Robert Colin Stigwood was an Australian-born British-resident music entrepreneur, film producer and impresario, best known for managing Cream and the Bee Gees, theatrical productions like Hair and Jesus Christ Superstar, film productions including the successful Grease and Saturday Night Fever. Stigwood was born in 1934 in Port Pirie, South Australia, the son of Gwendolyn and Gordon Stigwood, an electrical engineer, he was educated at Sacred Heart College in Adelaide. He began his working life as a copywriter for a local advertising agency, before emigrating to England in 1955, it proved an eventful trip: in one incident, recounted by Simon Napier-Bell, Stigwood bravely climbed fifty feet down a rope ladder into the hold of a tanker to administer morphine to a seaman who had fallen through a hatch. In Turkey he spent several months living with the family of a young friend in a hut in a small village and working with them in the field. Stigwood found a job in an institution for "backward teenage boys" in East Anglia after his arrival in England.
He worked on nightshifts, overseeing the dormitories and "preventing any flow of traffic after lights out", but found it an "unsympathetic and frustrating job" and decided to leave. He worked for Hector Ross at the New Theatre Royal in Portsmouth, before Ross left and the theatre closed. Around this time he met the young Paul Jones who would front Manfred Mann, he met businessman Stephen Komlosy with whom he founded Robert Stigwood Associates Ltd, a small theatrical agency. Among its clients was actor and singer John Leyton, whose unexpected success as a recording artist made both Stigwood and his associate Joe Meek into Britain's first independent record producers. Before the advent of mavericks such as Stigwood and Meek, the British pop music industry was specialized. Managers managed artists' careers, agents only booked artists into venues, publishers only published music and sold songs to artists and recording companies, recording companies recorded, manufactured and promoted the products.
It was rare for a manager to be involved in publishing or agency work, it was unheard of for managers, agents or publishers to be involved directly in record production, as all of these activities by managers constituted conflicts of interest and breaches of ethics. This situation was typified in the late 1950s and early 1960s by the three dominant figures of British pop: publisher and manager Larry Parnes, composer Lionel Bart, the Chairman of EMI, Sir Joseph Lockwood. Parnes would discover new talent – as he did with Tommy Steele, Marty Wilde and Billy Fury – and sign them to a management contract. Lionel Bart, under contract to Parnes' publishing company, would write or co-write songs to be recorded and Parnes would'sell' the artist to Lockwood and EMI who would sign them to a recording contract, record and market the records; the brief partnership between Robert Stigwood Associates and Joe Meek is claimed to have changed the British recording industry to a great extent. Meek is credited as the first producer in the UK who had the knowledge to undertake every stage of the record production chain himself.
He usually offered a completed tape product to an established record company to manufacture and distribute. A poor business decision had meant that "Angela Jones" by Michael Cox, released on his own Triumph label, could not be manufactured in sufficient quantities to meet demand after Cox performed the song on a popular TV music show. While the record did make an appearance in the Top Ten, it proved that Meek needed the support of a major record company. John Leyton was taken on by Robert Stigwood. Leyton's first major booking was a role in the TV series Biggles, but better roles were difficult to find for him. Stigwood asked Leyton if he could sing, leading to a series of auditions with various recording companies. Simon Napier-Bell's account confirms that it was Meek who gave Stigwood the idea of making records independently getting the record company to distribute for them in return for a percentage of the selling price, it was, as Napier-Bell observes, "the music business equivalent of the independent film production that had changed the face of Hollywood".
Excited by the idea, Stigwood gave Meek £100 to make Leyton's first record, but when it was completed Meek was reluctant to hawk the tape to the record companies himself, so Stigwood took on the task. Meek's first single with John Leyton, a cover of Ray Peterson's U. S. hit "Tell Laura I Love Her", was recorded in late 1960. Intended for release on Meek's Triumph label, that label had by now folded and the recording was instead leased to the Top Rank label, owned by the Rank Organisation. Another British version by Ricky Valance though, was more successful. A follow-up single, ``. Although Leyton improved as a singer, his chances of a pop career looked slim, but Stigwood's perseverance paid off in mid-1961 when Leyton was cast in the role of pop star Johnny St. Cyr in a new nationally broadcast TV series, Harpers West One. Crucially, Stigwood was able to arrange for Leyton's character to perform a song on the show. Meek's associate, songwriter Geoff Goddard was hurriedly drafted in to write a song for Leyton to perform on the programme.
