The peso is the currency of Chile. The current peso has circulated since 1975, with a previous version circulating between 1817 and 1960, its symbol is defined as a letter S with either one or two vertical bars superimposed prefixing the amount, $ or. Both of these symbols are used by many currencies, most notably the United States dollar, may be ambiguous without clarification, such as CLP$ or US$; the ISO 4217 code for the present peso is CLP. It is subdivided into 100 centavos, although there are no current centavo-denominated coins; the exchange rate was around CLP$720 to 1 United States dollar as of August 2019. The first Chilean peso was introduced at a value of 8 Spanish colonial reales; until 1851, the peso was subdivided with the escudo worth 2 pesos. In 1835, copper coins denominated in centavos were introduced, but it was not until 1851 that the real and escudo denominations ceased to be issued and further issues in centavos and décimos commenced. In 1851, the peso was set equal 5 French francs on the sild, 22.5 grams pure silver.
However, gold coins were issued to a different standard to that of France, with 1 peso = 1.37 grams gold. In 1885, a gold standard was adopted, pegging the peso to the British pound sterling at a rate of 13 1⁄3 pesos = 1 pound; this was reduced in 1926 to 40 pesos. From 1925, coins and banknotes were issued denominated in worth 10 pesos; the gold standard was suspended in 1932 and the peso's value fell further. The escudo replaced the peso on 1 January 1960 at a rate 1 escudo = 1000 pesos. Between 1817 and 1851, silver coins were issued in denominations of 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1 and 2 reales and 1 peso, with gold coins for 1, 2, 4 and 8 escudos. In 1835, copper 1⁄2 and 1 centavo coins were issued. A full decimal coinage was introduced between 1851 and 1853, consisting of copper 1⁄2 and 1 centavo, silver 1⁄2 and 1 décimo, 20 and 50 centavos, 1 peso, gold 5 and 10 pesos. In 1860, gold 1 peso coins were introduced, followed by cupronickel 1⁄2, 1 and 2 centavos between 1870 and 1871. Copper coins for these denominations were reintroduced between 1878 and 1883, with copper 2 1⁄2 centavos added in 1886.
A new gold coinage was introduced in 1895, reflecting the lower gold standard, with coins for 2, 5, 10 and 20 pesos. In 1896, the 1⁄2 and 1 décimo were replaced by 10 centavo coins. In 1907, a short-lived, silver 40 centavo coin was introduced following cessation of production of the 50 centavo coin. In 1919, the last of the copper coins were issued; the following year, cupronickel replaced silver in the 10 and 20 centavo coins. A final gold coinage was introduced in denominations of 20, 50 and 100 pesos. In 1927, silver 2 and 5 peso coins were issued. Cupronickel 1 peso coins were introduced in 1933. In 1942, copper 20 and 50 centavos and 1 peso coins were introduced; the last coins of the first peso were issued between 1954 and 1959. These were aluminum 5 and 10 pesos. Gold bullion coins with nominals in 100 pesos were minted between 1932 and 1980. In addition, there was a special issue of gold coins in 1968; the first Chilean paper money was issued between 1840 and 1844 by the treasury of the Province of Valdivia, in denominations of 4 and 8 reales.
In the 1870s, a number of private banks began issuing paper money, including the Banco Agrícola, the Banco de la Alianza, the Banco de Concepción, the Banco Consolidado de Chile, the Banco de A. Edwards y Cía. the Banco de Escobar, Ossa y Cía. the Banco Mobiliario, the Banco Nacional de Chile, the Banco del Pobre, the Banco Sud Americano, the Banco del Sur, the Banco de la Unión and the Banco de Valparaíso. Others followed in the 1890s. Denominations included 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 pesos. One bank, the Banco de A. Edwards y Cía. issued notes denominated in pound sterling. In 1881, the government issued paper money convertible into silver or gold, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 1000 pesos. 50 centavo notes were added in 1891 and 500 pesos in 1912. In 1898, provisional issues were made by the government, consisting of private bank notes overprinted with the words "Emisión Fiscal"; this marked the end of the production of private paper money. In 1925, the Banco Central de Chile began issuing notes.
