Japanese Chinese cuisine
Japanese Chinese cuisine or Chūka is a style of Japanese cuisine served by nominally Chinese restaurants popularized in Japan in the late 19th century and more recent times. There is much confusion as both Japanese and Chinese reject that this food is the pure form of their own cuisine, however, it is clear this food is found in Japan, though now it is re-popularized throughout Asia from Japan as "Japanese cuisine"; this style of food is again different from modern Chinatown Chinese food in Japan, e.g. Yokohama Chinatown. Chūka is the adjective for Japanese style "Chinese" dishes, or the restaurants in Japan which serve them. Chuka dishes originated in China, but have become modified over the years to suit Japanese taste with Japanese or Western foods, they have changed enough that they are not identified as Chinese dishes by the Chinese themselves, nor as Japanese dishes by the Japanese. Japanese mistakenly consider them "Chinese", though the dish of origin in any Chinese restaurant would never be made in this way.
In some cases, Japanese foods have been added, such as in the case of miso-ramen. In other cases, only the noodles are "Chinese", as in the case of hiyashi chūka, invented in Sendai in 1937, uses Western food influences such as sliced cured ham; as meat was not common in Japanese cooking until many meat dishes pork dishes, are of Chinese origin or influence. Though Chinese cuisine would have been available in Chinatowns such as those in port cities of Kobe, Nagasaki, or Yokohama, a number of the dishes are considered meibutsu of these cities, Japanese-style Chinese cuisine is now available all over Japan; as Japanese restaurants are specialized to offer only one sort of dish, cuisine is focused on dishes found within three distinct types of restaurants: Ramen restaurants, Dim sum houses, standard Chinese-style restaurants. Ramen a dish of noodles in broth with meat and vegetable toppings, is referred to as Chuka Soba In Japan, ramen is one of the most popular fast-food options. Though every Japanese city has numerous inexpensive ramen restaurants specializing in these noodles, numerous varieties of instant ramen are available.
These noodles have changed much since their origin in China. Four main types of ramen are available in Japan: shio, shōyu, tonkotsu and miso. While the toppings used in ramen are generalized based on the broth type, this can vary from shop to shop; as complements to the noodles, ramen restaurants commonly offer Japanese-style fried rice and gyoza. Dim sum in Japan is very different from that, popularized in Chinatowns in the United States and Canada. In Japan's Chinatown areas, restaurants in which numerous dishes are brought around to diner's tables on carts do exist. But, in general, Dim sum items have only begun to gain popularity around Japan. Instead of carrying full menus of authentic, Chinese-oriented items such as stewed chicken's feet or tripe, Japanese dim sum restaurants, now found in larger cities such as Osaka and Tokyo seem to promote a cafe-like atmosphere. At these cafes and snacks become the focus, instead of full meals. In general, the menus seem to focus on cafe items, such as the like.
These are served alongside of pots of oolong or jasmine tea. Chinese Restaurants, serve a distinct set of popular dishes that are not typical of authentic Chinese cuisine, they cater to Japanese tastes. Most towns in Japan have at least one Chinese eatery, as the cuisine is popular. There are many packaged sauces available to cook favorite Chinese-Japanese dishes right at home; some of these typical dishes are: Dishes derived from Sichuan cuisine Mābō-dōfu are Stir fried dishes of ground pork mixture with Tofu cubes in a spicy sauce. Mābō-nasu are Stir fried dishes of ground pork with Eggplant in a spicy sauce; the dish was popularized in Japan by Chen Kenmin in 1952. Ebi no Chili Sauce is a spicy, thick-sauced shrimp dish; as the name suggests, chili sauce is used. Hoi Kō Rō is a stir-fry of thinly sliced cabbage in a miso-based sauce. Banbanji is a cold dish of steamed chicken, shredded and covered in a sesame sauce, it is accompanied by cold vegetables as a salad or appetizer. Dishes derived from Fujian cuisine Chin-jao Rōsu is a stir-fry of thinly sliced Beef strips with Japanese green peppers and bean sprouts in an Oyster sauce.