Morin-Heights is a town in the Laurentian Mountains region of Quebec, Canada. It is north of Lachute, it is a tourist town, having a large ski hill, popular during the winter months and being on a recreational trailway, used year-round. A dense network of hiking, cross country skiing and mountain biking trails surround Morin Heights, making it the closest multi-recreational outdoor hub to Montreal; the old train station, on Lac Écho road, is the starting point for most recreational activities, year-round. The Rivière à Simon offers enjoyable canoeing and kayaking all the way down to Christieville and beyond. Located just south of the town was a recording studio, called Le Studio, built in 1975, now closed; the facility was used by numerous Canadian and international artists, including The Tragically Hip, Nazareth, April Wine, Barenaked Ladies, The Police, The Rolling Stones, David Bowie, The Bee Gees, Cat Stevens, Lawrence Gowan, as well as by Québec artists Jean-Pierre Ferland, Richard Séguin, Lucien Francoeur and Garolou.
In 1994, another important music recording facility was built in Morin Heights, on the northern edge of town. Conceived and built by Swedish-born artist Lars Westvind, Studio Nomade hosted Sarah McLachlan's recording projects up to 2000, it became opened to other artists as well, is still a used production facility. The town hosts a theater company, as well as a choir; the first European settlers arrived from Ireland around 1850, followed by French Canadians from Lachute, Saint-Jérôme and Saint-Eustache. In 1852, the Morin Township was formed and in 1855, the Township Municipality of Morin-Partie-Sud was established in a part of the township; the township was named after its founder and 19th-century politician Augustin-Norbert Morin who had at that point a huge farm of more than 3 square kilometres on the banks of the Rivière du Nord, built around 1850-1860 and included a home, saw mill, flour mill. An alternate, less accepted origin for the name Morin concerns an engineer named Morin, dispatched by the provincial government to survey the region and had hired a Native American named Simon as guide, whose name was used to identify the river flowing through the township.
Until 1911, the territory had just the names of Bas-Morin or Morin Flats, name of the post office between 1875 and 1911, while the railway station was known as Morin Heights Station. In 1950, Morin-Partie-Sud changed its statutes and name to become the Municipality of Morin-Heights; the town gained notoriety in 1994 when members of the Order of the Solar Temple took part in a mass suicide, after setting fire to the ski chalet they occupied in the community. On March 12, 2008, a tragic roof collapse in the Gourmet du Village bakery warehouse killed three women. An excessive accumulation of snow was suspected to be the cause of the accident. A total of 40 people were in the building at the time of the collapse. Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 1841 Home language: English: 48% French: 51% other language] only: 1% Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates Anglophone public schools: Morin Heights Elementary School Laurentian Regional High School in LachuteMorin Heights Library serves the community.
List of municipalities in Quebec Morin Heights municipal/community Web Site Morin Heights Historical Association
Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying". Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and an tense vocal sound; the style occasionally uses improvisational additions and auxiliary sounds. Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul music genre had begun to splinter; some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul; the United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994. There are several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music; the key subgenres of soul include a rhythmic music influenced by gospel. Soul music has its roots in traditional African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues and as the hybridization of their respective religious and secular styles – in both lyrical content and instrumentation – that began in the 1950s.
The term "soul" had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States. According to musicologist Barry Hansen,Though this hybrid produced a clutch of hits in the R&B market in the early 1950s, only the most adventurous white fans felt its impact at the time. According to AllMusic, "oul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the'60s." The phrase "soul music" itself, referring to gospel-style music with secular lyrics, was first attested in 1961. The term "soul" in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American culture. Gospel groups in the 1940s and'50s used the term as part of their names; the jazz style that originated from gospel became known as soul jazz. As singers and arrangers began using techniques from both gospel and soul jazz in African-American popular music during the 1960s, soul music functioned as an umbrella term for the African-American popular music at the time.
Important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, Etta James. Ray Charles is cited as popularizing the soul music genre with his series of hits, starting with 1954's "I Got a Woman". Singer Bobby Womack said, "Ray was the genius, he turned the world onto soul music." Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style. Little Richard, who inspired Otis Redding, James Brown both were influential. Brown was nicknamed the "Godfather of Soul Music", Richard proclaimed himself as the "King of Rockin' and Rollin', Rhythm and Blues Soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, since he inspired artists in all three genres. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the lead singer of the gospel group The Soul Stirrers, before controversially moving into secular music, his recording of "You Send Me" in 1957 launched a successful pop music career.
