Shanghai cuisine known as Hu cuisine, is a popular style of Chinese food. In a narrow sense, Shanghai cuisine refers only to what is traditionally called Benbang cuisine which originated in Shanghai, it takes "colour and taste" as its elements, like other Chinese regional cuisines, emphasises in particular the use of seasonings, the quality of raw ingredients and original flavours. Shanghai dishes appear red and shiny because they are pickled in wine, they are cooked using a variety of methods including baking, braising and deep-frying. Fish and chicken are made "drunken" with spirits and briskly cooked, steamed or served raw. Salted meats and preserved vegetables are commonly used to enhance various dishes. Sugar is an important ingredient in Shanghai cuisine when used in combination with soy sauce. Another characteristic is the use of a great variety of seafood. Rice is more served than noodles or other wheat products. Shanghai cuisine emphasises the use of condiments and the importance of retaining the original flavours of the raw ingredients materials.
It aims at lightness in flavour and is mellower and sweet in taste compared to some other Chinese cuisines. Sweet and sour is a typical Shanghai taste. An attractive presentation is important in Shanghai cooking with ingredients being cut and presented with a view to harmonising colours. Although Shanghai is a sea port, most families did not incorporate fish in their daily meals in the early 20th century. Eating meat with meals was considered a luxury, as the typical meal consisted of vegetables and rice. In a month, most families usually ate meat or fish for about four meals: on the second, eighth and twenty-third day of each month; these days became known as dang hun. In recent times, special attention has been paid to low-sugar and low-fat food, with a good quantity of vegetables and improved nutritional value. Shanghai cuisine is the youngest among the ten major cuisines of China although it has a history of more than 400 years. Traditionally called Benbang cuisine, it originated in the Qing dynasties.
In the part of the 19th century, after Shanghai became a major domestic and international trading port, Benbang dishes underwent some substantial changes, adopting influences from other cuisines which added to its complexity. Chinese cuisine Haipai cuisine List of Chinese dishes china.org.cn Top 10 most famous Shanghai snacks September 12, 2011
Hubei cuisine known as E cuisine, is derived from the native cooking styles of Hubei Province in China. Hubei cuisine has a history of more than 2,000 years; the names of dishes and cuisine styles can be found in ancient literature such as Chuci of Qu Yuan. As Hubei has plenty of lakes and marshlands, freshwater produce are used as major ingredients in the local cuisine. A key ingredient, found within many Hubei-style dishes is the lotus root. Hubei cuisine emphasises on the matching of colours, it specialises in steaming techniques. Its style is influenced by the cooking methods of the cuisines of neighbouring provinces such as Sichuan and Hunan; as a result, Hubei cuisine uses dried hot pepper, black pepper and other spices to enhance the flavour of dishes. Hubei cuisine comprises three distinct styles: Wuhan style. Wuhan is known for its noodle dishes, such as hot dry noodles. Additionally, Wuhan is famous for its dry pots, which are similar to hot pot but without the soup base. Huangzhou style, more oily and tastes more salty than the others.
Jingzhou style, which specialises in fish dishes and uses steaming as the primary method of cooking. Miao people style, which tastes thick, with the sour and hot most outstanding. It's in the southwest of Hubei province. List of Chinese dishes
Noodles are an essential ingredient and staple in Chinese cuisine. Chinese noodles vary according to the region of production, shape or width, manner of preparation, they are an important part of most regional cuisines within China, as well as in Singapore, other Southeast Asian nations with sizable overseas Chinese populations. Chinese-style noodles have entered the cuisines of neighboring East Asian countries such as Korea and Japan, as well as Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, the Philippines and Cambodia. Nomenclature of Chinese noodles can be difficult due to the vast spectrum available in China and the many dialects of Chinese used to name them. In Mandarin, miàn refers to noodles made from wheat, while fěn or "fun" refers to noodles made from rice flour, mung bean starch, or indeed any kind of non-wheat starch; each noodle type can be rendered in pinyin for Mandarin, but in Hong Kong and neighboring Guangdong it will be known by its Cantonese pronunciation. Taiwan, Malaysia and many other Overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia may use Hokkien instead.
