Buddhist cuisine is an East Asian cuisine, followed by monks and many believers from areas influenced by Chinese Buddhism. It is vegetarian or vegan, it is based on the Dharmic concept of ahimsa. Vegetarianism is common in other Dharmic faiths such as Hinduism and Sikhism, as well as East Asian religions like Taoism. While monks and a minority of believers are vegetarian year-round, many believers follow the Buddhist vegetarian diet for celebrations. Vegetarian cuisine is known as sùshí, chúnsù, zhāicài in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Taiwan; the dishes that comprise Buddhist cuisine in any given place will be influenced by the general local cuisine. The origin of "Buddhist food" as a distinct sub-style of cuisine is tied to monasteries, where one member of the community would have the duty of being the head cook and supplying meals that paid respect to the strictures of Buddhist precepts. Temples that were open to visitors from the general public might serve meals to them and a few temples run functioning restaurants on the premises.
In Japan, this practice is known as shōjin ryōri, served at many temples in Kyoto. A more recent version, more Chinese in style, is prepared by the Ōbaku school of zen, known as fucha ryōri. In modern times, commercial restaurants have latched on to the style, catering both to practicing and non-practicing lay people. Most of the dishes considered to be uniquely Buddhist are vegetarian, but not all Buddhist traditions require vegetarianism of lay followers or clergy. Vegetarian eating is associated with the East Asian tradition in China, Vietnam and Korea where it is practiced by clergy and may be observed by laity on holidays or as a devotional practice. Theravada Monks and nuns traditionally feed themselves by gathering alms, must eat whatever foods are given to them, including meat; the exception to this alms rule is when monks and nuns have seen, heard or known that animal have been killed to feed the alms-seeker, in which case consumption of such meat would be karmically negative, as well as meat from certain animals, such as dogs and snakes, that were regarded as impure in ancient India.
The same restriction is followed by some lay Buddhists and is known as the consumption of "triply clean meat". The Pali Sutras describe the Buddha as refusing a suggestion by his student Devadatta to mandate vegetarianism in the monastic precepts. In the Mahayana tradition, by contrast, several sutras of the Mahayana canon contain explicit prohibitions against consuming meat, including sections of the Lankavatara Sutra and Surangama Sutra. Japanese Buddhist sects believe that Buddha ate meat. All Japanese Kamakura sects of Buddhism have relaxed Mahayana vinaya, as a consequence, vegetarianism is optional; the monastic community in Chinese Buddhism, Vietnamese Buddhism and most of Korean Buddhism adhere to vegetarianism. Tibetan Buddhism has long accepted that the practical difficulties in obtaining vegetables and grains within most of Tibet make it impossible to insist upon vegetarianism. Both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhists consider that one may practice vegetarianism as part of cultivating Bodhisattvas's paramita.
In addition to the ban on garlic all Mahayana monastics in China, Korea and Japan avoid eating strong-smelling plants, traditionally asafoetida, mountain leek and Allium chinense, which together with garlic are referred to as wǔ hūn or wǔ xīn as they tend to excite senses. This is based on teachings found in the Brahamajala Sutra, the Surangama Sutra and the Lankavatara Sutra. In modern times this rule is interpreted to include other vegetables of the onion genus, as well as coriander; the origins of this additional restriction is from the Indic region and can still be found among some believers of Hinduism and Jainism. Some Taoists have this additional restriction but the list of restricted plants differs from the Buddhist list; the food that a strict Buddhist takes, if not a vegetarian, is specific. For many Chinese Buddhists beef and the consumption of large animals and exotic species is avoided. There would be the aforementioned "triply clean meat" rule. One restriction on food, not known to many is the abstinence from eating animal innards and organs.