Furthermore, his 1962 recording of "Bring It On Home To Me" has been described as "perhaps the first record to define the soul experience". Jackie Wilson, a contemporary of both Cooke and James Brown achieved crossover success with his 1957 hit "Reet Petite", he was influential for his dramatic delivery and performances. Writer Peter Guralnick is among those to identify Solomon Burke as a key figure in the emergence of soul music, Atlantic Records as the key record label. Burke's early 1960s songs, including "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Guralnick wrote: "Soul started, in a sense, with the 1961 success of Solomon Burke's "Just Out Of Reach". Ray Charles, of course, had enjoyed enormous success, as had James Brown and Sam Cooke — in a pop vein. E
"Boogie Child" is the third hit single from the Bee Gees' 1976 platinum album Children of the World, released in the US in early 1977. The song peaked at no. 12 on the Billboard Hot 100 as an A-side and was used as the B-side of the single "Children of the World" in the UK. It was the last song recorded by the Bee Gees for their album Children of the World. "Boogie Child" evolved from the unreleased "Boogie Summer". It was one of the two songs, alongside "Can't Keep a Good Man Down", the last new tracks recorded for the album. "Boogie Child" was released as a single at the start of 1977 with "Lovers" as the B-side. In the UK, RSO Records issued "Children of the World" as the third single from the album with "Boogie Child" as the B-side. In New Zealand, "Children of the World" was chosen as the B-side of this single. In December 1976, before the release of the single, the Bee Gees performed it at their concert at The Forum, Los Angeles which appears on their first concert album Here at Last... Bee Gees...
Live released in May 1977. The original audio of "Boogie Child" on that concert, which features uncredited background vocalists, was replaced by Barry's background vocals when it was mixed in April 1977 in France. Barry Gibb – lead and backing vocals, acoustic guitar Maurice Gibb – bass, backing vocals Robin Gibb – backing vocals Blue Weaver – synthesizer, piano Alan Kendall – electric guitar Dennis Bryon – drums Peter Graves – horn Whit Sidener – horn Kenny Faulk – horn Neil Bonsanti – horn Bill Purse – horn Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
You Should Be Dancing
"You Should Be Dancing" is a song by the Bee Gees, from the album Children of the World, released in 1976. It hit No. 1 for one week on the American Billboard Hot 100, No. 1 for seven weeks on the US Hot Dance Club Play chart, in September the same year, reached No. 5 on the UK Singles Chart. The song peaked at No. 4 on the Billboard Soul chart. It was this song, it was the only track from the group to top the dance chart. It is one of six songs performed by the Bee Gees included in the Saturday Night Fever movie soundtrack which came out a year later. "You Should Be Dancing" was recorded 19 January, 1 and 8 February, 6 May 1976 with Barry Gibb providing lead vocals in falsetto. Barry had developed his falsetto to an incredible degree in the ten months since the release of "Baby As You Turn Away" from the Main Course album on which he sang a full song in falsetto for the first time. Keyboardist Blue Weaver recalls that Maurice Gibb wrote the bass line and sang the horn parts to the brass players, while Barry sang parts for Weaver to play, while guitarist Alan Kendall got in a short guitar solo for its instrumental break.
Stephen Stills was at Criteria Studios recording the album, Long May You Run, with his band and Neil Young. Stills added percussion on the song's February sessions. Members of Stills's backing band, George Perry and Joe Lala worked with the Bee Gees on some songs; the song was their sixth No. 1 in Canada. It ended as the No. 31 song of the year. In the'70s some of the Bee Gees' songs were deemed too uptempo for AC/Easy Listening Radio which led to "You Should Be Dancing" only reaching No. 25 on that chart. It hit No. 4 in Ireland. In Australia, where the brothers spent a number of years in their youth, it managed only to nick the top 20. "You Should Be Dancing" is known today as the first chart-topper in which Barry Gibb uses his now-trademark falsetto in a lead vocal. Earlier songs, such as "Jive Talkin'", had Gibb use a melodic blue-eyed soul vocal style. Credits adapted from the album Saturday Night Fever: The Original Movie Sound Track. Barry Gibb – vocals, guitar Robin Gibb – vocals Maurice Gibb – vocals, bass guitar Dennis Bryon – drums Blue Weaver – keyboards Alan Kendall – guitar Joe Lala − percussion George Perry − percussion Stephen Stills – additional percussion In 1995, E. Sensual released a cover, titled "B.
G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing", which reached number three in Hungary and number four in Finland. Europe: CD maxi B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing France: CD maxi B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing B. G. Tips - You Should Be Dancing Blockster released a cover, titled "You Should Be...", which reached number three in the UK chart in January 1999. Blake Lewis, the runner-up on the sixth season of American Idol, performed the song on the show on 8 May 2007, his studio version was released on the American Idol official website and on American Idol Season 6: The Collector's Edition, a compilation of studio versions of songs performed by Idol finalists. In 2012, the song was featured in the Glee episode "Saturday Night Glee-ver"; the song was sung by Mike Chang and Brittany Pierce. The song was prominently featured in the 1977 movie Saturday Night Fever and appears on its soundtrack album.
Live performances of "You Should Be Dancing" during the 1979 Spirits Having Flown tour featured the Bee Gees' younger sibling, Andy Gibb, on backing vocals as a part-time Bee Gee. The Boston Celtics play this song when they are about to win a basketball game in a convincing manner accompanied by the ever-popular "Gino Time" video from the television show American Bandstand; the Tampa Bay Rays have started playing the song at home games between innings. The song was featured at the end of the film Despicable Me, in which a Minion uses the scratching technique on a DJ vinyl turntable system to replace ballet music with the song so everyone can dance; the song was featured in the end credits scene of the 2016 film The Angry Birds Movie instead of Demi Lovato's cover of "I Will Survive" for international screenings in English. It is mixed with the Three Birds' Slingshot score at the end, making the song extended. G minor for the song and G major for the score. In November 2010, the song featured in the Christmas advert for British retail store Marks & Spencer.
