Chinese Indonesians or Orang Tionghoa, are Indonesians whose ancestors arrived from China at some stage in the last eight centuries. Most Chinese Indonesians are descended from Southern Chinese immigrants. Chinese people have lived in the Indonesian archipelago since at least the 13th century. Many came as sojourners, intending to return home in their old age. Some, stayed in the region as economic migrants, their population grew during the colonial period when workers were contracted from their home provinces in southern China. Discrimination against Chinese Indonesians has occurred since the start of Dutch colonialism in the region, although government policies implemented since 1998 have attempted to redress this. Resentment of ethnic Chinese economic aptitude grew in the 1950s as Native Indonesian merchants felt they could not remain competitive. In some cases, government action propagated the stereotype that ethnic Chinese-owned conglomerates were corrupt. Although the 1997 Asian financial crisis disrupted their business activities, reform of government policy and legislation removed a number of political and social restrictions on Chinese Indonesians.
The development of local Chinese society and culture is based upon three pillars: clan associations, ethnic media and Chinese language schools. These flourished during the period of Chinese nationalism in the final years of China's Qing dynasty and through the Second Sino-Japanese War. One group supported political reforms in China, while others worked towards improved status in local politics; the New Order government dismantled the pillars of ethnic Chinese identity in favor of assimilation policies as a solution to the so-called "Chinese Problem". The Chinese Indonesian population of Sumatra accounts for nearly half of the group's national population, they are more urbanized than Indonesia's indigenous population but significant rural and agricultural communities still exist throughout the country. Declining fertility rates have resulted in an upward shift in the population pyramid, as the median age increases. Emigration has contributed to a shrinking population and communities have emerged in more industrialized nations in the second half of the 20th century.
Some have participated in repatriation programs to the People's Republic of China, while others emigrated to neighbouring Singapore and Western countries to escape anti-Chinese sentiment. Among the overseas residents, their identities are noticeably more Indonesian than Chinese; the term "Chinese Indonesian" has never been defined for the period before 1900. There was no Indonesian nationality before the 20th century; the ethno-political category Han Chinese was poorly defined before the rise of modern Chinese nationalism in the late 19th century. At its broadest, the term "Chinese Indonesian" is used to refer to anyone from, or having an ancestor from, the present-day territory of China; this usage is problematic because it conflates Han Chinese with other ethnic groups under Chinese rule. For instance, Admiral Zheng He, who led several Chinese maritime expeditions into Southeast Asia, was a Muslim from Yunnan and was not of Chinese ancestry, yet he is characterized as "Chinese"; this broad use is problematic because it prioritizes a line of descent from China over all other lines and may conflict with an individual's own self-identity.
Many people who identify as Chinese Indonesian are of Indonesian descent. Indonesia's president Abdurrahman Wahid is believed to have some Chinese ancestry, but he did not regard himself as Chinese; some narrower uses of the term focus on culture, defining as "Chinese Indonesian" those who choose to prioritize their Chinese ancestry those who have Chinese names or follow aspects of Chinese religion or culture. Within this cultural definition, a distinction has been made between peranakan and totok Chinese. Peranakan were said to have mixed Chinese and local ancestry and to have developed a hybrid culture that included elements from both Chinese and local cultures. Totoks were said to be first-generation migrants and to have retained a strong Chinese identity. Other definitions focus on the succession of legal classifications that have separated "Chinese" from other inhabitants of the archipelago. Both the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch colonial government applied complex systems of ethnic classification to their subjects, based on religion and place of origin.
Chinese Indonesians were sometimes classified as "Natives", sometimes as "Chinese", sometimes as "Foreign Orientals", a category that included Arabs and Siamese. After independence, the community was divided between those who accepted Indonesian citizenship and those who did not. Under the New Order of President Suharto, citizens of Chinese descent were formally classified as "Indonesian citizens of foreign descent". In public discourse they were distinguished from native Indonesians as "non-native"; the first recorded movement of people from China into Maritime Southeast Asia was the arrival of Mongol forces under Kublai Khan that culminated in the invasion of Java in 1293. Their intervention hastened the decline of the classical kingdoms such as Singhasari and precipitated the rise of the Majapahit empire. Chinese Muslim traders from the eastern coast of China arrived at the coastal towns of Indonesia a
Abdelhamid I. Sabra was a professor of the history of science specializing in the history of optics and science in medieval Islam, he died December 18, 2013. Sabra provided English translation and commentary for Books I-III of Ibn al-Haytham's seven book Kitab al-Manazir, written in Arabic in the 11th century. Sabra received his undergraduate degree at the University of Alexandria, he studied philosophy of science with Karl Popper at the University of London, where he received a PhD in 1955 for a thesis on optics in the 17th century. He taught at the University of Alexandria 1955-62, at the Warburg Institute 1962-72, at Harvard University from 1972 until he retired in 1996. In his article on "The Appropriation and Subsequent Naturalization of Greek Science in Medieval Islam", he argued, against the theories of Pierre Duhem, that Islamic cultures did not passively receive and preserve ancient Greek science, but "appropriated" and modified it. In 2005 he was awarded the Sarton Medal for lifetime achievement in the history of science by the History of Science Society.
