finished 38th in points with a best finish of ninth at Talladega Superspeedway, his best NASCAR finish to date. On June 27, 2017 it was announced that Boat would compete in the Indy Lights series with Belardi Auto Racing competing at the oval events at Iowa Speedway and Gateway Motorsports Park in the latter half of the 2017 season. Chad's father Billy competed in Indy Lights called the American Racing Series, in 1986 and 1987. Boat attended University of North Carolina at Charlotte. * Season still in progress1 Ineligible for series points Official website Chad Boat driver statistics at Racing-Reference