This is known as xiàshui. Alcohol and other drugs are avoided by many Buddhists because of their effects on the mind and "mindfulness", it is part of the Five Precepts which dictate that one is not to consume "addictive materials". The definition of "addictive" depends on each individual but most Buddhists consider alcohol and drugs other than medicine to be addictive. Although caffeine is now known to be addictive, caffeinated drinks and tea are not included under this restriction. There are many legends about tea. Among meditators it is awake without overexcitement. In theory and practice, many region
Taiwanese cuisine has several variations. In addition to the following representative dishes from the majority Hoklo, there are Aboriginal and local derivatives of Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine. Taiwanese cuisine itself is associated with influences from mid to southern provinces of China, most notably from the south of Fujian which leads to it being classified or grouped with'Southern Fujianese cuisine'. However, influences from all of mainland China can be found after the Kuomintang retreat to the island which brought along a large number of Chinese chefs from the mainland. A notable Japanese influence exists due to the period when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. Traditional Chinese food can be found in Taiwan, alongside Fujian and Hakka-style as well as native Taiwanese dishes, including dishes from Guangdong, Chaoshan, Hunan and Beijing. Pork, chicken and soy are common ingredients. Beef is far less common, some Taiwanese still refrain from eating it. A traditional reluctance towards slaughtering precious cattle needed for agriculture, an emotional attachment and feeling of gratitude and thanks to the animals traditionally used for hard labour.
However, due to influences from the influx of out of province Chinese in the early 1900s, the Taiwanese version of beef noodle soup is now one of the most popular dishes in Taiwan. Taiwan's cuisine has been influenced by its geographic location. Living on a crowded island, the Taiwanese had to look aside from the farmlands for sources of protein; as a result, seafood figures prominently in their cuisine. This seafood encompasses many different things, from large fish such as tuna and grouper, to sardines and smaller fish such as anchovies. Crustaceans and cuttlefish are eaten; because of the island's sub-tropical location, Taiwan has an abundant supply of various fruit, such as papayas, starfruit and citrus fruit. A wide variety of tropical fruits and native, are enjoyed in Taiwan. Other agricultural products in general are rice, tea, poultry, beef and other fruits and vegetables. Fresh ingredients in Taiwan are available from markets. In many of their dishes, the Taiwanese have shown their creativity in their selection of spices.
Taiwanese cuisine relies on an abundant array of seasonings for flavor: soy sauce, rice wine, sesame oil, fermented black beans, pickled radish, pickled mustard greens, chili peppers, a local variety of basil. An important part of Taiwanese cuisine are xiaochi, substantial snacks along the lines of Spanish tapas or Levantine meze; the Taiwanese xiaochi has gained much reputation internationally. Many travelers go to Taiwan just for xiǎochī; the most common place to enjoy xiǎochī in Taiwan is in a night market. Each night market has its own famous xiǎochī. Moreover, the Taiwanese xiǎochī has been improving to a higher level. Nowadays, Taiwanese xiǎochī not only served in night markets but some luxury and high-end restaurants; these restaurants use higher quality ingredients and creative presentations, reinventing dishes whilst keeping the robust flavors. The prices jump by twice the price or higher in the restaurants; the Taiwanese government supports the Taiwanese xiǎochī and has held national xiǎochī events in Taiwan regularly.
Vegetarian restaurants are commonplace with a wide variety of dishes due to the influence of Buddhism and other syncretistic religions like I-Kuan Tao. These vegetarian restaurants vary in style from all-you-can-eat to pay-by-the-weight and of course the regular order-from-a-menu. There is a type of outdoor barbecue called khòng-iô. To barbecue in this manner, one first builds a hollow pyramid up with dirt clods. Next, charcoal or wood is burnt inside until the temperature inside the pyramid is high; the ingredients to be cooked, such as taro, yam, or chicken, are placed in cans, the cans are placed inside the pyramid. The pyramid is toppled over the food until cooked. Many non-dessert dishes are considered snacks, not entrees; such dishes are only salted, with lots of vegetables along with the main meat or seafood item. Taiwanese dishes Aiyu jelly – a gelatinous dessert made from the seeds of a fig-like fruit, Ficus pumila var. awkeotsang. Served on ice. Baobing – a Chinese shaved ice dessert common in China, Taiwan and Vietnam.