Champon is a ramen-like dish, topped with fried pork and vegetablesDishes derived from Cantonese cuisine Subuta is the Japanese take on Sweet and sour pork. It has a thicker, amber-colored sauce, unlike the striking orange or red of the Americanized version. Unlike the American version, it does not contain pineapple. Another common dish substitutes the fried pork in this dish with small fried meat-balls, called "niku-dango". Chāshū is derived from char siu. However, while the original Cantonese version is roasted after marinating in a sweet sauce that gives it a red colour, the Japanese version is instead stewed in honey and soy sauce. Chūkadon is a Cantonese-style stir fry of vegetables and meat on top of rice. Dishes derived fro
Macanese cuisine is unique to Macau, consists of a blend of southern Chinese and Portuguese cuisines, with significant influences from Southeast Asia and the Lusophone world. Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Besides local Chinese ingredients, its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia. Common cooking techniques include baking and roasting; the former seen in other styles of Chinese cooking, speaks to the eclectic nature of Macanese cooking. Macau is renowned for its flavour-blending culture, modern Macanese cuisine may be considered a type of fusion cuisine. Macanese food is seasoned with various spices including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon, dried cod, giving special aromas and tastes. Famous dishes include galinha à Portuguesa, galinha à Africana, pato de cabidela, Macanese chili shrimps and stir-fried curry crab. Other dishes include pig's ear and papaya salad, rabbit stewed in wine and star anise.
Tapas are an integral part of Macanese cuisine. The most popular snack is the pork chop bun; the most popular desserts are ginger milk, pastéis de nata, almond cake. Famous restaurants of Macau include the Restaurante Porto Interior, Restaurante Litoral, Restaurante Espao and Restaurante O Santos. Cantonese cuisine Hong Kong cuisine List of Chinese dishes A Guide to Macanese Food: What happens when China and Las Vegas come together
Chinese desserts are sweet foods and dishes that are served with tea, along with meals or at the end of meals in Chinese cuisine. The desserts encompass a wide variety of ingredients used in East Asian cuisines such as powdered or whole glutinous rice, sweet bean pastes, agar. Due to the many Chinese cultures and the long history of China, there are a great variety of desserts of many forms; the desserts found in China can be divided into several types. Bing are baked wheat flour based confections; these are either similar to the short-pastry crust of western cuisine or flaky puff pastry, the latter of, known as su. The preferred fat used for bing is lard. Common bing types include sun cake and wife cake. Chinese candies and sweets, called táng, are made with cane sugar, malt sugar, honey; these sweets consists of nuts or fruits that are mixed into syrup whole or in pastes to flavour or give the candies their textures. Dragon's beard candy, White Rabbit Creamy Candy are a some examples of this category.
Gao or Guo are rice based snacks that are steamed and may be made from glutinous or normal rice. In Fukien speaking Chinese populations, these are known as Kuei, which are based on the Fukien pronunciation of "粿"; these rice based snacks have a wide variety of textures and can be chewy, jelly-like, fluffy or rather firm and unlike bings different from western pastries. Various types of gao include Nian gao, Bai Tang Gao and Ang Ku Kueh. Shaved ice desserts with sweet condiments and syrup is common eaten as a dessert in Chinese culture. Ice cream is commonly available throughout China. Chinese jellies are known collectively in the language as ices. Many jelly desserts are traditionally set with agar and are flavored with fruits, though gelatin based jellies are common in contemporary desserts; some Chinese jellies, such as the grass jelly and the aiyu jelly set by themselves. Chinese dessert soups consists of sweet and hot soups and custards, they are collectively known as tong sui in Cantonese. Some of these soups are made with restorative properties in mind, in concordance with traditional Chinese medicine.
A eaten dessert soup is douhua. Hangwa – Korean confections Wagashi – Japanese confections Chinese bakery products Huangqiao Sesame Cake
Buddhist cuisine is an East Asian cuisine, followed by monks and many believers from areas influenced by Chinese Buddhism. It is vegetarian or vegan, it is based on the Dharmic concept of ahimsa. Vegetarianism is common in other Dharmic faiths such as Hinduism and Sikhism, as well as East Asian religions like Taoism. While monks and a minority of believers are vegetarian year-round, many believers follow the Buddhist vegetarian diet for celebrations. Vegetarian cuisine is known as sùshí, chúnsù, zhāicài in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Taiwan; the dishes that comprise Buddhist cuisine in any given place will be influenced by the general local cuisine. The origin of "Buddhist food" as a distinct sub-style of cuisine is tied to monasteries, where one member of the community would have the duty of being the head cook and supplying meals that paid respect to the strictures of Buddhist precepts. Temples that were open to visitors from the general public might serve meals to them and a few temples run functioning restaurants on the premises.