The earliest written record of noodles is from a book dated to the Han dynasty. Noodles made from wheat dough, became a prominent staple of food during the Han dynasty. In the Western Han Dynasty, due to the demand for military, it was necessary for the Government to implement food processing technologies that would make the food storage easier and more affordable. During this time, “Laomian” was emerged, it was made with starch rich buckwheat and pea, flours, it consists lower water content making it easier to transport around. During the Song dynasty noodle shops were popular in the cities, remained open all night. During the earlier dynastic periods Chinese wheat noodles were known as "soup cake", as explained by the Song dynasty scholar Huang Chaoying mentions in his work "A delightful mixed discussion on various scholarly topics" that in ancient times bready foods like pasta are referred collectively as "bing" and differentiated through their cooking methods. Chinese noodles are made from either wheat flour, rice flour, or mung bean starch, with wheat noodles being more produced and consumed in northern China and rice noodles being more typical of southern China.
Egg and cereal may be added to noodles made from wheat flour in order to give the noodles a different color or flavor. Egg whites, arrowroot or tapioca starch are sometimes added to the flour mixture in low quantities to change the texture and tenderness of the noodles' strands. Although illegal, the practice of adding the chemical cross-linker borax to whiten noodles and improve their texture is quite common in East Asia. In general, the chinese noodles cooking method involves making a dough with flour and water. Chinese type noodles are made from hard wheat flours, characterized by bright creamy white or bright yellow color and firm texture. Before the automatic noodle machine was invented in 1950s, the processing of Chinese noodles were made with four steps, including Fresh - The noodles are consumed within 24 hours of manufacture due to quick discoloration, their shelf life can be extended to 3-5 days. Chinese noodles, can be in dried form. After parboiling, Chinese noodles are rinsed in cold water and covered with 1-2% vegetable oil to prevent sticking.
The dough for noodles made from wheat flour is made from wheat flour and water, with the addition of eggs or lye depending on the desired texture and taste of the noodles. Rice- or other starch-based noodles are made with only the starch or rice flour and water. After the formation of a pliable dough mass, one of five types of mechanical processing may be applied to produce the noodles: While cut and extruded noodles can be dried to create a shelf-stable product to be eaten months after production, most peeled and kneaded noodles are consumed shortly after they are produced. Noodles may be cooked from either their dry forms, they are boiled, although they may be deep-fried in oil until crispy. Boiled noodles may be stir fried, served with sauce or other accompaniments, or served in soup with meat and other ingredients. Certain rice-noodles are made directly from steaming the raw rice slurry and are only consumed fresh. Unlike many Western noodles and pastas, Chinese noodles made from wheat flour are made from salted dough, therefore do not require the addition of salt to the liquid in which they are boiled.
Chinese noodles cook quickly requiring less than 5 minutes to become al dente and some taking less than a minute to finish cooking, with thinner noodles requiring less time to cook. Chinese noodles made from rice or mung bean starch do not contain salt; these noodles are made only with wheat water. If the intended product is dried noodles, salt is always added to the recipe; these wheat flour noodles are more
Taiwanese cuisine has several variations. In addition to the following representative dishes from the majority Hoklo, there are Aboriginal and local derivatives of Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine. Taiwanese cuisine itself is associated with influences from mid to southern provinces of China, most notably from the south of Fujian which leads to it being classified or grouped with'Southern Fujianese cuisine'. However, influences from all of mainland China can be found after the Kuomintang retreat to the island which brought along a large number of Chinese chefs from the mainland. A notable Japanese influence exists due to the period when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. Traditional Chinese food can be found in Taiwan, alongside Fujian and Hakka-style as well as native Taiwanese dishes, including dishes from Guangdong, Chaoshan, Hunan and Beijing. Pork, chicken and soy are common ingredients. Beef is far less common, some Taiwanese still refrain from eating it. A traditional reluctance towards slaughtering precious cattle needed for agriculture, an emotional attachment and feeling of gratitude and thanks to the animals traditionally used for hard labour.
However, due to influences from the influx of out of province Chinese in the early 1900s, the Taiwanese version of beef noodle soup is now one of the most popular dishes in Taiwan. Taiwan's cuisine has been influenced by its geographic location. Living on a crowded island, the Taiwanese had to look aside from the farmlands for sources of protein; as a result, seafood figures prominently in their cuisine. This seafood encompasses many different things, from large fish such as tuna and grouper, to sardines and smaller fish such as anchovies. Crustaceans and cuttlefish are eaten; because of the island's sub-tropical location, Taiwan has an abundant supply of various fruit, such as papayas, starfruit and citrus fruit. A wide variety of tropical fruits and native, are enjoyed in Taiwan. Other agricultural products in general are rice, tea, poultry, beef and other fruits and vegetables. Fresh ingredients in Taiwan are available from markets. In many of their dishes, the Taiwanese have shown their creativity in their selection of spices.