Bubble tea, aka boba milk tea. Traditional cakes are not always of the same composition depending on the flavor. There is the moon cake which has a thick filling made from lotus seed paste or sweetened red bean paste and surrounded by a thin crust and may contain yolks from salted duck eggs, it is traditionally eaten during the festival for lunar moon watching. Mooncakes are offered on family gatherings while celebrating the festival; the Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the four most important Chinese festivals. There are other cakes that can mix salty ingredients with sweet ones to create a balance while enjoying these delicacies with tea; the crust could be shiny from applying a layer of egg yolk before putting in the oven, or not in that case it is whiter and the crust has more layers. Grass jelly – Served hot or cold. Moachi (麻糍
Beijing cuisine known as Jing cuisine, Mandarin cuisine and Peking cuisine, as Beiping cuisine, is the local cuisine of Beijing, the national capital of China. As Beijing has been the capital of China for centuries, its cuisine is influenced by culinary traditions from all over China, but the style that has the greatest influence on Beijing cuisine is that of the eastern coastal province of Shandong. Beijing cuisine has itself, in turn greatly influenced other Chinese cuisines the cuisine of Liaoning, the Chinese imperial cuisine, the Chinese aristocrat cuisine. Another tradition that influenced Beijing cuisine is the Chinese imperial cuisine that originated from the "Emperor's Kitchen", which referred to the cooking facilities inside the Forbidden City, where thousands of cooks from different parts of China showed their best culinary skills to please the imperial family and officials. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to determine the actual origin of a dish as the term "Mandarin" is generalised and refers not only to Beijing, but other provinces as well.
However, some generalisation of Beijing cuisine can be characterised as follows: Foods that originated in Beijing are snacks rather than main courses, they are sold by small shops or street vendors. There is emphasis on dark soy paste, sesame paste, sesame oil and scallions, fermented tofu is served as a condiment. In terms of cooking techniques, methods relating to different ways of frying are used. There is less emphasis on rice as an accompaniment as compared to many other regions in China, as local rice production in Beijing is limited by the dry climate. Many dishes in Beijing cuisine that are served as main courses are derived from a variety of Chinese Halal foods lamb and beef dishes, as well as from Huaiyang cuisine. Huaiyang cuisine has been praised since ancient times in China, it was a general practice for an official travelling to Beijing to take up a new post to bring along with him a chef specialising in Huaiyang cuisine; when these officials had completed their terms in the capital and returned to their native provinces, most of the chefs they brought along remained in Beijing.
They were hired by wealthy locals. The imperial clan of the Ming dynasty, the House of Zhu, who had ancestry from Jiangsu Province contributed in introducing Huaiyang cuisine to Beijing when the capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing in the 15th century, because the imperial kitchen was Huaiyang style; the element of traditional Beijing culinary and gastronomical cultures of enjoying artistic performances such as Beijing opera while dining directly developed from the similar practice in the culture of Jiangsu and Huaiyang cuisines. Chinese Islamic cuisine is another important component of Beijing cuisine, was first prominently introduced when Beijing became the capital of the Yuan dynasty. However, the most significant contribution to the formation of Beijing cuisine came from Shandong cuisine, as most chefs from Shandong Province came to Beijing en masse during the Qing dynasty. Unlike the earlier two cuisines, which were brought by the ruling class such as nobles and bureaucrats, spread to the general populace, the introduction of Shandong cuisine begun with serving the general populace, with much wider market segment, from wealthy merchants to the working class.
