James Wolfe Murray
Lieutenant-General Sir James Wolfe Murray was a British Army officer who served in the Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War, Second Boer War and First World War. He became Chief of the Imperial General Staff three months after the start of the First World War, but was ineffectual and was replaced in September 1915 following the failure of the Dardanelles campaign. Murray was born the son of Elizabeth Charlotte Murray, he was educated at Trinity College, Harrow School and the Royal Military Academy, Murray was commissioned into the Royal Artillery on 12 September 1872. He was promoted to captain on 1 November 1881. After attending Staff College, Camberley he became Deputy Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General in Northern England January 1884, he went on to be Deputy Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster-General in the Intelligence Branch at Headquarters of the Army on 1 June 1884, Deputy Assistant-Quartermaster General in the Intelligence Branch on 31 August 1884 and Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General on 1 June 1887.
Promoted to major in January 1889 he was appointed a special service officer at Headquarters in April 1892 and Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General for Instruction at Aldershot on 10 January 1894. He saw action in the Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War in West Africa between November 1895 and February 1896 and was transferred to India where he became Assistant Adjutant-General on 25 January 1898, receiving promotion to lieutenant colonel on 31 March 1898, he was appointed Assistant Quartermaster General at Indian Headquarters on 25 March 1899. He served in the Second Boer War on the staff of the Commander, Lines of Communication in Natal with the local rank of colonel from 21 September 1899, of brigadier general from 9 October 1899 and of major general on 1 May 1900, he was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 19 April 1901 in recognition of his services during the war. In May 1901 he returned to India to command a brigade, received the temporary rank of brigadier general whilst so employed.
Promoted to the substantive rank of major-general on 1 January 1903, he was made Quartermaster-General in India on 2 May 1903 and Master-General of the Ordnance at Army Headquarters in London on 12 February 1904. At this time the Esher Committee chaired by Lord Esher was proposing far reaching changes to the structure of the British Army including the creation of a "blue ribbon" elite drawn from the General Staff to the exclusion of Administrative Staff: Murray opposed this aspect of the proposals. Appointed a deputy lieutenant of the County of Peebles on 25 February 1907, he became General Officer Commanding, 9th Division in India on 1 March 1907 and was promoted to lieutenant general on 1 April 1909. After serving as an army representative on a British delegation to Russia set up by Parliament in 1912, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief at Scottish Command on 9 December 1913 and Commander-in-Chief in South Africa on 18 May 1914. Following the sudden death of General Sir Charles Douglas in October 1914, Murray was appointed his replacement as Chief of the Imperial General Staff on 30 October 1914.
However Murray attended meetings of the War Council without making any real contribution, leaving strategy to Field Marshal Lord Kitchener as Secretary of State for War. For this lack of any personal conviction Winston Churchill gave Murray the nickname of "Sheep". General Sir Archibald Murray, Deputy CIGS from March 1915 wrote that “Wolfe-Murray, an able soldier and a courteous gentleman, knew little of general staff work, Kitchener daily bewitched him with his fantastic schemes and kaleidoscopic ill-judged orders”. Following the failure of the Dardanelles campaign, Murray was replaced by Sir Archibald Murray on 26 September 1915. After undertaking a special mission to Russia in Spring 1916, he was made General Officer Commanding of Eastern Command on 5 May 1916 and awarded the Russian Order of St. Anna on 16 May 1916, he was awarded the Russian Order of the White Eagle on 14 January 1918 and the Grand Cordon of the Japanese Order of the Sacred Treasure on 9 November 1918. He was colonel-commandant of the Royal Artillery from 9 April 1917 and wrote two handbooks on the Russian Army.