1954. "A Note on a Suggested Modification of Newton's Corpuscular Theory of Light to Reconcile it with Foucault's Experiment of 1850." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 5, pp. 149–51. 1967 Theories of Light from Descartes to Newton, 363 pages. 1984. "The Andalusian Revolt Against Ptolemaic Astronomy: Averroes and al-Bitrûjî." Pp. 233–53 in Everett Mendelsohn, ed. Transformation and Tradition in the Sciences: Essays in honor of I. Bernard Cohen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1987. "The Appropriation and Subsequent Naturalization of Greek Science in Medieval Islam." History of Science 25, pp. 223–43. 1996. "Situating Arabic Science: Locality versus Essence," Isis, 87, pp. 654–670. A. I. Sabra's biography at Harvard Obituary
The church of Jesus Divine Teacher is a titular church in Rome, in the Trionfale district, in Via Vittorio Montiglio. It was built between 1966 and 1967 by the architect Carlo Bevilacqua and solemnly inaugurated by Cardinal Luigi Traglia with consecrated September 30, 1967; the church is home parish, established March 2, 1964 by the vicar Cardinal Clemente Micara with the decree Percrescente de die and entrusted to the priests of the diocese of Brescia and from 1978 to the Roman diocesan clergy. It is home to the cardinal's title "Jesus the Divine Master at the Pineta Sacchetti", founded by Pope Paul VI April 29, 1969: it was the pope who wanted this title because of the presence in the parish territory of the Faculty of Medicine of the University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Thomas Stafford Williams is the incumbent cardinal-protector since 1988; the church is circular, the porphyry pavement edged and downhill towards the center from which rises with three steps the presbytery, with the centrality of the altar and the ambo of wider dimension that manifests the table of the word.
Behind the altar, the seat of white marble, which incorporates the circularity of the presbytery, which opens with a large sunburst on the assembly. The floor to venesiana and striking pink; the large wall of the presbytery background has a large mosaic which shows three images the figure of Jesus the Divine Master: to the right the Master 12 years that dialogues with the doctors in the temple, left the Master of the Beatitudes and the center Christ the Servant on the cross who wears the white dalmatic, to indicate how the Master teaches his people to the service of the Father. Pope Paul VI established this as a titular church on 30 April 1969. John Joseph Wright 30 April 1969 appointed-10 August 1979 died Thomas Stafford Williams 2 February 1983 appointed- present Pope Paul VI established as titular church Gesú Divin Maestro alla Pineta Saccheti
Ekipa is a Polish political drama TV series created and directed by Agnieszka Holland, aired from 13 September 2007 until 6 December 2007 on Polsat. Ekipa is the second Polish political fiction series after the 1980s miniseries The Career of Nicodemus Dyzma; the series is directed by three directors - Agnieszka Holland, Magdalena Łazarkiewicz and Katarzyna Adamik, produced by ATM Grupa and Grupa Filmowa. Copyrights are owned by Telewizja Polsat. Script has been created by Wawrzyniec Smoczyński; the action of the series is set in present-day Poland. The story begins when Prime Minister and legendary opposition leader during Communist rule Henryk Nowasz of "Polish Centre Bloc" was suspected of being an agent of the former communist security services. Nowasz decided to resign in order to prevent a government downfall and proposed non-partisan 37-year-old Professor of Economy and Political Sciences Konstanty Turski, his friend and an unofficial advisor, to become a caretaker until he could prove his innocence.