Taiwanese cuisine relies on an abundant array of seasonings for flavor: soy sauce, rice wine, sesame oil, fermented black beans, pickled radish, pickled mustard greens, chili peppers, a local variety of basil. An important part of Taiwanese cuisine are xiaochi, substantial snacks along the lines of Spanish tapas or Levantine meze; the Taiwanese xiaochi has gained much reputation internationally. Many travelers go to Taiwan just for xiǎochī; the most common place to enjoy xiǎochī in Taiwan is in a night market. Each night market has its own famous xiǎochī. Moreover, the Taiwanese xiǎochī has been improving to a higher level. Nowadays, Taiwanese xiǎochī not only served in night markets but some luxury and high-end restaurants; these restaurants use higher quality ingredients and creative presentations, reinventing dishes whilst keeping the robust flavors. The prices jump by twice the price or higher in the restaurants; the Taiwanese government supports the Taiwanese xiǎochī and has held national xiǎochī events in Taiwan regularly.
Vegetarian restaurants are commonplace with a wide variety of dishes due to the influence of Buddhism and other syncretistic religions like I-Kuan Tao. These vegetarian restaurants vary in style from all-you-can-eat to pay-by-the-weight and of course the regular order-from-a-menu. There is a type of outdoor barbecue called khòng-iô. To barbecue in this manner, one first builds a hollow pyramid up with dirt clods. Next, charcoal or wood is burnt inside until the temperature inside the pyramid is high; the ingredients to be cooked, such as taro, yam, or chicken, are placed in cans, the cans are placed inside the pyramid. The pyramid is toppled over the food until cooked. Many non-dessert dishes are considered snacks, not entrees; such dishes are only salted, with lots of vegetables along with the main meat or seafood item. Taiwanese dishes Aiyu jelly – a gelatinous dessert made from the seeds of a fig-like fruit, Ficus pumila var. awkeotsang. Served on ice. Baobing – a Chinese shaved ice dessert common in China, Taiwan and Vietnam.
Bubble tea, aka boba milk tea. Traditional cakes are not always of the same composition depending on the flavor. There is the moon cake which has a thick filling made from lotus seed paste or sweetened red bean paste and surrounded by a thin crust and may contain yolks from salted duck eggs, it is traditionally eaten during the festival for lunar moon watching. Mooncakes are offered on family gatherings while celebrating the festival; the Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the four most important Chinese festivals. There are other cakes that can mix salty ingredients with sweet ones to create a balance while enjoying these delicacies with tea; the crust could be shiny from applying a layer of egg yolk before putting in the oven, or not in that case it is whiter and the crust has more layers. Grass jelly – Served hot or cold. Moachi (麻糍
Chinese Indonesian cuisine
Chinese Indonesian cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians brought their legacy of Chinese cuisine, modified some of the dishes with the addition of Indonesian ingredients, such as kecap manis, palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili and local spices to form a hybrid Chinese-Indonesian cuisine; some of the dishes and cakes share the same style as in Malaysia and Singapore which are known as the Nonya cuisine by the Peranakan. Chinese influences are evident in Indonesian food, with several quintessential Chinese favourite has made their way into mainstream Indonesian culinary scene. Popular Chinese Indonesian foods including bakmi, mie ayam, bakso, kwetiau goreng and mie goreng. Chinese culinary culture is evident in Indonesian cuisine through the Hokkien and Cantonese loanwords used for various dishes. Words beginning with bak signify the presence of e.g. bakpau. Mi or mie signify noodle as in mi goreng. Most of these loanwords for food dishes and their ingredients are Hokkien in origin and are used throughout the Indonesian language and vernacular speech of large cities.
Because they have become an integral part of the local language, many Indonesians and ethnic Chinese do not recognize their Hokkien origins. Some of popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng, mi goreng, kwetiau and bakpia can trace their origin to Chinese influence; some food and ingredients are part of the daily diet of both the indigenous and ethnic Chinese populations as side dishes to accompany rice, the staple food of most of the country. Chinese influence is so evident in cities with large Chinese settlements since colonial era in Jakarta, Semarang, Medan and Pontianak; as the result numbers of mi and tahu recipes were developed in these cities. Chinese influence is so evident in Betawi people cuisines, formed as peranakan culture, as the result Betawi people held Chinese Indonesians dishes such as asinan and rujak juhi as theirs. To a certain extent, Javanese in Semarang and Surabaya willingly absorbs Chinese culinary influences, as the result they considered Chinese-influenced dishes such as mi goreng, lumpia and tahu gunting as theirs.