He died from a heart attack at his home at Cringletie in Peeblesshire on 17 October 1919. In 1875, he married Arabella Bray. Following the death of his first wife he married Fanny Macfarlane in 1913. Victor Bonham-Carter. Soldier True:the Life and Times of Field-Marshal Sir William Robertson. London: Frederick Muller Limited; the British Army in Great War
Chiefs of Staff Committee
The Chiefs of Staff Committee is composed of the most senior military personnel in the British Armed Forces who advise on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations. The committee consists of the Chief of the Defence Staff, the chairman and professional head of the forces, the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff, the vice-chairman and deputy professional head of the armed forces; the Committee consists of the professional heads of each branch of the armed forces: the First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff, the Chief of the General Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff. The Chiefs of Staff Committee was established as a sub-committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence in 1923, it remained as such until the abolition of the CID upon the outbreak of World War II in 1939. The initial composition of the committee was the professional heads of the three services, the First Sea Lord, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff; each service head took.
During the Second World War the committee was a sub-committee of the War Cabinet, in addition to the three service chiefs, it had an additional member, in the person of General Sir Hastings Ismay, who acted as its secretary. Subcommittees of the Committee were formed, including the Joint Planning Staff and Joint Intelligence Committee; the Chiefs of Staff committee was responsible for the overall conduct of the British Armed Forces part of the war effort. When matters required joint Anglo-American decision, the Chiefs of Staff Committee members formed part of the Combined Chiefs of Staff, meeting in concert with their American counterparts, the Joint Chiefs of Staff; the Combined Chiefs of Staff were based in Washington, so for most of the time the Chiefs of Staff were represented at meetings by the British Joint Staff Mission. Following World War II, the Chiefs of Staff Committee was transferred to the Ministry of Defence. In 1955 the Government decided to create the post of Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee.
The post came into existence on 1 January 1956 and the only incumbent was Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir William Dickson who served until 1 January 1959 when he became the first Chief of the Defence Staff. The CDS remained as chairman of the committee and was recognized as the professional head of the British Armed Forces. In 1964, the post of Chief of the Imperial General Staff was discontinued and the Army was thereafter represented by the Chief of the General Staff. Since the only major changes have been the appointment of the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff to act as a deputy to the CDS and the inclusion of the Commander, Joint Forces Command on the committee. A Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chiefs of Staff Committee was appointed on 1 November 2018 to provide advice to the Committee on the views of Other Ranks; the current membership of the Chiefs of Staff Committee: The role of the Committee is to provide advice on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations.
Defence Council of the United Kingdom Admiralty Board Army Board Air Force Board Ministry of Defence - Chiefs of Staff
Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke
Field Marshal Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, & Bar, was a senior officer of the British Army. He was Chief of the Imperial General Staff, the professional head of the British Army, during the Second World War, was promoted to field marshal in 1944; as chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, Brooke was the foremost military advisor to Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, had the role of co-ordinator of the British military efforts in the Allies' victory in 1945. After retiring from the army, he served as Lord High Constable of England during the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953, his war diaries attracted attention for their criticism of Churchill and for Brooke's forthright views on other leading figures of the war. Alan Brooke was born in 1883 at Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Hautes-Pyrénées, to a prominent Anglo-Irish family from West Ulster with a long military tradition, he was the seventh and youngest child of Sir Victor Brooke, 3rd Baronet, of Colebrooke Park, County Fermanagh, Ulster and the former Alice Bellingham, second daughter of Sir Alan Bellingham, 3rd Baronet, of Castle Bellingham in County Louth.
Brooke was educated in Pau, where he lived until the age of 16: he was bi-lingual in French and English. He was fluent in German, had learnt Urdu and Persian. After graduation from the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich Brooke was, on 24 December 1902, commissioned into the Royal Regiment of Artillery as a second lieutenant. During the First World War, he served with the Royal Artillery in France where he gained a reputation as an outstanding planner of operations. At the Battle of the Somme in 1916, he introduced the French "creeping barrage" system, thereby helping the protection of the advancing infantry from enemy machine gun fire. Brooke was with the Canadian Corps from early 1917 and planned the barrages for the Battle of Vimy Ridge. In 1918 he was appointed GSO1 as the senior artillery staff officer in the First Army. Brooke ended the conflict as a lieutenant colonel with Bar. Between the wars, he was a lecturer at the Staff College and the Imperial Defence College, where Brooke knew most of those who became leading British commanders of the Second World War.
