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Chinese constellations

Traditional Chinese astronomy has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials". The Chinese asterisms are smaller than the constellations of Hellenistic tradition; the Song dynasty Suzhou planisphere shows a total of 283 asterisms, comprising a total of 1,565 individual stars. The asterisms are divided into four groups, the Twenty-Eight Mansions along the ecliptic, the Three Enclosures of the northern sky; the southern sky was added as a fifth group in the late Ming Dynasty based on European star charts, comprising an additional 23 asterisms. The Three Enclosures are centered on the North Celestial Pole and include those stars which could be seen year-round; the Twenty-Eight Mansions form an ecliptic coordinate system used for those stars visible but not during the whole year, based on the movement of the moon over a lunar month. The Chinese system developed independently from the Greco-Roman system since at least the 5th century BC, although there may have been earlier mutual influence, suggested by parallels to ancient Babylonian astronomy.

The system of twenty-eight lunar mansions is similar to the Indian Nakshatra system, it is not known if there was mutual influence in the history of the Chinese and Indian systems. The oldest extant Chinese star maps date to the Tang dynasty. Notable among them are the 8th-century Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era and Dunhuang Star Chart, it contains collections of earlier Chinese astronomers as well as of Indian astronomy. Gan De was a Warring States era astronomer who according to the testimony of the Dunhuang Star Chart enumerated 810 stars in 138 asterisms; the Dunhuang Star Chart itself has 1,585 stars grouped into 257 asterisms. The number of asterisms, or of stars grouped into asterisms, never became fixed, but remained in the same order of magnitude; the 13th-century Suzhou star chart has 1,565 stars in 283 asterisms, the 14th-century Korean Cheonsang Yeolcha Bunyajido has 1,467 stars in 264 asterisms, the celestial globe made by Flemish Jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest for the Kangxi Emperor in 1673 has 1,876 stars in 282 asterisms.

The southern sky was unknown to the ancient Chinese and is not included in the traditional system. With European contact in the 16th century, Xu Guangqi, an astronomer of the late Ming Dynasty, introduced another 23 asterisms based on European star charts; the "Southern Sky" asterisms are now treated as part of the traditional Chinese system. The Chinese word for "star, heavenly body" is 星 xīng; the character 星 had a more complicated form: 曐, a phono-semantic character whose semantic portion, 晶 depicting three twinkling stars. The modern Chinese term for "constellation", referring to those as defined by the IAU system, is 星座; the older term 星官 is used only in describing constellations of the traditional system. The character 官 means "public official", but it is a variant glyph of 宮 gōng "temple, palace", in origin a pictogram of a large building; the generic term for "asterism" is 星群. The Three Enclosures are the Purple Forbidden enclosure, the Supreme Palace enclosure and the Heavenly Market enclosure.

The Purple Forbidden Enclosure occupies the northernmost area of the night sky. From the viewpoint of the ancient Chinese, the Purple Forbidden Enclosure lies in the middle of the sky and is circled by all the other stars, it covers the Greek constellations Ursa Minor, Camelopardalis, Cassiopeia, Auriga, Boötes, parts of Ursa Major, Canes Venatici, Leo Minor, Hercules. The Supreme Palace Enclosure covers the Greek constellations Virgo, Coma Berenices and Leo, parts of Canes Venatici, Ursa Major and Leo Minor; the Heavenly Market Enclosure covers the Greek constellations Serpens, Ophiuchus and Corona Borealis, parts of Hercules. The Three Enclosures are each enclosed by two "wall" asterisms, designated 垣 yuán "fence; the names and determinative stars are: The sky around the south celestial pole was unknown to ancient Chinese. Therefore, it was not included in the Three Enclosures and Twenty-Eight Mansions system. However, by the end of the Ming Dynasty, Xu Guangqi introduced another 23 asterisms based on the knowledge of European star charts.