The Qing dynasty was a major period in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Before the Boxer Rebellion, the foodservice establishments in Beijing were stratified by the foodservice guild; each category of the establishment was based on its ability to provide for a particular segment of the market. The top ranking foodservice establishments served nobles and wealthy merchants and landlords, while lower ranking foodservice establishments served the populace of lower financial and social status, it was during this period when Beijing cuisine gained fame and became recognised by the Chinese culinary society, the stratification of the foodservice was one of its most obvious characteristics as part of its culinary and gastronomic cultures during this first peak of its formation. The official stratification was an integral part of the local culture of Beijing and it was not abolished after the end of the Qing dynasty, which resulted in the second peak in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Meals offered to nobles and aristocrats were made available to anyone who could afford them instead of being restricted only to the upper class.
As chefs switched between jobs offered by different foodservice establishments, they brought their skills that further enriched and developed Beijing cuisine. Though the stratification of food services in Beijing was no longer effected by imperial laws, the structure more or less remained despite continuous weakening due to the financial background of the local clientele; the different classes are listed in the following subsections. Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character zhuang, or zhuang zihao, were the top-ranking foodservice establishments, not only in providing foods, but entertainment as well; the form of entertainment provided was Beijing opera, foodservice establishments of this class always had long-term contracts with a Beijing opera troupe to perform onsite. Moreover, foodservice establishments of this class would always have long-term contracts with famous performers, such as national-treasure-class performers, to perform onsite, though not on a daily basis.
Foodservice establishments of this category did not accept a
Singaporean cuisine is diverse and contains elements derived from several ethnic groups, as a result of its history as a seaport with a large immigrant population. Influences include the cuisines of the native Malays, the largest ethnic group, the Chinese and the third largest ethnic group, the Indians as well as Indonesian and Western traditions. Influences from other regions such as Sri Lanka and the Middle East are present. In Singapore, food is viewed as crucial to a unifying cultural thread. Singaporean literature declares eating food a national obsession. Food is a frequent topic of conversation among Singaporeans. Religious dietary strictures do exist. People from different communities eat together, while being mindful of each other's culture and choosing food, acceptable for all. Other than Singaporean cuisine, it is common in Singapore to find restaurants specialising in cuisine from a great variety of countries around the world; when dining out, Singaporeans eat at hawker centres, coffee shops or food courts rather than restaurants, due to convenience, a wider range of options and affordability.
These hawker centres are widespread and feature dozens of stalls in a single complex, with each stall offering its own speciality dishes. Well-known hawker centres among tourists include Newton Food Centre. Coffee shops are non-air conditioned versions of food courts and are found island-wide at the bottom of blocks of HDB flats. Hawker centres are the place where people can experience all kinds of different cultural food in one place. Hawker centres, or open air food courts, have come to define Singaporean food culture. Popular markets like Old Airport Road Food Centre in Geylang, Golden Mile Food Centre on Beach Road and Maxwell Road Food Centre in Chinatown offer the best of Chinese and Indian cooking, melded into foods that are uniquely Singaporean. In 2016, Hong Kong Soya Sauce Chicken Rice and Noodle and Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle became the first two street food locations in the world to be awarded a Michelin star; the former gained the title of the world's "cheapest Michelin-starred meal".
In 2018, Singapore hawker culture was nominated by Singapore's National Heritage Board, National Environment Agency and Federation of Merchants' Associations Singapore for inscription into Unesco's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity Singaporean food is a significant cultural attraction for tourists and visitors. Some Singaporean dishes have become internationally known. In 2011, four Singaporean dishes were included in the list of'World's 50 Most Delicious Foods' – a worldwide online poll by 35,000 people held by CNN International, they are chili crab, Katong Laksa and roti prata. Anthony Bourdain brought international attention to local food available in hawker centres on his show, No Reservations, he featured Maxwell Food Centre on the programme. Bourdain has publicly spoken about hoping to feature four Singaporean dishes in his upcoming food hall in New York City. Gordon Ramsay participated in a'Hawker Heroes Challenge' held in Singapore in 2013, he lost 6% of the overall vote.