From the mid-1930s Brooke held a number of important appointments: Inspector of Artillery, Director of Military Training and GOC of the Mobile Division. In 1938, on promotion to lieutenant-general he took command of the Anti-Aircraft Corps and built a strong relationship with Air Marshal Hugh Dowding, the AOC-in-C of Fighter Command, which laid a vital basis of co-operation between the two commands during the Battle of Britain. In July 1939 Brooke moved to command Southern Command. By the outbreak of the Second World War, Brooke was seen as one of the army's foremost generals. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, in September 1939, Brooke commanded II Corps in the British Expeditionary Force —which included in its subordinate formations the 3rd Infantry Division, commanded by the Major General Bernard Montgomery, as well as Major General Dudley Johnson's 4th Infantry Division; as corps commander, Brooke had a pessimistic view of the Allies' chances of countering a German offensive.
He was sceptical of the quality and determination of the French Army, of the Belgian Army. This scepticism appeared to be justified, he had little trust in Lord Gort, Commander-in-Chief of the BEF, whom Brooke thought took too much interest in details while being incapable of taking a broad strategic view. Gort, on the other hand, regarded Brooke as a pessimist who failed to spread confidence, was thinking of replacing him; when the German offensive began Brooke, aided by Neil Ritchie, his Brigadier General Staff, distinguished himself in the handling of the British forces in the retreat to Dunkirk. In late May 1940 II Corps held the major German attack on the Ypres-Comine Canal but found its left flank exposed by the capitulation of the Belgian army. Brooke swiftly ordered Montgomery's 3rd Division to switch from the Corps' right flank to cover the gap; this was accomplished in a complicated night-time manoeuvre. Pushing more troops north to counter the threat to the embarking troops at Dunkirk from German units advancing along the coast, II Corps retreated to their appointed places on the east or south-east of the shrinking perimeter of Dunkirk.
On 29 May Brooke was ordered by Gort to return to England, leaving the Corps in Montgomery's hands. According to Montgomery, Brooke was so overcome with emotion at having to leave his men in such a crisis that "he broke down and wept" as he handed over to Monty on the beaches of La Panne, he was told by Gort to proceed home.... for task of reforming new armies and so returned on a destroyer. On June 2nd set out for the War Office to find out what I was wanted for with a light heart and with no responsibility, was told by Dill that he was to Return to France to form a new BEF, he had realised that there was no hope of success for the Brittany plan to keep an allied redoubt in France. He told the Secretary for War that the mission had no military value and no hope of success although he could not comment on its political value. In his first conversation with Prime Minister Winston Churchill he insisted that all British forces should be withdrawn from France. Churchill obj
Nick Carter (British Army officer)
General Sir Nicholas Patrick Carter, is a Kenyan-born senior British Army officer. He served as commanding officer of 2nd Battalion, Royal Green Jackets in which role he was deployed to Bosnia in 1998 and Kosovo in 1999. After service in Afghanistan, he took command of 20th Armoured Brigade in 2004 and commanded British forces in Basra, he was subsequently appointed General Officer Commanding 6th Division, deployed to Afghanistan with Carter as Commander ISAF Regional Command South, before he became Director-General Land Warfare. After that he became Deputy Commander Land Forces in which role he was the main architect of the Army 2020 concept. After a tour as Deputy Commander, International Security Assistance Force, he assumed the position of Commander Land Forces in November 2013. In September 2014, he became head of the British Army as Chief of the General Staff succeeding General Sir Peter Wall. In June 2018 he succeeded Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach as Chief of the Defence Staff. Born in Nairobi, Colony of Kenya the son of Gerald and Elspeth Carter, Carter was educated at Winchester College and the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.
He was commissioned into the Royal Green Jackets as second lieutenant on 8 April 1978 holding a short service commission. Promoted to lieutenant on 8 April 1980, he switched to a full career commission in 1982, was promoted to captain on 8 October 1984; as a junior officer he served in Northern Ireland, Cyprus and Great Britain. Promoted to major on 30 September 1991, he attended Staff College, Camberley that year before becoming a company commander with 3rd Battalion, Royal Green Jackets in 1992, he became military assistant to the Chief of the General Staff in 1994 and, having been appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 1996 New Year Honours, he joined the directing staff at the Staff College that year. Carter was promoted lieutenant colonel on 30 June 1996. In 1998 he was appointed Commanding Officer of 2nd Battalion, Royal Green Jackets in which role he was deployed to Bosnia in 1998 and Kosovo in 1999. For his service in Bosnia, he was awarded the Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service on 7 May 1999.