These asterisms were since incorporated into the traditional Chinese star maps. The asterisms are: Ancient Chinese astronomers designated names to the visible stars systematically more than one thousand years before Johann Bayer did it in a similar way; every star is assigned to an asterism. A number is given to the individual stars in this asterism. Therefore, a star is designated as "Asterism name" + "Number"; the numbe

Sugarloaf Reservoir

Sugarloaf Reservoir is a reservoir at Christmas Hills 35 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. The structure was completed by Thiess Brothers in 1981, has a total capacity of 96 gigalitres; as at 21 April 2016, the reservoir was at 62.5% of capacity. Sugarloaf reached 100% capacity in 2006, it dropped to nearly 10% by May 2009 but rose to 80% that year. Sugarloaf Reservoir includes a major pumping water treatment plant. Sugarloaf uses water pumped from the Yarra River at Yering Gorge and water transferred from Maroondah Reservoir via the Maroondah aqueduct. Sugarloaf is important in meeting peak summer demand in the northern parts of Melbourne. In February 2010, the North South Pipeline was completed, connecting the Goulburn River to the reservoir, it is the government's policy that water from the Goulburn only be used in times of critical human need: when Melbourne’s total water storages are less than 30% full on 30 November of any year. The Sugarloaf Reservoir is operated by Melbourne Water.

The Sugarloaf Sailing Club operates on the reservoir year round. The club can be found on Ridge Road off the Eltham-Yarra Glen road; the club runs over 40 races throughout the year in for series, "Winter", "Spring", "Summer" and "Autumn". There is a strong racing fraternity at Sugarloaf who can be found on the lake on race days, hail or shine. New members can use the boats from the club fleet without further charges; the Club conducts Sailability on the 1st Wednesday of the month during the warmer months. Sailability is sailing for all including the young, the elderly and disabled and uses Access dinghies which are unsinkable and good fun. Sugarloaf Reservoir is a popular waterway for recreational fishing. Rainbow and brown trout, redfin and European carp can be caught in these waters all year round. No natural bait or berley is permitted, there are signs posted around the reservoir stating this; this is due to the reservoir being an integral component of Melbourne's domestic water supply. There have been studies conducted that suggest that the mercury levels in the Redfin are higher than is regarded safe for human consumption

Heating degree day

Heating degree day is a measurement designed to quantify the demand for energy needed to heat a building. HDD is derived from measurements of outside air temperature; the heating requirements for a given building at a specific location are considered to be directly proportional to the number of HDD at that location. Related measurements include the cooling degree day. Heating degree days are defined relative to a base temperature—the outside temperature above which a building needs no heating. Base temperatures may be defined for a particular building as a function of the temperature that the building is heated to, or it may be defined for a country or region for example. In the latter case, building standards or conventions may exist for the temperature threshold; these include: The base temperature does not correspond to the building mean internal temperature, as standards may consider mean building insulation levels and internal gains to determine an average external temperature at which heating will be required.

Base temperatures of 16 °C and 19 °C are used. The variation in choice of base temperature implies that HDD values cannot always be compared – care must be taken to ensure that only HDDs with equal base temperatures are compared. There are a number of ways in which HDD can be calculated: the more detailed a record of temperature data, the more accurate the HDD that can be calculated. HDD are calculated using simple approximation methods that use daily temperature readings instead of more detailed temperature records such as half-hourly readings, the latter of which can be used to estimate an integral. One popular approximation method, that used by the U. S. National Weather Service, is to take the average temperature on any given day and subtract it from the base temperature. If the value is less than or equal to zero, that day has zero HDD, but if the value is positive, that number represents the number of HDD on that day. This method works satisfactorily if the outside air temperature does not exceed the base temperature.

In climates where this is to occur from time to time, there are refinements to the simple calculation which allow some'credit' for the period of the day when the air is warm enough for heating to be unnecessary. This more accurate algorithm enables results to be computed in temperate climates throughout the year and on a weekly as well as monthly basis. HDD can be added over periods of time to provide a rough estimate of seasonal heating requirements. In the course of a heating season, for example, the number of HDD for New York City is 5,050 whereas that for Barrow, Alaska is 19,990. Thus, one can say that, for a given home of similar structure and insulation, around four times the energy would be required to heat the home in Barrow than in New York. A similar home in Miami, whose heating degree days for the heating season is 500, would require around one tenth of the energy required to heat the house in New York City. However, this is a theoretical approach as the level of insulation of a building affects the demand for heating.