Because food is so prevalent in Chinese culture as Chinese families allocate their quality time to go eating out—just like banquet customs found in Chinese communities worldwide—many Pecinan in Indonesian cities are well known as the culinary hot spots of the city, with rows of shops and restaurants. As Chinese and native Indonesians establishing their food business, many eating establishments sprung up, from humble street side cart hawker to fancy restaurants offering their specialty. Areas such as Glodok and Kelapa Gading in Jakarta, Gardu Jati in Bandung, Kya-kya Kembang Jepun in Surabaya, Pecinans in Cirebon, Semarang and Medan are teeming with lots of warungs and restaurants, not only offering Chinese Indonesians' dishes, but local and international cuisines; the Indonesian Chinese cuisine vary with locations. For example, in different parts of Java the dishes are adapted to local culture and taste, in return Chinese Indonesians residing in this region had developed a taste for local cuisine.
In central Java, the food tends to be much sweeter. In East Java, Chinese food there is more savory with a preference of petis shrimp paste. In Medan, North Sumatra and in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, a more traditional Chinese style can be found. Chinese cuisine in Indonesia have absorbed local preference of spicy food and local ingredients. For example, it is common to have sambal chili sauce, acar pickles and sprinkle of bawang goreng crispy fried shallot as condiment. Chinese cuisine influences on Indonesian cuisine is evident in Indonesian take on Chinese dishes, such as mie goreng, lumpia and siomay; however the culinary influences is taken another way around. Vice versa, Chinese Indonesian been influenced by native Indonesian cuisine, it is believed that Lontong Cap Go Meh is a Chinese Indonesian take on traditional Indonesian dishes. The dish reflect the assimilation among Chinese immigrants with local community; because Indonesia is Muslim majority country, some of ingredients were replaced to create a halal Chinese food.
Most of Chinese eating establishments with significant Muslim native Indonesian clientele would do so. However, in Chinatowns in major Indonesian cities where there is significant Chinese and non-Muslim population, Chinese restaurants that serve pork dishes such as babi kecap, char siew, crispy roast pork, sweet pork sausage and sate babi are available. There are different styles of Chinese food in Indonesia: Traditional Chinese food, such as the Teochew, Hakka dishes. Chinese-Indonesian food with recipes borrowed from local Indonesian cuisine and other European cuisine. Chinese dishes adapted to the local culture and taste, such as replacing pork with chicken or beef to make it halal. New style Chinese food with chefs from China, Hong Kong or Taiwan. Most of the times, the name of Chinese Indonesian foods are preserved from its original Chinese Hokkien name. However, sometimes the name are derived from the translation of its meanings, ingredients or process
Shanxi cuisine, or Shan cuisine, is derived from the native cooking styles of Shanxi Province in China. It is famous for fried flatbread and sour tastes; the cuisine is famed for using its locally produced vinegar, just like in Huaiyang cuisine, but the flavour is different. Speaking, Shanxi cuisine is not well known to people outside the region; this is because Shanxi is less populated than other provinces in China. Being a traditional region where the lifestyle of locals has not been modernised, many outsiders find Shanxi cuisine too authentic and traditional. While pork and chicken are common in Shanxi, one of the most popular meat sources is lamb. Goat, sheep offal is often used. For example, lamb soup is cooked with livers and other offal; as a traditional area with strong cultural connections to Northwest Asian nomadic nations and minorities, the use of lamb in Shanxi cuisine presents a unique fusion of the culinary traditions of North Chinese minoritiy and Han Chinese. For example, using ground lamb and carrots as a dumpling filling, is something, not found in any other Chinese cooking styles.
Ground pork with chopped dill is another popular dumpling filling. The main staples reflect the crops grown in Shanxi: millet and wheat. Pork, mushrooms and turnips are used in dishes. Shanxi cuisine comprises three styles: Northern Shanxi style: Represented by dishes from Datong and Mount Wutai, with emphasis on colour and oil. Southern Shanxi style: Represented by dishes from Linfen and the Grand Canal regions, specialising in seafood, despite the fact that Shanxi is a landlocked province. Central Shanxi style: Represented by dishes from Taiyuan, which presents a mainstream cooking style compared to both the northern and southern regions of the province. Before the 1970s, as local cuisine and professional cooking had not been influenced by Cantonese and Sichuan styles, Taiyuan cuisine contained a number of pasta dishes, Chinese Muslim dishes, local hot pot dishes, meat dishes using fresh water seafood and lamb; the region is famous for its knife-shaven noodles. Shanxi mature vinegar called Shanxi lao chencu in Chinese, is a special type of vinegar produced in Shanxi Province.