In Japan, this practice is known as shōjin ryōri, served at many temples in Kyoto. A more recent version, more Chinese in style, is prepared by the Ōbaku school of zen, known as fucha ryōri. In modern times, commercial restaurants have latched on to the style, catering both to practicing and non-practicing lay people. Most of the dishes considered to be uniquely Buddhist are vegetarian, but not all Buddhist traditions require vegetarianism of lay followers or clergy. Vegetarian eating is associated with the East Asian tradition in China, Vietnam and Korea where it is practiced by clergy and may be observed by laity on holidays or as a devotional practice. Theravada Monks and nuns traditionally feed themselves by gathering alms, must eat whatever foods are given to them, including meat; the exception to this alms rule is when monks and nuns have seen, heard or known that animal have been killed to feed the alms-seeker, in which case consumption of such meat would be karmically negative, as well as meat from certain animals, such as dogs and snakes, that were regarded as impure in ancient India.
The same restriction is followed by some lay Buddhists and is known as the consumption of "triply clean meat". The Pali Sutras describe the Buddha as refusing a suggestion by his student Devadatta to mandate vegetarianism in the monastic precepts. In the Mahayana tradition, by contrast, several sutras of the Mahayana canon contain explicit prohibitions against consuming meat, including sections of the Lankavatara Sutra and Surangama Sutra. Japanese Buddhist sects believe that Buddha ate meat. All Japanese Kamakura sects of Buddhism have relaxed Mahayana vinaya, as a consequence, vegetarianism is optional; the monastic community in Chinese Buddhism, Vietnamese Buddhism and most of Korean Buddhism adhere to vegetarianism. Tibetan Buddhism has long accepted that the practical difficulties in obtaining vegetables and grains within most of Tibet make it impossible to insist upon vegetarianism. Both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhists consider that one may practice vegetarianism as part of cultivating Bodhisattvas's paramita.
In addition to the ban on garlic all Mahayana monastics in China, Korea and Japan avoid eating strong-smelling plants, traditionally asafoetida, mountain leek and Allium chinense, which together with garlic are referred to as wǔ hūn or wǔ xīn as they tend to excite senses. This is based on teachings found in the Brahamajala Sutra, the Surangama Sutra and the Lankavatara Sutra. In modern times this rule is interpreted to include other vegetables of the onion genus, as well as coriander; the origins of this additional restriction is from the Indic region and can still be found among some believers of Hinduism and Jainism. Some Taoists have this additional restriction but the list of restricted plants differs from the Buddhist list; the food that a strict Buddhist takes, if not a vegetarian, is specific. For many Chinese Buddhists beef and the consumption of large animals and exotic species is avoided. There would be the aforementioned "triply clean meat" rule. One restriction on food, not known to many is the abstinence from eating animal innards and organs.
This is known as xiàshui. Alcohol and other drugs are avoided by many Buddhists because of their effects on the mind and "mindfulness", it is part of the Five Precepts which dictate that one is not to consume "addictive materials". The definition of "addictive" depends on each individual but most Buddhists consider alcohol and drugs other than medicine to be addictive. Although caffeine is now known to be addictive, caffeinated drinks and tea are not included under this restriction. There are many legends about tea. Among meditators it is awake without overexcitement. In theory and practice, many region
Cantonese cuisine or more Guangdong cuisine known as Yue cuisine, refers to the cuisine of China's Guangdong Province the provincial capital, Guangzhou. "Cantonese" refers to only Guangzhou or the language known as Cantonese associated with it, but people refer to "Cantonese cuisine" to all the cooking styles of the speakers of Yue Chinese languages from within Guangdong. The Teochew cuisine and Hakka cuisine of Guangdong are considered their own styles, as is neighboring Guangxi's cuisine despite being considered culturally Cantonese, it is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine. Its prominence outside China is due to the large number of Cantonese emigrants. Chefs trained in Cantonese cuisine are sought after throughout China; until most Chinese restaurants in the West served Cantonese dishes. Guangzhou City, the provincial capital of Guangdong and the center of Cantonese culture, has long been a trading hub and many imported foods and ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine.