For example, temperatures drop below the base temperature during night, but because of insulation, heating is unnecessary. In the end of spring and in the beginning of fall or in the winter depending on the climate, sufficient insulation keeps the indoor temperature higher than the outdoor temperature with little or no heating. For example, in southern California, during winter heating is not necessary in Los Angeles and San Diego if the insulation is sufficient to take into account the colder night temperatures. Buildings include thermal mass such as concrete, able to store energy of the sun absorbed in daytime, thus if the heating degree days indicate a demand for heating sufficient insulation of a building can make heating unnecessary. HDD provides a simple metric for quantifying the amount of heating that buildings in a particular location need over a certain period. In conjunction with the average U-value for a building they provide a means of estimating the amount of energy required to heat the building over that period.

One HDD means that the temperature conditions outside the building were equivalent to being below a defined threshold comfort temperature inside the building by one degree for one day. Thus heat has to be provided inside the building to maintain thermal comfort. Say we are given the number of heating degree days D in one year and we wish to calculate the energy required by a building. We know; this can be calculated as the sum of the heat losses per degree of each element of the buildings' thermal envelope or as the average U-value of the building multiplied by the area of the thermal envelope of the building, or quoted directly for the whole building. This gives the buildings' specific heat loss rate Pspecific given in watts per kelvin. Total energy in kilowatt hours is given by: Q = P specific × 24 × D 1000 As total energy consumption is in kilowatt hours and heating degree days are we must convert watts per kelvin into kilowatt hours per degree per day

Diana, Princess of Wales's jewels

Diana, Princess of Wales, was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. She owned a collection of jewels–both as a member of the British royal family and as a private individual, they were separate from the state regalia of the Crown Jewels. Most of her jewels were either presents from foreign royalty, on loan from Elizabeth II, wedding presents, purchased by Diana herself, heirlooms belonging to the Spencer family, her jewellery was a mix of precious stones and costume pieces which she sourced from London's Butler & Wilson reported by the media as being "priceless" jewels, which the Princess found amusing. Most of the jewellery dates from the 20th centuries, she had a vast collection of gold accessories which went unnoticed and became understated by the media. At formal occasions, such as banquets, the Princess wore jewellery lent to her by the Queen, who owns more than 300 items of jewellery. Born into an affluent aristocratic family, Diana Spencer owned some high quality jewellery.

Prior to her marriage to Prince Charles, the Princess wore a gold Cartier Russian wedding ring of three yellow gold bands on the pinky finger of her right hand and a diamond and white gold eternity ring from the family collection on her third finger. The rings remained in the Princess's collection but were seen in public during her marriage, she was photographed wearing both rings on her left hand. She wore her family's signet ring which she would wear in combination with her other rings; as a teenager, Diana wore a gold choker with a'D' pendant. In 2017, a sterling silver'D' necklace owned by the princess as a teenager sold at auction for around US$8,000. Diana was photographed wearing her initial necklace as a nursery assistant while still dating Charles, she was photographed wearing sterling silver earrings with five diamonds. After marrying Charles, she continued to wear the necklace on occasion; the future Princess had a collection of enameled bangles and bracelets which she wore as a teenager.

At the age of 17, Diana was a bridesmaid at her sister Jane's wedding to Robert Fellowes on 20 April 1978. She wore a pair of a pearl necklace; the pearl studs were worn by Diana as early as 1975 and were last seen on the Princess in 1990 while opening a police station in London. On her 18th birthday, Diana was given a triple-strand pearl choker by the Spencer family. Both of Diana's older sisters had received matching chokers on their 18th birthdays, it consisted of three rows of pearls with a pearl cluster clasp. The Princess altered the clasp to be all pearls. One of the first gifts Diana received from Prince Charles was an eternity ring which she wore regularly. At the age of 18, while living in her flat 60 Coleherne Court, her apartment was burgled and she had most of her jewellery stolen; the wedding of Charles and Diana took place on 29 July 1981 at London. The Princess wore little jewellery at her wedding, she wore diamond earrings that belonged to Frances Shand Kydd. She wore her Spencer family tiara, her engagement ring, a wedding band placed on her finger by Charles at the ceremony.

