Chinese Filipinos are Filipinos of Chinese descent born and raised in the Philippines. Chinese Filipinos are one of the largest overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. There are 1.35 million Filipinos with Chinese ancestry, or around 1.3% of the population. In addition, Sangleys—Filipinos with at least some Chinese ancestry—comprise a substantial proportion of the Philippine population, although the actual figures are not known. Chinese Filpinos are well represented in all levels of Filipino society. Many Chinese Filipinos play an important role in the Philippine business sector; the term "Chinese Filipino" may not be hyphenated. The website of the organization Kaisa para sa Kaunlaran omits the hyphen, adding that Chinese Filipino is the noun where "Chinese" is an adjective to the noun "Filipino." The Chicago Manual of Style and the APA, among others recommend dropping the hyphen. When used as an adjective, "Chinese Filipino" may remain unchanged. There are various universally accepted terms used in the Philippines to refer to Chinese Filipinos: Chinese —often refers to all Chinese people in the Philippines regardless of nationality or place of birth.
Chinese Filipino, Filipino Chinese, or Philippine Chinese —refers to Chinese people with Philippine nationality, to Chinese peoples with Chinese nationality but were born in the Philippines. This includes Filipino Chinese who live and/or are born in the UK and are referred to us "britsinoy". Lan-nang, Lán-lâng, Bân-lâm: Hokkienese —a Hokkien term referring to Chinese Filipinos whose ancestry is from Fujian province. Keńg-tang-lâng: Cantonese —a Hokkien term referring to Chinese Filipinos whose ancestry is from Guangdong province. Chinese mestizo -- indigenous Filipino ancestry. A common phenomenon in the Philippines. Mainland Chinese, Mainlander —refers to Chinese people with Chinese nationality and were born in China. Taiwanese -- were born in Taiwan. Tornatras or Torna atras—refers to people who are of varying mixtures of Chinese and indigenous Filipino during the Spanish Colonial Period. Other terms being used with reference to China include: 華人 – Hoâ-jîn or Huárén—a generic term for referring to Chinese people, without implication as to nationality 華僑 – Hoâ-kiâo or Huáqiáo—Overseas Chinese China-born Chinese who have emigrated elsewhere 華裔 – Hoâ-è or Huáyì—People of Chinese ancestry who were born in, residents of and citizens of another countryDuring the Spanish Colonial Period, the term Sangley was used to refer to people of unmixed Chinese ancestry while the term Mestizo de Sangley was used to classify persons of mixed Chinese and indigenous Filipino ancestry.
During the Spanish Colonial Period, the term Indio was used. The Chinese Filipinos has always been one of the largest ethnic groups in the country with Chinese immigrants comprising the largest group of immigrant settlers in the Philippines, they are one of the three major ethnic groupings in the Philippines, namely: Christian Filipinos, Muslim Filipinos and Chinese Filipinos. Today, most Chinese Filipinos are locally born; the rate of intermarriage between Chinese settlers and indigenous Filipinos is among the highest in Southeast Asia, exceeded only by Thailand. However, intermarriages occurred during the Spanish colonial period because Chinese immigrants to the Philippines up to the 19th century were predominantly male, it was only in the 20th century that Chinese children came in comparable numbers. Today, Chinese Filipino male and female populations are equal in numbers; these Chinese mestizos, products of intermarriages during the Spanish colonial period often opted to marry other Chinese or Chinese mestizos.
Chinese mestizos is a term referring to people with one Chinese parent. By this definition, the ethnically Chinese Filipinos comprise 1.8% of the population. This figure however does not include the Chinese mestizos who since Spanish times have formed a part of the middle class in Philippine society nor does it include Chinese immigrants from the People's Republic of China since 1949. Ethnic Chinese sailed around the Philippine Islands from the 9th century onward and interacted with the local Austronesian people. Chinese and Austronesian interactions commenced as bartering and items; this is evidenced by a collection of Chinese artifacts found throughout Philippine waters, dating back to the 10th century. Chinese in Precolonial/Early Spanish Philippines, c. 1590 via Boxer Codex When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines, there was a significant population of migrants from China all of whom were male due to the relationship between the barangays of the island of Luzon, the Ming dynasty. The Chin
The following lists events that happened during 1848 in Australia. Governors of the Australian colonies: Governor of New South Wales – Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy Governor of South Australia – Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Holt Robe Sir Henry Fox Young Governor of Tasmania – Sir William Denison Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony – Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick Irwin. Letters Patent of Queen Victoria declaring Melbourne a city are read on the steps of St Peters, Eastern Hill church. 13 February – The first non-British ship carrying immigrants to arrive in Victoria was from Germany. Many of those on board were political refugees and known as Forty-Eighters. 3 April – Explorer Ludwig Leichhardt was last seen on the Darling Downs. On that date he wrote a letter from Cogoon. Leichhardt had set off for Swan River. 11 March – The Savings Bank of South Australia opens with a single employee, trading from a room provided rent-free. 29 August – The Cape Otway lighthouse in Victoria is lit for the first time.