In Kosovo, Carter commanded a group of peacekeepers on a bridge over the River Ibar at Kosovska Mitrovica where he was tasked with keeping apart thousands of Serbs and Albanians gathered on either side of the bridge. Carter described the role as being the "meat in the sandwich", he was advanced to Officer of the Order of the British Empire on 3 November 2000. Carter was promoted to colonel on 31 December 2000 and advanced to Commander of the Order of the British Empire on 29 April 2003, following service in the War in Afghanistan, he was promoted brigadier on 31 December 2003, in 2004 he was given command of 20th Armoured Brigade, commanding British forces in Basra, at one point stating that British forces could be in Iraq for "as long as a decade". On 7 September 2004 he was awarded a further Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service for his service in Iraq. Carter became Director of Army Resources and Plans at the Ministry of Defence in 2006 and was given the honorary appointment of Deputy Colonel of The Rifles on 1 February 2007 – a post he held until 1 November 2009.
Promoted to major general on 23 January 2009, became General Officer Commanding 6th Division, deployed to Afghanistan with Carter as Commander ISAF Regional Command South. In September 2009, referring to the efforts of UK and NATO forces, Carter said that "time was not on our side". After returning to the UK in November 2010, he gave an interview in which he warned that "the insurgency is resilient, alive and well". Carter became Director-General Land Warfare early in 2011 and, having been awarded the Distinguished Service Order in March 2011, he was promoted to lieutenant general and appointed Commander Field Army in November 2011, he was the main architect of the Army 2020 concept and reported on his recommendations in April 2012. He assumed the post of Deputy Commander, International Security Assistance Force, under the command of American general, John R. Allen, in September 2012 and, having handed over his command at ISAF in July 2013, he became Commander Land Forces in November 2013. Carter was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the 2014 New Year Honours.
On 21 February 2014 it was announced that Carter would assume the post of Chief of the General Staff. He took up his post and was promoted to full general on 5 September 2014; as of 2015, Carter was paid a salary of between £170,000 and £174,999 by the department, making him one of the 328 most paid people in the British public sector at that time. Carter was awarded the US Legion of Merit on 18 March 2016 for services in Afghanistan. On 1 February 2013, he succeeded Sir Nick Parker as Colonel-Commandant of The Rifles. In January 2018 Carter used a speech in London to enter publicly into the debate over defence spending. According to Carter failure to keep up with Russia will leave the UK exposed to unorthodox, hybrid warfare, he said that one of the biggest threats posed is from cyber-attacks that target both military and civilian life. Carter said: "Our ability to pre-empt or respond to threats will be eroded if we don't keep up with our adversaries."In June 2018 Carter succeeded Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach as Chief of the Defence Staff.
In August 2018 Carter said he would not allow British soldiers to be "chased" by people making "vexatious claims" about their conduct during the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Carter said serving and former service personnel should face action
John French, 1st Earl of Ypres
Field Marshal John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, known as Sir John French from 1901 to 1916, as The Viscount French between 1916 and 1922, was a senior British Army officer. Born in Kent to an Anglo-Irish family, he saw brief service as a midshipman in the Royal Navy, before becoming a cavalry officer, he distinguished himself on the Gordon Relief Expedition. French had a considerable reputation as a womaniser throughout his life and his career nearly ended when he was cited in the divorce of a brother officer whilst in India in the early 1890s. French became a national hero during the Second Boer War, he won the Battle of Elandslaagte near Ladysmith, escaping under fire on the last train as the siege began. He commanded the Cavalry Division, winning the Battle of Klip Drift during a march to relieve Kimberley, he conducted Counter-insurgency operations in Cape Colony. During the Edwardian Period he commanded I Corps at Aldershot served as Inspector-General of the Army, before becoming Chief of the Imperial General Staff in 1912.