Her wedding dress designers, the Emanuels attached an 18-carat gold horseshoe trinket studded with white diamonds to the label of the dress. On her wedding day, Diana borrowed her mother's diamond earrings, which consist of a central pear-shaped diamond surrounded by around 50 smaller diamonds; the Princess never wore them in public again, but Frances wore them at a number of important occasions, including Prince Harry's christening in 1984, her son's wedding in 1992, the funeral of her daughter in 1997. After Frances' death in 2004, Lady Sarah McCorquodale, her eldest daughter, inherited them. For many years, the earrings were a part of the travelling Diana exhibition. In 2011, Lady Sarah withdrew them from the display to wear at the wedding ball for her nephew, Prince William. Though this piece was once said to date from the 18th century, the Spencer tiara is made up of other pieces of jewellery of varying ages and from different jewellers that has gone through several changes over time; the oldest parts of the tiara are the ends.

They are said to have come from a tiara that once belonged to Frances Manby, the last Viscountess Montagu, left to Lady Sarah Spencer in 1875. The centre element was a wedding present from Lady Sarah Isabella Spencer to Cynthia, Viscountess Althorp, when she married Albert, Viscount Althorp, the future 7th Earl Spencer, in 1919; this piece was remounted by the Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company at some point, Garrard was asked to create four matching pieces in 1937 to add on. The full current appearance dates from around 1935; the tiara includes diamonds in silver settings mounted in gold in various floral shapes: stylized tulips, star-shaped flowers, scrolling foliage. Both of Lady Diana's older sisters and Sarah, wore the piece at their weddings. However, Diana's mother, did not wear it when she married into the Spencer family in 1954. While Diana's mother-in-law, Queen Elizabeth II, loaned her the Queen Mary's Lover's Knot Tiara for the wedding, the princess-to-be decided to stick to her family roots and wore the Spencer tiara.

Diana wore the piece as it was lighter and easier to wear than other tiaras at her disposal. So, it gave Diana a "cracking headache" according to her brother, Charles Spencer, as she was not used to wearing a tiara for such a long time. Diana, Princess of Wales, received many pieces of jewe

Huaorani people

The Huaorani, Waorani, or Waodani known as the Waos, are native Amerindians from the Amazonian Region of Ecuador who have marked differences from other ethnic groups from Ecuador. The alternate name Auca is a pejorative exonym used by the neighboring Quechua natives, adopted by Spanish-speakers as well. Auca means "savage", they comprise 4,000 inhabitants and speak the Huaorani language, a linguistic isolate, not known to be related to any other language. Their ancestral lands are located between the Curaray and Napo rivers, about 50 miles south of El Coca; these homelands—approximately 120 miles wide and 75 to 100 miles from north to south – are threatened by oil exploration and illegal logging practices. In the past, Huaorani were able to protect their culture and lands from both indigenous enemies and settlers. In the last 40 years, they have shifted from a hunting and gathering society to live in permanent forest settlements; as many as five communities—the Tagaeri, the Huiñatare, the Oñamenane, two groups of the Taromenane—have rejected all contact with the outside world and continue to move into more isolated areas.

The word Waodani means "men" in Wao Tiriro. Before the mid 20th century, it included only those kin associated with the speaker. Others in the ethnic group were called Waodoni, while outsiders were and are known by the derogatory term Cowodi; this structure duplicates the in-group/out-group naming conventions used by many peoples. It reflects a period of traumatic conflict with outsiders during the 19th and early 20th century rubber boom / oil exploration; the name Waodani represents a transliteration by English-speaking missionary linguists. The phonetic equivalent used by Spanish-speakers is Huaorani; the sounds represented by the English and Spanish letters d, r and n are allophones in Wao Tededo. Retrie ved 8/21/19 The Waodani are subdivided into the Toñampare, Tihueno, Damuintaro, Tigüino, Dayuno, Garzacocha, Quemperi Mima and Tagaeri. According to Scott Wallace, American missionaries in Ecuador attempted to contact the Huaorani in the 1950s with airdropped gifts. However, the photographs included in the package baffled the Huaorani, they believed the images were evil magical creations.