Besides pork and chicken, Cantonese cuisine incorporates all edible meats, including offal, chicken feet, duck's tongue, frog legs and snails. However and goat are less used than in the cuisines of northern or western China. Many cooking methods are used, with steaming and stir frying being the most favoured due to their convenience and rapidity. Other techniques include shallow frying, double steaming and deep frying. For many traditional Cantonese cooks, the flavours of a dish should be well balanced and not greasy. Apart from that, spices should be used in modest amounts to avoid overwhelming the flavours of the primary ingredients, these ingredients in turn should be at the peak of their freshness and quality. There is no widespread use of fresh herbs in Cantonese cooking, in contrast with their liberal use in other cuisines such as Sichuanese, Lao and European. Garlic chives and coriander leaves are notable exceptions, although the former are used as a vegetable and the latter are used as mere garnish in most dishes.
In Cantonese cuisine, a number of ingredients such as sugar, soy sauce, rice wine, vinegar and sesame oil, suffice to enhance flavour, although garlic is used in some dishes those in which internal organs, such as entrails, may emit unpleasant odours. Ginger, chili peppers, five-spice powder, powdered black pepper, star anise and a few other spices are used, but sparingly. Although Cantonese cooks pay much attention to the freshness of their primary ingredients, Cantonese cuisine uses a long list of preserved food items to add flavour to a dish; this may be influenced by Hakka cuisine, since the Hakkas were once a dominant group occupying imperial Hong Kong and other southern territories. Some items gain intense flavours during the drying/preservation/oxidation process and some foods are preserved to increase their shelf life; some chefs combine both fresh varieties of the same items in a dish. Dried items are soaked in water to rehydrate before cooking; these ingredients are not served a la carte, but rather with vegetables or other Cantonese dishes.
A number of dishes have been part of Cantonese cuisine since the earliest territorial establishments of Guangdong. While many of these are on the menus of typical Cantonese restaurants, some simpler ones are more found in Cantonese homes. Home-made Cantonese dishes are served with plain white rice. There are a small number of deep-fried dishes in Cantonese cuisine, which can be found as street food, they have been extensively documented in colonial Hong Kong records of the 20th centuries. A few are synonymous with Cantonese breakfast and lunch though these are part of other cuisines. Old fire soup, or lou fo tong, is a clear broth prepared by simmering meat and other ingredients over a low heat for several hours. Chinese herbs are used as ingredients. There are two ways to make old fire soup – put ingredients and water in the pot and heat it directly on fire, called bou tong; the latter way can keep the most original taste of the soup. Soup chain stores or delivery outlets in cities with significant Cantonese populations, such as Hong Kong, serve this dish due to the long preparation time required of slow-simmered soup.
Due to Guangdong's location along the South China Sea coast, fresh seafood is prominent in Cantonese cuisine, many Cantonese restaurants keep aquariums or seafood tanks on the premises. In Cantonese cuisine, as in cuisines from other parts of Asia, if seafood has a repugnant odour, strong spices and marinating juices are added. For instance, in some recipes, only a small amount of soy sauce and spring onion is added to steamed fish. In Cantonese cuisine, the light seasoning is used only to bring out the natural sweetness of the seafood; as a rule of thumb, the spiciness of a dish is inversely proportionate to the freshness of the ingredients. Noodles are served either in soup fried; these are available as home-cooked meals, on dim sum side menus, or as street food at dai pai dongs, where they can be served with a variety of toppings such as fish balls, beef balls, or fish slices. Siu mei is the Chinese rotisserie
Taiwanese cuisine has several variations. In addition to the following representative dishes from the majority Hoklo, there are Aboriginal and local derivatives of Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine. Taiwanese cuisine itself is associated with influences from mid to southern provinces of China, most notably from the south of Fujian which leads to it being classified or grouped with'Southern Fujianese cuisine'. However, influences from all of mainland China can be found after the Kuomintang retreat to the island which brought along a large number of Chinese chefs from the mainland. A notable Japanese influence exists due to the period when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. Traditional Chinese food can be found in Taiwan, alongside Fujian and Hakka-style as well as native Taiwanese dishes, including dishes from Guangdong, Chaoshan, Hunan and Beijing. Pork, chicken and soy are common ingredients. Beef is far less common, some Taiwanese still refrain from eating it. A traditional reluctance towards slaughtering precious cattle needed for agriculture, an emotional attachment and feeling of gratitude and thanks to the animals traditionally used for hard labour.