During this time he helped to prepare the British Army for a possible European War, was one of those who insisted, in the so-called "cavalry controversy", that cavalry still be trained to charge with sabre and lance rather than only fighting dismounted with firearms. During the Curragh incident he had to resign as CIGS after promising Hubert Gough in writing that the Army would not be used to coerce Ulster Protestants into a Home Rule Ireland. French's most important role was as Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force for the first year and a half of the First World War, he had an immediate personality clash with the French General Charles Lanrezac. After the British suffered heavy casualties at the battles of Mons and Le Cateau, French wanted to withdraw the BEF from the Allied line to refit and only agreed to take part in the First Battle of the Marne after a private meeting with the Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, against whom he bore a grudge thereafter. In May 1915 he leaked information about shell shortages to the press in the hope of engineering Kitchener's removal.
By summer 1915 French's command was being criticised in London by Kitchener and other members of the government, by Haig and other senior generals in France. After the Battle of Loos, at which French's slow release of XI Corps from reserve was blamed for the failure to achieve a decisive breakthrough on the first day, H. H. Asquith, the British Prime Minister, demanded his resignation. Haig, French's trusted subordinate and who had saved him from bankruptcy by lending him a large sum of money in 1899, replaced him. French was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces for 1916–18; this period saw the country running short of manpower for the Army. Whilst the Third Battle of Ypres was in progress, French, as part of Lloyd George's manoeuvres to reduce the power of Haig and Robertson, submitted a paper, critical of Haig's command record and which recommended that there be no further major offensives until the American Expeditionary Force was present in strength, he became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1918, a position he held throughout much of the Irish War of Independence, in which his own sister was involved on the republican side.
During this time he published an inaccurate and much criticised volume of memoirs. French's family was related to the French/De Freyne family which had gone to Wexford in the fourteenth century and had substantial estates at Frenchpark, Roscommon. French always regarded himself as "Irish", although his branch of the family had lived in England since the eighteenth century, his father was Commander John Tracey William French, RN, of Ripple Vale in Kent, who had fought at Navarino and under Napier in support of Dom Pedro in the Portuguese Civil War. His mother was Margaret Eccles from Glasgow, after suffering a breakdown after her husband's death, was institutionalised after being diagnosed as insane, she died in 1867. He was educated at a Harrow preparatory school and Eastman's Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth before joining the Royal Navy in 1866, he joined the Royal Navy because it gave him a chance to leave home four or five years earlier than the Army. From August 1866 he trained on board the three-decker battleship HMS Britannia at Dartmouth.
He obtained only an "average" certificate, which required him to do a further six months training on board another ship—the frigate HMS Bristol at Sheerness from January 1868—before qualifying as a midshipman. In 1869, he served as a midshipman on HMS Warrior, commanded by Captain Boys, an old friend of French's father, she patrolled off Spain and Portugal. While in Lisbon, French was able to ride over Wellington's old battlefields. During his service, he witnessed the accidental sinking of HMS Captain, he resigned from the Royal Navy in November 1870, as he was discovered to be acrophobic and to suffer from seasickness. French joined the Suffolk Artillery Militia in November 1870, where he was expected to put in about two months a year with the regiment, he failed his exams for a regular commission, had to hire a new tutor, losing the fees he had paid in advance to the previous one. He was commissioned as a lieutenant in the 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars on 28 February 1874, a prestigious regiment whose officers drank claret for breakfast, but there is no evidence that he eve
Field Marshal Sir Archibald Armar Montgomery-Massingberd, known as Archibald Armar Montgomery until October 1926, was a senior British Army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1933 to 1936. He served in the Second Boer War and in the First World War, was the driving force behind the formation of a permanent "Mobile Division", the fore-runner of the 1st Armoured Division. Born the son of Hugh de Fellenberg Montgomery, a landowner and Ulster Unionist politician, of Mary Sophia Juliana May Montgomery the young Montgomery was educated at Charterhouse and at the Royal Military Academy and was commissioned a second lieutenant into the Royal Field Artillery on 4 November 1891, he was posted to a field battery in India in 1892 and became a lieutenant on 4 November 1894. He served with the Royal Field Artillery during the Second Boer War and took part in the Battle of Magersfontein and the Battle of Paardeberg. Having been promoted to captain on 8 March 1900, he was mentioned in despatches on 4 September 1901.