17 February – Louisa Lawson, writer and suffragette 24 February – Andrew Inglis Clark, Tasmanian politician John Langdon Bonython George Chaffey John Winthrop Hackett John Heaton Edward Hutton Alexander Leeper Alexander Macleay Walter Madden John Mather William Shiels Edward Stirling John Cadman Frederick Garling Maurice Charles O'Connell William Sorell
The Casio FX-850P is a scientific calculator introduced in 1987 and sold until 1992. 2 lines with 32 5×7 characters LCD 8 KB RAM CPU: VLSI at 1.228 MHz. Hitachi HD62002A01 Integrated speaker Internal slot for memory expansion Connector with support for RS232 and Centronics LCD Driver: 2 x HD66100F 2x 3V CR2032 lithium batteries as main power supply 1x 3V CR1220 lithium battery as memory backup User's manual at http://www.usersmanualguide.com/casio/calculators/fx-850p The calculator had a BASIC interpreter, MEMO function, a formula library. The built-in 8 kB memory could be expanded using the optional Casio RP-8 or RP-33 RAM expansion modules. An optional Casio FA-6 interface board provided a cassette tape recorder connector, a Centronics printer connector and an RS-232C port; the calculator could print listings on any Centronics printer. Casio released the FX-880P, which had 32 kB built-in memory. With a RP-33 expansion module, this model could be upgraded to a total of 64 kB; the memory layout is: 0000-00FF Screen memory 0100-01FF Reserved for internal functions 0200-02FF INPUT Buffer 0300-03FF CALCJMP, VALF Buffer 0400-04FF Reserved for IN/OUT/CALC modes 0500-074A Reserved for internal functions 074B-0752 Reserved for storing the user PASSWORD 0753-175A Reserved for internal functions 175B-175C Vector pointing to MEMO memory start 175D-1FE4 Reserved for internal functions 1FE5-1FFF Vectors pointing to P0-P9 memory start 2000-9FFF User memory ) A000-BFFF Repetition of 0000-1FFF C000-DFFF Repetition of 0000-1FFF E000-FFFF Repetition of 0000-1FFFMemory area A000-FFFF was either available as user memory, or would repeat the contents of 0000-1FFF A few glitches are: POKE 1867,0 → would delete any user PASSWORD POKE PEEK+256*PEEK,32 → would recover contents of MEMO after a RESET ALL POKE PEEK+256*PEEK,26 → would hide contents of MEMO, much like a RESET ALL would do, but without losing the programsThe internal function library was programmed in BASIC itself and could be extracted with a BASIC decompiler.
Any function in the library can be executed from a regular BASIC program by using GOTO "LIB0:NNNN" where NNNN is the function number. The command GOTO "LIB0:0400" executes a self-test program. Characters 252 to 255 were user defined, they could be defined by issuing the command DEF CHR$="HHHHHHHHHH" where n ranges from 252 to 255 and the H's are 10 hexadecimal digits. Every byte defines the pixel pattern for a column. Since a column is 7 pixels high, the least significant bit of every byte is ignored; the CHR$ would activate a different character set for Kanji characters. CHR$ would deactivate Kanji. Via a serial cable the calculator could connect to a PC or to another Casio FX-850P, allowing the transfer to MEMO and stored programs. Casio calculator character sets Casio FX-850P on MyCalcDB Database of 1970s and 1980s pocket calculators
St. Luke's Hospital may refer to: St Lukes Private Hospital, Tasmania St Luke's Private Hospital, Potts Point, New South Wales Hôpital Saint-Luc, Quebec Shanghai Chest Hospital St. Luke's Hospital St. Luke's Hospital, a hospital in Greece St. Luke's Hospital, Clonmel St. Luke's General Hospital, Kilkenny St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin St. Luke's International Hospital St. Luke's Hospital, Malta St. Luke's Medical Center St. Luke's Medical Center - Global City St. Luke's Medical Center - Quezon City St Luke's Hospital, Singapore St. Luke's Hospital, Bradford St Luke's Hospital, Huddersfield St Luke's Hospital for the Clergy, London St Luke's Hospital for Lunatics, open from 1751 to 1916 St Luke's Hospital, Middlesbrough St. Luke’s Hospital, Guildford Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, part of the Aurora Health Care hospital system, Wisconsin Avera St. Luke's Hospital, South Dakota Faxton St. Luke's Healthcare, New York St. Luke's Hospital Old St. Luke's Hospital, a former hospital building in Jacksonville, listed on the National Register of Historic Places St. Luke's Hospital, now known as St. Vincent's Medical Center Southside St. Luke's Boise Medical Center, Idaho St. Luke's Hospital, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Illinois St. Luke's Hospital St. Luke's Hospital, listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Iowa St. Luke's Regional Medical Center St. Luke's Hospital, Massachusetts St. Luke's Hospital St. Luke's Hospital, a hospital in Minnesota St. Luke's Hospital, a hospital in St. Louis Saint Luke's Hospital St. Luke's–Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York City St. Luke's Cornwall Hospital, a hospital in Newburgh and Cornwall, New York St. Luke's Hospital, part of the Atrium Health hospital system St. Luke's Hospital, listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Ohio St. Luke's Hospital St. Luke's University Health Network, including St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Tempe St. Luke's Hospital, Arizona.
