The chicken is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl. They are one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, with a total population of 23.7 billion as of 2018, up from more than 19 billion in 2011. There are more chickens in the world than domesticated fowl. Humans keep chickens as a source of food and, less as pets. Raised for cockfighting or for special ceremonies, chickens were not kept for food until the Hellenistic period. Genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From ancient India, the domesticated chicken spread to Lydia in western Asia Minor, to Greece by the 5th century BC. Fowl had been known in Egypt since the mid-15th century BC, with the "bird that gives birth every day" having come to Egypt from the land between Syria and Shinar, according to the annals of Thutmose III. In the UK and Ireland, adult male chickens over the age of one year are known as cocks, whereas in the United States, Canada and New Zealand, they are more called roosters.
Males less than a year old are cockerels. Castrated roosters are called capons. Females over a year old are known as hens, younger females as pullets, although in the egg-laying industry, a pullet becomes a hen when she begins to lay eggs, at 16 to 20 weeks of age. In Australia and New Zealand, there is a generic term chook to describe all both sexes; the young are called chicks. "Chicken" referred to young domestic fowl. The species as a whole was called domestic fowl, or just fowl; this use of "chicken" survives in the phrase "Hen and Chickens", sometimes used as a British public house or theatre name, to name groups of one large and many small rocks or islands in the sea. In the Deep South of the United States, chickens are referred to by the slang term yardbird. Chickens are omnivores. In the wild, they scratch at the soil to search for seeds and animals as large as lizards, small snakes, or young mice; the average chicken may live depending on the breed. The world's oldest known chicken was a hen which died of heart failure at the age of 16 years according to the Guinness World Records.
Roosters can be differentiated from hens by their striking plumage of long flowing tails and shiny, pointed feathers on their necks and backs, which are of brighter, bolder colours than those of females of the same breed. However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright chicken, the rooster has only pointed neck feathers, the same colour as the hen's; the identification can be made by looking at the comb, or from the development of spurs on the male's legs. Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb, or cockscomb, hanging flaps of skin either side under their beaks called wattles. Collectively and other fleshy protuberances on the head and throat are called caruncles. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, but in most breeds these are more prominent in males. A muff or beard is a mutation found in several chicken breeds which causes extra feathering under the chicken's face, giving the appearance of a beard. Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although lighter birds are capable of flying for short distances, such as over fences or into trees.
Chickens may fly to explore their surroundings, but do so only to flee perceived danger. Chickens live together in flocks, they have a communal approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing a "pecking order", with dominant individuals having priority for food access and nesting locations. Removing hens or roosters from a flock causes a temporary disruption to this social order until a new pecking order is established. Adding hens younger birds, to an existing flock can lead to fighting and injury; when a rooster finds food, he may call other chickens to eat first. He does this by clucking in a high pitch as well as dropping the food; this behaviour may be observed in mother hens to call their chicks and encourage them to eat. A rooster's crowing is a loud and sometimes shrill call and sends a territorial signal to other roosters. However, roosters may crow in response to sudden disturbances within their surroundings. Hens cluck loudly after laying an egg, to call their chicks.
Chickens give different warning calls when they sense a predator approaching from the air or on the ground. To initiate courting, some roosters may dance in a circle around or near a hen lowering the wing, closest to the hen; the dance triggers a response in the hen and when she responds to his "call", the rooster may mount the hen and proceed with the mating. More mating involves the following sequence: 1. Male approaching the hen. 2. Male pre-copulatory waltzing. 3. Male waltzing. 4. Female crouching or stepping aside or running away. 5. Male mounting. 6. Male treading with both feet on hen's back. 7. Male tail bending (following successful co
The 10th Regiment Alabama Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. The 10th Alabama was mustered in at Montgomery, Alabama on June 4, 1861; the regiment surrendered at Appomattox Court House. The 10th mustered 1,429 men during its existence, it suffered 300 killed in action or mortally wounded and 180 men who died of disease, for a total of 470 fatalities. An additional 249 men were transferred from the regiment. Colonel John Horace Forney Colonel John J. Woodward Colonel William Henry Forney Colonel William Thomas Smith Alabama Civil War Confederate Units Alabama in the American Civil War
General Mills, Inc. is an American multinational manufacturer and marketer of branded consumer foods sold through retail stores. It is headquartered in Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis; the company markets many well-known North American brands, including Gold Medal flour, Annie's Homegrown, Betty Crocker, Colombo, Totino's, Old El Paso, Häagen-Dazs, Trix, Cocoa Puffs, Lucky Charms. Its brand portfolio includes more than 89 other leading U. S. numerous category leaders around the world. The company can trace its history to the Minneapolis Milling Company, incorporated in 1856; the company was founded by Illinois Congressman Robert Smith, who leased power rights to mills operating along the west side of Saint Anthony Falls on the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Cadwallader C. Washburn acquired the company shortly after its founding and hired his brother William D. Washburn to assist in the company's development. In 1866 the Washburns got into the business themselves. At the time, the building was considered to be so large and output so vast that it could not sustain itself.