When some Huaorani tribesmen found some missionaries who had landed a plane on a riverbank, the tribesmen speared the Westerners to death. In traditional animist Waodani worldview, there is no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds, spirits are present throughout the world; the Waodani once believed. The Oriente’s rain forest remains the essential basis of their physical and cultural survival. For them, the forest is home. In short, as one Waodani put it, “The rivers and trees are our life.” In all its specificities, the forest is woven into conceptions of the world. They have remarkably detailed knowledge of its ecology. Hunting is of cultural significance. Before a hunting or fishing party ensues, the community shaman will pray for a day to ensure its success. Traditionally the creatures hunted were limited to monkeys and wild peccaries. Neither land-based predators nor birds of prey are hunted. Traditionally there was an extensive collection of eating taboos, they refused to eat deer, on the grounds.

While a joyful activity, hunting has ethical ramifications: “The Guarani must kill animals to live, but they believed dead animal spirits live on and must be placated or else do harm in angry retribution.” To counterbalance the offense of hunting, a shaman demonstrated respect through the ritual preparation of the poison, used in blow darts. Hunting with such darts is not considered killing, but retrieving a kind of harvesting from the trees. Plants trees, continue to hold an important interest for the Waodani, their store of botanical knowledge is extensive, ranging from knowledge of materials to poisons to hallucinogens to medicines. They relate plants to their own experiences that of growing. Among trees, certain kinds are auspicious. Canopy trees, with their distinctly colored young leaves and striking transformation as they mature to towering giants, are “admired for their solitary character... as well as for their profuse entanglement” with other plants. Other significant trees are the pioneer species of the peach palm, fast-growing balsa wood, used for ceremonial purposes.

Peach palm trees are associated with the ancestors who live there. Shamanic ethnomedicine uses the ayahuasca beverage and a newly identified mushroom with the analogous substance of Psilocybe genusAs with many peoples, the Waos maintain a strong in-group/out-group distinction, between Waodani and Cowodi; the use of Waodani as a term for their entire culture emerged in the last fifty years in a process of ethnogenesis. This was accelerated by the creation of ONHAE, a radio service, a soccer league; the Waodani notion of time is oriented to the present, with few obligations extending backwards or forwards in time. Their one

Word family

A word family is the base form of a word plus its inflected forms and derived forms made with suffixes and prefixes plus its cognates, i.e. all words that have a common etymological origin, some of which native speakers don't recognize as being related. In the English language, inflectional affixes include third person -s, verbal -ed and -ing, plural -s, possessive -s, comparative -er and superlative -est. Derivational affixes include -able, -er, -ish, -less, -ly, -ness, -th, -y, non-, un-, -al, -ation, -ess, -ful, -ism, -ist, -ity, -ize/-ise, -ment, in-; the idea is that a base word and its inflected forms support the same core meaning, can be considered learned words if a learner knows both the base word and the affix. Bauer and Nation proposed seven levels of affixes based on their frequency in English, it has been shown that word families can assist with deriving related words via affixes, along with decreasing the time needed to derive and recognize such words. There are several studies that suggest that knowledge of root words and their derivatives can assist with learning or deducing the meaning of other members of a word family.

A study from Carlisle and Katz comparing separate English word families varying in size and affirmation and negation suggests that “accuracy of reading derived words by 4th and 6th graders is related to measures of familiarity... base word frequencies, family size, average family frequency, word length”. It was found that families that were either larger or more frequent were more read. Nagy et al. found that morphologically related families had an increase of reaction time of up to 7 ms compared to those without a morphological relation. Nagy et al. summarizes how knowledge of the meanings of common English suffixes underwent significant development between fourth grade and high school. There have been studies on non-native English speakers and learners on their knowledge and understanding of word families. A study of nonnative-English-speaking college students showed that non-native English speakers knew at least some of the four word forms studied. Out of these four, word families derived from nouns and verbs were found to be the most well-known.

Results showed that in regards to these word forms, ESL students knew the least, MA-ELT students knew more, native speakers knew the most. In addition, a study of Japanese students learning English showed poor knowledge of the affixes studied, showing a division between their knowledge of a word's meaning and a derivative form of a separate word. To conclude their study and Zimmerman have provided the following for those teaching word families as a guideline: Introduce derivatives along with their roots. Teach more affixes. Emphasize adverbs and their derivatives. Suggest reading that includes these word families. Headword Lexeme