Losing to Ryan Koh representing 328 Katong Laksa and Foo Kui Lian representing Tian Tian Chicken Rice, he graciously accepted defeat. He mentioned being in absolute awe of the hawkers, was humbled by how they welcomed him into their kitchens and taught him to cook. YouTube personality Mike Chen, better known by his username StrictlyDumpling, has created several videos bringing attention to local cuisine on his channel. Over the course of 8 videos he highlighted Singaporean street food, hawker centres, local buffets and restaurants; these videos have a combined view count of over 5.5 million views. Singaporean cuisine has been promoted as a tourist attraction by the Singapore Tourism Board; the Singapore Food Festival, held every year in July, is a celebration of Singapore's cuisine. The Overseas Singaporean Unit organises Singapore Day in major cities around the world as a platform for Singaporeans living abroad. One of Singapore Day's major draws is the local Singaporean hawker food, prepared on-site by well-known hawkers specially flown in for the event.
Singapore is geographically located in between the Pacific and Indian oceans but it has shape of peninsula and island at same time, where various cultures and trades are flowing. Indonesia is located to the south, China, the Philippines and Malaysia are located to the north and India is located to the west. Since Singapore's position is between various Asian countries, there is a diversity in food and culture. "When Stamford Raffles sought to convert Singapore into a trading post for the East India Company in 1819, immigrants from China, India, Europe, the United States and the Middle East flocked to the island. The culture of Singapore is made up of diverse influences from different countries; this led Singapore cuisine to be mixed-cultural society food. Like many other Asian countries, Singapore experienced a period of colonisation. Singapore used to be colonised by Britain from the early 19th century to the mid-20th century, like most of Asian countries did, they were ruled by Japan during World War 2.
Colonisation of Japan influenced Singaporean cuisine. For instance, yee sang, which Singaporean Chinese enjoy eating during the Lunar New Year, includes raw fish, a rare ingredient to put in dis
Chinese Islamic cuisine
Cuisine of Chinese Muslims is the cuisine of the Hui and other Muslims living in China such as Dongxiang, Salar and Bonan as well as Dungans of Central Asia. Due to the large Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to, or are run by, Muslims. Northern Chinese Islamic cuisine originated in China proper, it is influenced by Beijing cuisine, with nearly all cooking methods identical, differs only in material due to religious restrictions. As a result, northern Islamic cuisine is included in home Beijing cuisine though in east coast restaurants. During the Yuan dynasty, halal methods of slaughtering animals and preparing food was banned and forbidden by the Mongol emperors, starting with Genghis Khan who banned Muslims and Jews from slaughtering their animals their own way and made them follow the Mongol method. Among all the alien peoples only the Hui-hui say “we do not eat Mongol food”. “By the aid of heaven we have pacified you. Yet you do not eat our drink. How can this be right?”
He thereupon made. “If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime.” He issued a regulation to that effect... all the Muslims say: “if someone else slaughters we do not eat”. Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman Huihui and Zhuhu Huihui, no matter who kills will eat and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, cease the rite of circumcision. Traditionally, there is a distinction between northern and southern Chinese Islamic cuisine despite both using mutton and lamb. Northern Chinese Islamic cuisine relies on beef, but ducks, shrimp or seafood, while southern Islamic cuisine is the reverse; the reason for this difference is due to availability of the ingredients. Oxen have been long used for farming and Chinese governments have strictly prohibited the slaughter of oxen for food. However, due to the geographic proximity of the northern part of China to minority-dominated regions that were not subjected to such restrictions, beef could be purchased and transported to northern China.
At the same time, ducks and shrimp are rare in comparison to southern China due to the arid climate of northern China. A Chinese Islamic restaurant can be similar to a Mandarin restaurant with the exception that there is no pork on the menu and is noodle/soup based. In most major eastern cities in China, there are limited Islamic/Halal restaurants, which are run by migrants from Western China, they offer inexpensive noodle soups only. These restaurants are decorated with Islamic motifs such as pictures of Islamic rugs and Arabic writing. Another difference is that lamb and mutton dishes are more available than in other Chinese restaurants, due to the greater prevalence of these meats in the cuisine of western Chinese regions. Other Muslim ethnic minorities like the Salar, Dongxiang and Tibetan Muslims have their own cuisines as well. Dongxiang people operate their own restaurants serving their cuisine. Many cafeterias at Chinese universities have separate sections or dining areas for Muslim students labeled "qingzhen."