However, due to influences from the influx of out of province Chinese in the early 1900s, the Taiwanese version of beef noodle soup is now one of the most popular dishes in Taiwan. Taiwan's cuisine has been influenced by its geographic location. Living on a crowded island, the Taiwanese had to look aside from the farmlands for sources of protein; as a result, seafood figures prominently in their cuisine. This seafood encompasses many different things, from large fish such as tuna and grouper, to sardines and smaller fish such as anchovies. Crustaceans and cuttlefish are eaten; because of the island's sub-tropical location, Taiwan has an abundant supply of various fruit, such as papayas, starfruit and citrus fruit. A wide variety of tropical fruits and native, are enjoyed in Taiwan. Other agricultural products in general are rice, tea, poultry, beef and other fruits and vegetables. Fresh ingredients in Taiwan are available from markets. In many of their dishes, the Taiwanese have shown their creativity in their selection of spices.
Taiwanese cuisine relies on an abundant array of seasonings for flavor: soy sauce, rice wine, sesame oil, fermented black beans, pickled radish, pickled mustard greens, chili peppers, a local variety of basil. An important part of Taiwanese cuisine are xiaochi, substantial snacks along the lines of Spanish tapas or Levantine meze; the Taiwanese xiaochi has gained much reputation internationally. Many travelers go to Taiwan just for xiǎochī; the most common place to enjoy xiǎochī in Taiwan is in a night market. Each night market has its own famous xiǎochī. Moreover, the Taiwanese xiǎochī has been improving to a higher level. Nowadays, Taiwanese xiǎochī not only served in night markets but some luxury and high-end restaurants; these restaurants use higher quality ingredients and creative presentations, reinventing dishes whilst keeping the robust flavors. The prices jump by twice the price or higher in the restaurants; the Taiwanese government supports the Taiwanese xiǎochī and has held national xiǎochī events in Taiwan regularly.
Vegetarian restaurants are commonplace with a wide variety of dishes due to the influence of Buddhism and other syncretistic religions like I-Kuan Tao. These vegetarian restaurants vary in style from all-you-can-eat to pay-by-the-weight and of course the regular order-from-a-menu. There is a type of outdoor barbecue called khòng-iô. To barbecue in this manner, one first builds a hollow pyramid up with dirt clods. Next, charcoal or wood is burnt inside until the temperature inside the pyramid is high; the ingredients to be cooked, such as taro, yam, or chicken, are placed in cans, the cans are placed inside the pyramid. The pyramid is toppled over the food until cooked. Many non-dessert dishes are considered snacks, not entrees; such dishes are only salted, with lots of vegetables along with the main meat or seafood item. Taiwanese dishes Aiyu jelly – a gelatinous dessert made from the seeds of a fig-like fruit, Ficus pumila var. awkeotsang. Served on ice. Baobing – a Chinese shaved ice dessert common in China, Taiwan and Vietnam.
Bubble tea, aka boba milk tea. Traditional cakes are not always of the same composition depending on the flavor. There is the moon cake which has a thick filling made from lotus seed paste or sweetened red bean paste and surrounded by a thin crust and may contain yolks from salted duck eggs, it is traditionally eaten during the festival for lunar moon watching. Mooncakes are offered on family gatherings while celebrating the festival; the Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the four most important Chinese festivals. There are other cakes that can mix salty ingredients with sweet ones to create a balance while enjoying these delicacies with tea; the crust could be shiny from applying a layer of egg yolk before putting in the oven, or not in that case it is whiter and the crust has more layers. Grass jelly – Served hot or cold. Moachi (麻糍
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world. Because of the Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in Asia, with modifications made to cater to local palates. Chinese food staples such as rice, soy sauce, noodles and tofu, utensils such as chopsticks and the wok, can now be found worldwide; the preference for seasoning and cooking techniques of Chinese provinces depend on differences in historical background and ethnic groups. Geographic features including mountains, rivers and deserts have a strong effect on the local available ingredients, considering that the climate of China varies from tropical in the south to subarctic in the northeast. Imperial and noble preference plays a role in the change of Chinese cuisines; because of imperial expansion and trading and cooking techniques from other cultures are integrated into Chinese cuisines over time.