Turski was narrowly confirmed by the Sejm, with silent opposition of the coalition party, "Right-wing for Poland", whose leader, Jan Matajewicz, soon became his archenemy, with support of his party colleague, President Juliusz Szczęsny and both far-right and left-wing opposition parties. Turski, soon proved to be an effective leader, but his administration is involved with serious odds with other politicians; the key ally of Matajewicz is deputy Sejm Marshal Krystyna Sochaczewska, a longtime Nowasz's friend from opposition and his successor as party leader. Henryk Nowasz, former Prime Minister and PBC leader Konstanty Turski, Prime Minister Julian Szczęsny, President Jan Matajewicz, acting Sejm Marshal, PDP leader Acting President after Szczęsny's death Krystyna Sochaczewska, PBC leader and Sejm Marshal Adam Niemiec, chief of the Prime Minister's chancellery Aleksandra Pyszny, chief of the Prime Minister's political cabinet Hubert Kowerski, spokesman of the government Julia Rychter, Chief of the Prime Minister's economic advisory team Dorota, Niemiec's assistant Mateusz Bonowicz, Prime Minister's assistant Dr Jan Guss, Prime Minister's economic advisor Boczek, Deputy Prime Minister Naruszewski, Leader of the far-right Paulina Turska, Turski's wife Marta Kołodziejczyk, Kowerski's former wife Fictional politicians in Ekipa are said to be an "TV alternative" for National Conservative administration of the Law and Justice.
Series creators mention The West Wing as a model. However, there are some significant similarities to other U. S. political drama - Commander in Chief. Like Mackenzie Allen, Turski became a leader accidentally, his chief opponent is Sejm Marshal, which could remind one of odds between Allen and Speaker of the House Nathan Templeton. Third of all: Turski preserved all cabinet of his predecessor just as Allen did, despite lack of loyalty from number of ministers. Nowasz's PBC is said to be based on former Freedom Union, while Matajewicz's PDP on Justice. Sejm political parties in Ekipa: Polish Centist Party - largest party in parliament, ruling in coalition with PDP. Centrist political positions. PBC composing people's with both right-wing leaning. Has 184 Sejm seats Right for Poland - national-conservative, second largest in Sejm. Headed by Matajewicz. President is a former PDP leader and its founder. 92 seats United Left - ruling party during previous term. Modeled on real-life SLD or LiD. Social democratic.
74 seats Patriotic Convent - far-right wing. Modeled on real-life League of Polish Families. Hard-core anti-European Union. 64 seats Agrarians - modeled on real-life Polish People's Party. 43 seats. Smallest Sejm party
Cheemeni is a Small Town in Kasaragod district in the state of Kerala, India. Cheemeni Vishnumurthy temple has lakhs of devotees visiting every year; as of 2001 India census, Cheemeni had a population of 8032 with 4227 females. Cheemeni has a College of Applied Science offering courses in Computer Science and Electronics. Local roads have access to NH.66 which connects to Mangalore in Kannur in the south. The nearest railway station is Cheruvathur on Mangalore-Palakkad line. There are airports at Kannur. A ₹47500 crore 2000-MW coal based super thermal power station, which uses an environment-friendly super critical boiler is planned to be erected at Cheemeni due to increasing power needs of the state; the central government requested for making it gas powered but Kerala government is lobbying for cost effective methods. In 2016 as a first phase a ₹2,050 crore 440-kW station is sanctioned to be built. There are other plans like implementing a 200MW solar park in Kasaragod by Solar Energy Corporation of India
Gems is a compilation album released by Aerosmith in 1988 under the label Columbia. It was the first compilation of studio material since 1980's Greatest Hits. Concentrating on heavier material than the radio-friendly singles output on Greatest Hits, the album is noted for the inclusion of the 1978 studio version of "Chip Away The Stone" – released as a single from 1978's Live! Bootleg, only a live rendition of the song was released at the time. Scheduled for release on November 8, 1988, the album was delayed one week and issued on November 15, 1988. In 2007 The album was released by Sony BMG as part of their'Collections' series entitled'Greatest Hits' and reissued the following year by Sony in their'Steel Box' series. AerosmithSteven Tyler – lead vocals, piano, producer Tom Hamilton – bass Joey Kramer – drums, percussion Joe Perry – lead and rhythm guitar, backing vocals Brad Whitford – rhythm and lead guitarAdditional musiciansJimmy Crespo – lead guitar on "Jailbait" Rick Dufay – rhythm guitar on "Jailbait" David Woodford – Saxophone Richard Supa – Piano Scott Cushnie – Piano Uncredited guitarist on some songs.
ProductionDavid Krebs – Executive Producer Steve Leber – Executive Producer Gary Lyons – Producer Adrian Barber – Producer Tony Bongiovi – Producer Jack Douglas – Producer Ray Colcord – Producer Don DeVito – Digital Producer John Ingrassia – Project Administrator James Diener – Project Director Mark Wilder – Assembly, Digital Mastering Keith Garde – Creative Supervision Caroline Greyshock – Photography Jimmy Ienner, Jr. – Photography Darren S. Winston – Creative Consultant Joel Zimmerman – Art Supervisor Lisa Sparagano – Design Ken Fredette – Design Vic Anesini – Digital Mastering Gems at MusicBrainz