However, the company succeeded, in 1874 he built the bigger Washburn "A" Mill. In 1877, the mill entered a partnership with John Crosby to form the Washburn-Crosby Company, producing Winter Wheat Flour; that same year Washburn sent William Hood Dunwoody to England to open the market for spring wheat. Dunwoody became a silent partner. In 1878, the "A" mill was destroyed in a flour dust explosion along with five nearby buildings; the ensuing fire led to the death of 18 workers. Construction of a new mill began immediately. Not only was the new mill safer but it was able to produce a higher quality flour after the old grinding stones were replaced with automatic steel rollers, the first used. In 1880, Washburn-Crosby flour brands won gold and bronze medals at the Millers' International Exhibition in Cincinnati, causing them to launch the Gold Medal flour brand. In 1924, the company acquired a failing Twin Cities radio station, WLAG, renaming it WCCO. General Mills itself was created in June 1928 when Washburn-Crosby President James Ford Bell merged Washburn-Crosby and 28 other mills.
In 1928, General Mills acquired the Wichita Mill and Elevator Company of the industrialist Frank Kell of Wichita Falls, Texas. With the sale, Kell acquired cash plus stock in the corporation; the newly merged company paid a dividend in 1928, has continued the dividend uninterrupted since then–one of only a few companies to pay a dividend every year since then. Beginning in 1929, General Mills products contained box top coupons, known as Betty Crocker coupons, with varying point values, which were redeemable for discounts on a variety of housewares products featured in the distributed Betty Crocker catalog; the coupons and the catalog were discontinued by the company in 2006. A similar program, Box Tops for Education, in which coupon icons clipped off various General Mills products can be redeemed by schools for cash, started in 1996 and is still active. General Mills became the sponsor of the popular radio show The Lone Ranger in 1941; the show was brought to television, after 20 years, their sponsorship came to an end in 1961.
Beginning in 1959, General Mills sponsored the Rocky and His Friends television series known as The Bullwinkle Show. Until 1968, Rocky and Bullwinkle were featured in a variety of advertisements for General Mills. General Mills was a sponsor of the Saturday-morning cartoons from the Total TeleVision productions studio, including Tennessee Tuxedo; the company was a sponsor of the ABC western series The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, starring Hugh O'Brian. In 1946, General Mills established their Aeronautical Research Division with chief engineer Otto C. Winzen; this division developed high altitude balloons in conjunction with the United States Navy Office of Naval Research, such as the Skyhook balloon. The Aeronautical work of General Mills done around the time of the second World War is continued by the company Raven Industries in their Raven Aerostar department; the General Mills Electronics division developed the DSV Alvin submersible, notable for being used in investigating the wreck of Titanic among other deep-sea exploration missions.
The first venture General Mills took into the toy industry was in 1965. The company bought Rainbow Crafts, the manufacturer of Play-Doh. General Mills' purchase of the company was substantial because it brought production costs down and tripled the revenue. General Mills came out with their "Monster Cereals" in the 1970s; the cereals are now sold seasonally around Halloween. In 1970, General Mills acquired a five-unit restaurant company called Red Lobster and expanded it nationwide. Soon, a division of General Mills titled General Mills Restaurants developed to take charge of the Red Lobster chain. In 1980, General Mills acquired; the company converted the restaurants into other chain restaurants they were operating, such as Red Lobster. In 1982, General Mills Restaurants founded a new Italian-themed restaurant chain called Olive Garden. Another themed restaurant, China Coast, was added before the entire group was spun off to General Mills shareholders in 1995 as Darden Restaurants. During the same decade, General Mills ventured further, starting the General Mills Specialty Retail Group.
They acquired two clothing and apparel companies and Eddie Bauer. The acquisition was short-lived. Talbots was purchased by a Japanese company known as JUSCO, the Spiegel company purchased Bauer. Spiegel declared bankrupt