Student ID cards sometimes indicate whether a student is Muslim and will allow access to these dining areas or will allow access on special occasions such as the Eid feast following Ramadan. Several Hui restaurants serving Chinese Islamic cuisine exist in Los Angeles. San Francisco, despite its huge number of Chinese restaurants, appears to have only one whose cuisine would qualify as halal. Many Chinese Hui Muslims who moved from Yunnan to Burma are known as Panthays operate restaurants and stalls serving Chinese Islamic cuisine such as noodles. Chinese Hui Muslims from Yunnan who moved to Thailand are known as Chin Haw, they own restaurants and stalls serving Chinese Islamic food. In Central Asia, Dungan people, descendants of Hui, operate restaurants serving Chinese Islamic cuisine, referred to as Dungan cuisine there, they cater to Chinese businessmen. Chopsticks are used by Dungans; the cuisine of the Dungan resembles northwestern Chinese cuisine. Most Chinese regard Hui halal food as cleaner than food made by non Muslims so their restaurants are popular in China.
Hui who migrated to Northeast China after the Chuang Guandong opened many new inns and restaurants to cater to travelers, which were regarded as clean. The Hui who migrated to Taiwan operate Qingzhen restaurants and stalls serving Chinese Islamic cuisine in Taipei and other big cities; the Thai Department of Export Promotion claims that "China's halal food producers are small-scale entrepreneurs whose products have little value added and lack branding and technology to push their goods to international standards" to encourage Thai private sector halal producers to market their products in China. A 1903 started franchise which serves Muslim food is Dong Lai Shun in Hankou.400 meters have to be kept as a distance from each restaurant serving beef noodles to another of its type if they belong to Hui Muslims, since Hui have a pact between each other in Ningxia and Shaanxi. Halal restaurants are checked up upon by clerics from mosques. Halal food manufacture has been sanctioned by the government of the Ningxia Autonomous region.
Lamian (simplified Chinese: 拉面.
Chinese cooking techniques
Chinese cooking techniques are a set of methods and techniques traditionally used in Chinese cuisine. The cooking techniques can either be grouped into ones that use a single cooking method or a combination of wet and dry cooking methods. Many cooking techniques involve a singular type of heated action. Wet-heat, immersion-based cooking methods are the predominant class of cooking techniques in Chinese cuisine and are referred to as zhǔ. In fact the term zhǔ is used to denote cooking in general. Fast wet-heat based cooking methods include: Prolonged wet-heat based cooking methods include: Food preparation in hot dry vessels such as an oven or a heated empty wok include: Oil-based cooking methods are one of the most common in Chinese cuisine and include: Kian Lam Kho identifies five distinct techniques of stir frying: Food preparation techniques not involving the heating of ingredients include: Several techniques in Chinese involve more than one stage of cooking and have their own terms to describe the process.
They include: Dòng: The technique is used for making aspic but used to describe making of various gelatin desserts Simmering meat for a prolonged period in a broth or Chilling the resulting meat and broth until the mixture gels Hùi: The dishes made using this technique are finished by thickening with starch Quick precooking in hot water Finished by stir-frying and 燒. Pre-fried tofu is made expressly for this purpose. Deep frying the ingredients until cooked Finishing the ingredients by braising them to acquire a soft "skin" Mēn: Stir-frying the ingredients until cooked Cover and simmer with broth until broth is reduced and ingredients are cooked. Chinese cuisine List of cooking techniques Wok
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world. Because of the Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in Asia, with modifications made to cater to local palates. Chinese food staples such as rice, soy sauce, noodles and tofu, utensils such as chopsticks and the wok, can now be found worldwide; the preference for seasoning and cooking techniques of Chinese provinces depend on differences in historical background and ethnic groups. Geographic features including mountains, rivers and deserts have a strong effect on the local available ingredients, considering that the climate of China varies from tropical in the south to subarctic in the northeast. Imperial and noble preference plays a role in the change of Chinese cuisines; because of imperial expansion and trading and cooking techniques from other cultures are integrated into Chinese cuisines over time.