Based on the techniques used to prepare the vinegar, it should be more called "aged Shanxi vinegar" or "extra aged vinegar". Some of the methods used in brewing the vinegar have been considered intellectual properties and are under the protection of Chinese laws, it is a famous product of the region, is produced in Qingxu County, a vicinity of the provincial capital of Taiyuan. The Shanxi Vinegar Culture Museum has been built there. Local Taiyuan residents those who have lived there for generations, prefer Donghu Mature Vinegar produced by Shanxi Mature Vinegar Group, the largest mature vinegar manufacturer in China. There is Ninghuafu Yiyuanqing, a brand of vinegar produced by the Yiyuanqing Company in the old downtown area of Taiyuan. In the United States, some Asian grocery stores sell; the common suppliers are Shanxi Mature Vinegar Group, a China Time-Honored Brand company since 1368, Shuita Brand, a brewing company located in Qingxu County
Hakka cuisine, or Kuh-chia cuisine, is the cooking style of the Hakka people, who may be found in other parts of Taiwan and in countries with significant overseas Hakka communities. There are numerous restaurants in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand serving Hakka cuisine. Hakka cuisine was listed in 2014 on the first Hong Kong Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage; the Hakka people have a marked cuisine and style of Chinese cooking, little known outside the Hakka home. It concentrates on the texture of food – the hallmark of Hakka cuisine. Whereas preserved meats feature in Hakka delicacy, braised, roast meats –'texturised' contributions to the Hakka palate – have a central place in their repertoire. Preserved vegetables are used for steamed and braised dishes such as steamed minced pork with preserved vegetables and braised pork with salted vegetables. In fact, the raw materials for Hakka food are no different from raw materials for any other type of regional Chinese cuisine where what is cooked depends on what is available in the market.
Hakka cuisine may be described as outwardly tasty. The skill in Hakka cuisine lies in the ability to cook meat without hardening it, to bring out the proteinous flavour of meat; the Hakka who settled in the harbour and port areas of Hong Kong placed great emphasis on seafood cuisine. Hakka cuisine in Hong Kong is less dominated by expensive meats. Pragmatic and simple, Hakka cuisine is garnished with sparse or little flavouring. Modern Hakka cooking in Hong Kong favours offal. Others include tofu with preservatives, along with salt baked chicken. Another specialty is the poon choi. While it may be difficult to prove these were the actual diets of the old Hakka community, it is at present a accepted view; the above dishes and their variations are in fact found and consumed throughout China, including Guangdong Province, are not unique or confined to the Hakka population. Besides meat as source of protein, there is a unique vegan dish called lei cha, it comprises combinations of beans. Although not unique for all Hakka people but are famous among the Hakka-Hopo families.
This vegetable-based rice tea dish is gaining momentum in some multicultural countries like Malaysia. Cooking of this dish requires the help from other family members to complete all eight combinations, it helps foster the relationship between family members in return. Steamed bun is a popular snack for Hakka people, it is made from glutinous rice and is available in sweet or salty options. Sweet version consists of peanuts. Salty version consists of preserved radish. Hakka food includes other traditional Taiwanese dishes, just as other Taiwanese ethnic groups do; some of the more notable dishes in Hakka cuisine are listed as follow: In India and other regions with significant Indian populations, the locally known "Hakka cuisine" is an Indian adaptation of original Hakka dishes. This variation of Hakka cuisine is in reality Indian Chinese cuisine, it is called "Hakka cuisine" because in India, many owners of restaurants who serve this cuisine are of Hakka origin. Typical dishes include'chilli chicken' and'Dongbei chow mein', these restaurants serve traditional Indian dishes such as pakora.
Being popular in these areas, this style of cuisine is mistakenly credited as being representative of Hakka cuisine in general, whereas the authentic style of Hakka cuisine is known in these regions. Outside of India, the premiere place to enjoy Indian-Chinese cuisine is in Toronto, due to the large amount of Chinese from India that have emigrated to the region and have chosen to open restaurants. In Thailand, Bangkok's Chinatown is Yaowarat and including neighboring areas such as Sampheng, Charoen Chai, Charoen Krung, Suan Mali, Phlapphla Chai or Wong Wian Yi Sip Song Karakadakhom. In the past, many Hakka restaurants are located in the Suan Mali near Bangkok Metropolitan Administration General Hospital, but now they had moved into many places, such as Talad Phlu, one of the Chinatown as well. Taiwanese cuisine The Hakka Cookbook