List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1976 List of number-one dance singles of 1976 List of number-one singles of 1976 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Rhino Entertainment Company is an American specialty record label and production company founded in 1978. It is the catalog division for Warner Music Group, its current CEO is Mark Pinkus. Founded in 1978, Rhino was a novelty and reissue label during the 1970s and 1980s, it released compilation albums of pop, rock & roll, rhythm & blues successes from the 1950s through the 1980s, as well as novelty-song LPs and retrospectives of famous comedy performers, including Richard Pryor, Stan Freberg, Tom Lehrer, Spike Jones. Rhino started as a record shop on Westwood Boulevard, Los Angeles, in 1973, run by Richard Foos, became a record distributor five years thanks to the effort of then-store manager Harold Bronson, their early releases were novelty records. The difficulties involved in getting airplay and distribution for such material caused Foos and Bronson to take the label in other directions. One of Rhino's early artists was The Twisters, whose Los Angeles popularity far exceeded their album sales.
Rhino's mail-order catalogs and early LP labels featured the company's mascot character, a cartoon Elvis Presley rhinoceros wearing a black leather jacket named "Rocky", designed by bootleg cover artist William Stout, cartoonist Scott Shaw!. Some of the label's earliest successes with reissues were achieved by acquiring the rights to the White Whale Records catalog that included the Turtles. By the mid-1980s, most of Rhino's releases were reissues of released recordings licensed from other companies. For superior sound quality, audio mastering of the original tapes was done under the direction of Bill Inglot, the label's creative packaging made Rhino one of the most respected reissue record labels, receiving rave reviews from music collectors and historians. Rhino was quick to get into the compact disc market, releasing dozens of oldies CDs at the dawn of the CD age in 1984, their retrospective compact disc releases, such as those in the Billboard Top Hits series, are remastered to restore or improve upon the releases' original analog audio quality.
In the late 1980s, Rhino transitioned into a complete entertainment company specializing in home video reissues of television programs such as The Monkees, The Lone Ranger, The Transformers, Mystery Science Theater 3000, Ed Sullivan's Rock'n' Roll Classics collection, as well as compact disc releases of select artists and movie soundtracks. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the company continued to sign artists and release new music, on the main Rhino label and on subsidiary labels such as RNA and Forward. However, the company's artists tended to generate more critical acclaim than public interest. One exception was the success of "At This Moment" by Billy Vera & the Beaters, a 1981 song that went to the top of the U. S. Billboard charts in late 1986 after being featured in an episode of the hit NBC TV series Family Ties. In 1985, Rhino signed a six-year distribution agreement with Capitol Records. During 1989 Rhino and Capitol’s parent EMI made a deal to jointly acquire Roulette Records; when the distribution deal with Capitol ended in 1992, Rhino signed a new distribution deal with Atlantic Records, in turn Time Warner bought a 50 per cent stake in the record company.
In 1998, Time Warner bought the other half of Rhino. The Rhino Records retail store, part of the 50% sale in 1992 but which reverted to Foos after Time Warner bought out the remainder, closed in 2005, it is through this merger that the label has reissued material from such artists as the Monkees, Eric Burdon, Dannii Minogue, the Ramones, the Grateful Dead, Lake & Palmer, the Beach Boys, the Doobie Brothers, the Cars, Tom Paxton, Third Eye Blind, the Doors, Spirit of the West and most the Bee Gees. Rhino's soundtrack releases include Gone with the Wind, The Wizard of Oz, Easter Parade, North by Northwest, King Kong, Doctor Zhivago and Finian's Rainbow; the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. film soundtrack libraries are managed by Warner Bros.' in-house label subsidiary, WaterTower Music. In 1999, Rhino started the'Rhino Handmade' division of limited-edition releases available from their website. All Handmade deluxe editions were limited to about 3,000 copies or less, once sold out were not re-pressed.
In 2003, co-founders and longtime executives Richard Foos and Harold Bronson left Rhino due to frustration with the challenges of an competitive market. In fact, Time Warner's final vesting of its 100 percent ownership of the label, its subsequent'reorganization' of label staff, which did not stop at the former owners, were the major factors in their exits. Soon after, Foos inaugurated a new label, Shout! Factory, which began releasing dozens of CDs and videos mirroring the original early-1990s Rhino philosophy. In 2004, Time Warner spun off its music divisions and today Rhino is part of the newly organized Warner Music Gr
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45