The most praised "Four Major Cuisines" are Chuan, Lu, Yue and Huaiyang, representing West, North and East China cuisine correspondingly. The modern "Eight Cuisines" of China are Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang cuisines. Color and taste are the three traditional aspects used to describe Chinese food, as well as the meaning and nutrition of the food. Cooking should be appraised with respect to the ingredients used, cooking time and seasoning. Chinese society valued gastronomy, developed an extensive study of the subject based on its traditional medical beliefs. Chinese culture centered around the North China Plain; the first domesticated crops seem to have been the foxtail and broomcorn varieties of millet, while rice was cultivated in the south. By 2000 BC, wheat had arrived from western Asia; these grains were served as warm noodle soups instead of baked into bread as in Europe. Nobles hunted various wild game and consumed mutton and dog as these animals were domesticated. Grain was stored against famine and flood and meat was preserved with salt, vinegar and fermenting.
The flavor of the meat was enhanced by cooking it in animal fats though this practice was restricted to the wealthy. By the time of Confucius in the late Zhou, gastronomy had become a high art. Confucius discussed the principles of dining: "The rice would never be too white, the meat would never be too finely cut... When it was not cooked right, man would not eat; when it was cooked bad, man would not eat. When the meat was not cut properly, man would not eat; when the food was not prepared with the right sauce, man would not eat. Although there are plenty of meats, they should not be cooked more than staple food. There is no limit for alcohol, before a man gets drunk." During Shi Huangdi's Qin dynasty, the empire expanded into the south. By the time of the Han dynasty, the different regions and cuisines of China's people were linked by major canals and leading to a greater complexity in the different regional cuisines. Not only is food seen as giving "qi", but food is about maintaining yin and yang.
The philosophy behind it was rooted in the I Ching and Chinese traditional medicine: food was judged for color, aroma and texture and a good meal was expected to balance the Four Natures and the Five Tastes. Salt was used as a preservative from early times, but in cooking was added in the form of soy sauce, not at the table; the predominance of chopsticks and spoons as eating utensils necessitated that most food be prepared in bite-sized pieces or be so tender that it could be picked apart. By the Later Han period, writers complained of lazy aristocrats who did nothing but sit around all day eating smoked meats and roasts. During the Han dynasty, the Chinese developed methods of food preservation for military rations during campaigns such as drying meat into jerky and cooking and drying grain. Chinese legends claim that the roasted, flat bread shaobing was brought back from the Xiyu by the Han dynasty General Ban Chao, that it was known as hubing; the shaobing is believed to be descended from the hubing.
Shaobing is believed to be related to the Persian nan and Central Asian nan, as well as the Middle Eastern pita. Foreign westerners sold sesame cakes in China during the Tang dynasty. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties non-Han people like the Xianbei of Northern Wei introduced their cuisine to northern China, these influences continued up to the Tang dynasty, popularizing meat like mutton and dairy products like goat milk and Kumis among Han people, it was during the Song dynasty that Han Chinese developed an aversion to dairy products and abandoned the dairy foods introduced earlier. The Han Chinese rebel Wang Su who received asylum in the Xianbei Northern Wei after fleeing from Southern Qi, at first could not stand eating dairy products like goat's milk and meat like mutton and had to consume tea and fish instead, but after a few years he was able to eat yogurt and lamb, the Xianbei Emperor asked him which of the foods of China he preferred, fish vs mutton and tea vs yogurt; the great migration of Chinese people south during the invasions preceding and during the Song dynasty increased the relative importance of southern Chinese staples such as rice and congee.
Su Dongpo has improved the red brai