The first, in denominations of 5, 10, 50, 100 and 1000 pesos, were overprints on government notes. In 1927, notes marked as "Billete Provisional" were issued in denominations of 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 pesos. Regular were introduced between 1931 and 1933, in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 pesos; the 1 - and 20-peso notes stopped production in 1947, respectively. The remaining denominations continued production until 1959, with a 50,000-peso note added in 1958; the escudo was the currency of Chile between 1975, divided into 100 centésimos. It replaced the old peso at a rate of 1 escudo = 1000 pesos and was itself replaced by a new peso, at a rate of 1 peso = 1000 escudos; the symbol Eº was used for the escudo. Chile issued gold escudos, worth 16 reales or 2 pesos until 1851. In 1960, aluminium 1 centésimo and aluminium-bronze 2, 5 and 10 centésimo coins were introduced, followed by aluminium 1⁄2 centésimo in 1962. In 1971, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of aluminium-bronze 10, 20 and 50 centésimos and cupro-nickel 1, 2 and 5 escudos.
This coinage was issued for two years, with aluminium 5 escudos produced in 1972. In 1974
Zagreb Film Festival is an annual film festival held since 2003 in Zagreb, Croatia. The festival focuses on promoting young and upcoming filmmakers and features several international programmes for their first or second films made; each festival edition features three international competition programs, one short film competition program for Croatian filmmakers. In addition, the festival hosts non-competitive screenings, such as selections of children's films or screenings of debut works made by established film directors. Since 2006 the festival's main award is called Golden Pram. From 2003 to 2005 the main award was called Golden Bib. Prizes are awarded in the following categories: The Zlatna kolica award is given in the following categories: Best Feature Film in the international selection Best Short Film in the international selection Best Documentary Film in the international selection Best Short Film by a Croatian author The VIP Audience Award for best film overall, as voted by audience Official website Zagreb Film Festival's channel on YouTube
Jana Schimke is a German politician who represents the Christian Democratic Union in the Bundestag, the German federal parliament. A political scientist, Schimke worked as an intern in the Bundestag from 2002 to 2006, she worked for the Confederation of German Employers' Associations from 2008 until 2013. At the general election in September 2013, Schimke unexpectedly gained the constituency of Dahme-Spreewald – Teltow-Fläming III – Oberspreewald-Lausitz I from the Social Democratic Party, she has since been serving on the Committee on Labor and Social Affairs, where she is her parliamentary group's rapporteur on temporary employment and the situation in the East German states. In addition to her committee assignments, she is the chairwoman of the German-Spanish Parliamentary Friendship Group. Within the CDU/CSU, she is a member of its pro-business wing. Since 2015, Schimke has been serving as deputy chairwoman of the CDU in Brandenburg, under the leadership of chairman Ingo Senftleben. In 2019, she was appointed by the Federal Ministry of the Interior and Community to serve on the committee that oversaw the preparations for the 30th anniversary of German reunification.
Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Telecommunications and Railway, Alternate Member of the Advisory Board Michels Kliniken, Member of the Advisory Board German Red Cross, Brandenburg Chapter, Member of the Presidium McDonald’s Kinderhilfe Stiftung, Member of the Board of Trustees Schimke was one of only five CDU parliamentarians who voted against the government’s draft law on introducing a national minimum wage for the first time in Germany’s history in July 2014. In June 2017, she voted against Germany’s introduction of same-sex marriage. Ahead of the Christian Democrats’ leadership election in 2018, Schimke publicly endorsed Friedrich Merz to succeed Angela Merkel as the party’s chair. Following her election, Schimke was named "Miss Bundestag" in poll conducted by BILD newspaper in 2013. At the time of her election, Schimke was living with her partner in Nuthetal. Homepage of Jana Schimke