He stayed in South Africa throughout the war, which ended with the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902, returned home on the SS Saxon which arrived at Southampton in late October 1902. After the War Montgomery served as a battery captain at Bulford Camp before attending Staff College, Camberley from 1905 to 1906, he became a staff captain at the Inspectorate of Horse and Field Artillery in 1907 and a staff officer at Aldershot Command in 1908. Promoted to major on 5 June 1909, he was appointed a general staff officer at the Indian Army Staff College at Quetta in India on 9 February 1912. At the outbreak of the First World War in July 1914 Montgomery was appointed a general staff officer to the British Expeditionary Force in France, he was appointed Chief of Staff at IV Corps in France in October 1914. Promoted to lieutenant colonel on 16 May 1915, he became Chief of Staff of Fourth Army of the BEF in February 1916, a role which, according to Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, from the planning for the Battle of the Somme in 1916 he carried out with "great ability and success".
Promoted to the substantive rank of major general on 1 January 1917, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath for his services in the field on 1 January 1918. He was Deputy Commander of the Fourth Army in the final months of the War and played an important role in the success of the Battle of Amiens, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George for his services in connection with military operations in France and Flanders on 1 January 1919 and was awarded the American Distinguished Service Medal by the President of the United States on 12 July 1919. Montgomery was appointed Chief of Staff of the British Army of the Rhine following the War and Deputy Chief of the General Staff in India on 27 March 1920 before becoming General Officer Commanding 53rd Division on 3 March 1922, he became General Officer Commanding 1st Infantry Division at Aldershot on 4 June 1923 and, having been advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the New Year Honours 1925, he was promoted to lieutenant general on 16 March 1926.
Following a two-year break on half-pay, he became General Officer Commanding Southern Command on 17 June 1928. Promoted to general on 1 October 1930, he was appointed Adjutant-General to the Forces on 1 March 1931 and made Aide-de-Camp General to the King on 3 March 1931, he was appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff in February 1933. Among his main achievements at this time was the mechanising of the cavalry: indeed he was the driving force behind the formation of a permanent "Mobile Division". Despite this, according to Williamson and Millett, he was a great obstacle to innovation of mechanized forces and suppressed the analysis of the British Army's performance in the First World War initiated by his predecessor, Lord Milne. Advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in the King's Birthday Honours 1934, he was made a field marshal on 7 June 1935. Following the death of King George V he took part in the funeral procession in January 1936 and retired in March 1936, he was from Colonel Commandant of the Royal Regiment of Artillery from 19 November 1927, Colonel Commandant of the Royal Tank Corps from 7 December 1934, Colonel Commandant of the 20th Burma Rifles from 5 April 1935, Honorary Colonel of the 46th Anti-Aircraft Battalion, Royal Engineers, from 17 March 1937 and Colonel Commandant of the Royal Malta Artillery from 11 May 1937.
In retirement he became Deputy Lieutenant and Vice-Lieutenant of the County of Lincoln. During the Second World War the Air Ministry attempted to build an airfield at Great Steeping in Lincolnshire that would have extended into Sir Archibald's wife's traditional family estate, necessitating the demolition of the magnificent mansion of Gunby Hall, he appealed to King George VI and the Air Ministry relented, redrawing the plans that resulted in the resiting of the new RAF Spilsby two miles further south. During the Second World War he took charge of organizing and recruiting the Home Guard in Lincolnshire for nine months, his major passion in life was horsemanship. He was buried at St. Peter's Church in Gunby. In 1896 Archibald Montgomery married Diana Langton Massingberd, they had no children. In October 1926, his wife inherited Massingberd family estates, he changed his name by Royal Licence to add her name to his own. Thus, references to him as "Montgomery-Massingberd" during the First World War are anachronistic.
The journalist and genealogist Hugh Massingberd was a great-nephew of both the Field Marshal and, inde
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army