2,2-Diethoxytetrahydrofuran is a cyclic orthoester which can be reacted with diols to biodegradable polyorthoesters. The synthesis of 2,2-diethoxytetrahydrofuran via γ-butyrolactone and the Meerwein salt in diethyl ether was first described by Hans Meerwein and co-workers. In the reaction the electrophilic ethyl cation attackes the carbonyl oxygen and forms the stable but extraordinarily hygroscopic O-ethyl-γ-butyrolactonium tetrafluoroborate; the compound dissolves in dichloromethane, chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane but is insoluble in diethyl ether and tetrachloromethane. The onium salt reacts quantitatively with an ethanolate anion from sodium ethoxide in ethanol forming 2,2-diethoxytetrahydrofuran. 2,2-Diethoxytetrahydrofuran can be produced in a solvent-free one-pot reaction using γ-butyrolactone, orthoformic triethyl ester and gaseous boron trifluoride. This route avoids its side-products and sensible intermediates. First diethoxymethylium tetrafluoroborate is formed from the triethyl orthoformate and boron trifluoride at -30 °C.
This electrophilically attacks the carbonyl group of the γ-butyrolactone and the O-ethyl-γ-butyrolactonium tetrafluoroborate. The addition of sodium ethoxide leads to the final product, obtained after distillation in 69% overall yield; the reaction proceeds under gentle conditions and the quantitative addition of ethanolate to O-ethyl-γ-butyrolactonium tetrafluoroborate can be catalyzed by bases such as ammonia and triethylamine. 2,2-Diethoxytetrahydrofuran is a clear liquid which boils at 10 mm Hg vacuum at 60 - 61.5 °C according to the original literature. The cyclic orthoester 2,2-diethoxytetrahydrofuran is a reactive bifunctional monomer which forms biodegradable polyorthoesters of the type POE-I by transesterification with α, ω-diols. Polyorthoesters are used as embedding media for pharmaceuticals in depot drug dosage forms for controlled drug release by surface erosion under physiological conditions
In computer networking, source routing called path addressing, allows a sender of a packet to or specify the route the packet takes through the network. In contrast, in conventional routing, routers in the network determine the path incrementally based on the packet's destination. Another routing alternative, label switching, is used in connection-oriented networks such as X.25, Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode and Multiprotocol Label Switching. Source routing allows easier troubleshooting, improved traceroute, enables a node to discover all the possible routes to a host, it does not allow a source to directly manage network performance by forcing packets to travel over one path to prevent congestion on another. Many high-performance interconnects including Myrinet, Quadrics, IEEE 1355, SpaceWire support source routing. In the Internet Protocol, two header options are available which are used: "strict source and record route" and "loose source and record route"; because of security concerns, packets marked LSRR are blocked on the Internet.
If not blocked, LSRR can allow an attacker to spoof an address but still receive response packets by forcing return traffic for spoofed packets to return through the attacker's device. In IPv6, two forms of source routing have been developed; the first approach was the Type 0 Routing header. This routing header was designed to support the same use cases as the IPv4 header options. There were several significant attacks against this routing header and its utilisation was deprecated. A more secure form of source routing is being developed within the IETF to support the IPv6 version of Segment Routing. Software-defined networking can be enhanced when source routing is used in the forwarding plane. Studies have shown significant improvements in convergence times as a result of the reduced state that must be distributed by the controller into the network; when using source routing with Myrinet, the sender of the packet prepends the complete route, one byte for every crossbar, to each packet header.
Each crossbar examines the first routing byte of the packet. When using source routing, that byte indicates a particular port of that crossbar; each packet traveling through a SpaceWire network can use path addressing or logical addressing or some combination. The router examines the first data character of the packet. Bang path Dynamic Source Routing Policy-based routing can be used to route packets using their source addresses. Scalable Source Routing "Source Routing". IBM Internet Security Systems. Archived from the original on February 24, 2008. Source Routing Not Considered Harmful