The most praised "Four Major Cuisines" are Chuan, Lu, Yue and Huaiyang, representing West, North and East China cuisine correspondingly. The modern "Eight Cuisines" of China are Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang cuisines. Color and taste are the three traditional aspects used to describe Chinese food, as well as the meaning and nutrition of the food. Cooking should be appraised with respect to the ingredients used, cooking time and seasoning. Chinese society valued gastronomy, developed an extensive study of the subject based on its traditional medical beliefs. Chinese culture centered around the North China Plain; the first domesticated crops seem to have been the foxtail and broomcorn varieties of millet, while rice was cultivated in the south. By 2000 BC, wheat had arrived from western Asia; these grains were served as warm noodle soups instead of baked into bread as in Europe. Nobles hunted various wild game and consumed mutton and dog as these animals were domesticated. Grain was stored against famine and flood and meat was preserved with salt, vinegar and fermenting.
The flavor of the meat was enhanced by cooking it in animal fats though this practice was restricted to the wealthy. By the time of Confucius in the late Zhou, gastronomy had become a high art. Confucius discussed the principles of dining: "The rice would never be too white, the meat would never be too finely cut... When it was not cooked right, man would not eat; when it was cooked bad, man would not eat. When the meat was not cut properly, man would not eat; when the food was not prepared with the right sauce, man would not eat. Although there are plenty of meats, they should not be cooked more than staple food. There is no limit for alcohol, before a man gets drunk." During Shi Huangdi's Qin dynasty, the empire expanded into the south. By the time of the Han dynasty, the different regions and cuisines of China's people were linked by major canals and leading to a greater complexity in the different regional cuisines. Not only is food seen as giving "qi", but food is about maintaining yin and yang.
The philosophy behind it was rooted in the I Ching and Chinese traditional medicine: food was judged for color, aroma and texture and a good meal was expected to balance the Four Natures and the Five Tastes. Salt was used as a preservative from early times, but in cooking was added in the form of soy sauce, not at the table; the predominance of chopsticks and spoons as eating utensils necessitated that most food be prepared in bite-sized pieces or be so tender that it could be picked apart. By the Later Han period, writers complained of lazy aristocrats who did nothing but sit around all day eating smoked meats and roasts. During the Han dynasty, the Chinese developed methods of food preservation for military rations during campaigns such as drying meat into jerky and cooking and drying grain. Chinese legends claim that the roasted, flat bread shaobing was brought back from the Xiyu by the Han dynasty General Ban Chao, that it was known as hubing; the shaobing is believed to be descended from the hubing.
Shaobing is believed to be related to the Persian nan and Central Asian nan, as well as the Middle Eastern pita. Foreign westerners sold sesame cakes in China during the Tang dynasty. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties non-Han people like the Xianbei of Northern Wei introduced their cuisine to northern China, these influences continued up to the Tang dynasty, popularizing meat like mutton and dairy products like goat milk and Kumis among Han people, it was during the Song dynasty that Han Chinese developed an aversion to dairy products and abandoned the dairy foods introduced earlier. The Han Chinese rebel Wang Su who received asylum in the Xianbei Northern Wei after fleeing from Southern Qi, at first could not stand eating dairy products like goat's milk and meat like mutton and had to consume tea and fish instead, but after a few years he was able to eat yogurt and lamb, the Xianbei Emperor asked him which of the foods of China he preferred, fish vs mutton and tea vs yogurt; the great migration of Chinese people south during the invasions preceding and during the Song dynasty increased the relative importance of southern Chinese staples such as rice and congee.
Su Dongpo has improved the red brai