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Chinese economic reform

The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" and "socialist market economy" in the People's Republic of China which reformists within the Communist Party of China—led by Deng Xiaoping—started in 18 December 1978. Before the reforms, the Chinese economy was dominated by central planning. From 1950 to 1973, Chinese real GDP per capita grew at a rate of 2.9% per year on average, albeit with major fluctuations stemming from the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. This placed it near the middle of the Asian nations during the same period, with neighboring capitalist countries such as Japan, South Korea and rival Chiang Kai-shek's Republic of China outstripping the PRC's rate of growth. Starting in 1970, the economy entered into a period of stagnation, after the death of Mao Zedong, the Communist Party leadership turned to market-oriented reforms to salvage the failing economy; the Communist Party authorities carried out the market reforms in two stages.

The first stage, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, involved the de-collectivization of agriculture, the opening up of the country to foreign investment, permission for entrepreneurs to start businesses. However, most industry remained state-owned; the second stage of reform, in the late 1980s and 1990s, involved the privatization and contracting out of much state-owned industry and the lifting of price controls, protectionist policies, regulations, although state monopolies in sectors such as banking and petroleum remained. The private sector grew remarkably, accounting for as much as 70 percent of China's gross domestic product by 2005. From 1978 until 2013, unprecedented growth occurred, with the economy increasing by 9.5% a year. The conservative Hu Jintao's administration regulated and controlled the economy more after 2005, reversing some reforms; the success of China's economic policies and the manner of their implementation resulted in immense changes in Chinese society in the last 40 years, including decreased poverty while both average incomes and income inequality have increased, leading to a backlash led by the New Left.

In the academic scene, scholars have debated the reason for the success of the Chinese "dual-track" economy, have compared it to attempts to reform socialism in the Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union. Additionally, these series of reforms have led to China's rise as a world power and a shift of international geopolitical interests in favour of it over Taiwan; the reform era has been said to end during the leadership of Xi Jinping, who opposes the reforms and has rolled back many of the Deng-era reforms as the Communist Party reasserts control over different aspects of Chinese society, including the economy. In 2018, China expert Minxin Pei has argued that the Chinese economy is the least open since the reform era began in the 1980s; this de-liberalization is seen by one Hong Kong commentator as part of the subject of the present US–China trade war, in which the United States alleges the Chinese government is giving unfair and discriminatory competitive advantages to Chinese state-owned and private companies.

Economic reforms began after Deng Xiaoping and his reformist allies ousted the Gang of Four Maoist faction. By the time Deng took power, there was widespread support among the elite for economic reforms; as the de facto leader, Deng's policies faced opposition from party conservatives but were successful in increasing the country's wealth. Deng's first reforms began in a sector long mismanaged by the Communist Party. By the late 1970s, food supplies and production had become so deficient that government officials were warning that China was about to repeat the "disaster of 1959", the famines which killed tens of millions during the Great Leap Forward. Deng responded by decollectivizing agriculture and emphasizing the household-responsibility system, which divided the land of the People's communes into private plots. Under the new policy, peasants were able to exercise formal control of their land as long as they sold a contracted portion of their crops to the government; this move increased agricultural production by 25 percent between 1975 and 1985, setting a precedent for privatizing other parts of the economy.

The bottom-up approach of the reforms promoted by Deng, in contrast to the top-down approach of the Perestroika in the Soviet Union, is considered an important factor contributing to the success of China's economic transition. Reforms were implemented in urban industry to increase productivity. A dual-price system was introduced, in which state-owned industries were allowed to sell any production above the plan quota, commodities were sold at both plan and market prices, allowing citizens to avoid the shortages of the Maoist era. Moreover, the adoption of Industrial Responsibility System 1980s further promote the development of state-owned enterprise by allowing individuals or groups to manage the enterprise by contract. Private businesses were allowed to operate for the first time since the Communist takeover, they began to make up a greater percentage of industrial output. Price flexibility was increased, expanding the service December 1978, Deng announced a new policy, the Open Door Policy, to open the door to foreign businesses that wanted to set up in China.

For the first time since the Kuomintang era, the country was opened to foreign investment. Deng created a series of special economic zones for foreign investment that were relati

Via Julia Augusta

The Via Julia Augusta is the name given to the Roman road formed by the merging of the Via Aemilia Scauri with the Via Postumia. The road runs from Placentia to Arelate westward along the edge of the plain of the River Po to Derthona southward to the Ligurian coast. There it formed a continuous route westward along the precipitous descent of the Ligurian mountains into the sea; this takes it to Vada Sabatia and Album Intimilium, continuing to La Turbie, where its original terminus was marked by a triumphal arch. It was extended, taking a route away from the coast via the valley of the River Laghet, north of Nice and westward to Arles where it joined the Via Domitia, it was begun in 13 BCE by Augustus, its engineering works were renewed by emperors. However by about 420 CE, when Rutilius Namatianus returned to Gaul from Italia, he took ship past the Maritime Alps rather than rely upon the decaying road. In 1764 Tobias Smollett travelled by sea rather than use the seaside tracks, fit only for "mules and foot passengers".

Road access was not restored until the time of Napoleon. For an overview of the location of Roman bridges, see List of Roman bridges. There are the remains of a number of Roman bridges along the road, including the Pont des Esclapes Pont Flavien. Roman engineering Media related to Via Julia Augusta at Wikimedia Commons

Juan Ángel Michelena (Argentine officer)

Juan Ángel Michelena was an officer of the Argentine army of Ecuadorian origin, who served during the War of Independence and Brazilian War. He began his military career in 1820 as Sergeant of the Battalion of the Río de la Plata. Michelena was born in Guayaquil, the son of a distinguished family of Basque-Creole roots, he had an active participation during the Emancipatory Wars, serving in the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers. He participated in the civil confrontations between Unitarians and Federals, serving in the armies of both sides, he fought under the command of General José de San Martín, taking part in the Battle of Torata and Moquegua. He participated in all the military actions produced during the Brazilian War, during the Argentine Civil Wars, he was part of the Confederation and Unitary Army, taking part in the Battle of the Vizcacheras under the command of Federico Rauch, he was promoted to Captain in 1832, Lieutenant Colonel in 1851, participating the following year of the Battle of Caseros, under General Justo José de Urquiza.

Juan Ángel Michelena was married to Juana María Canaveri, daughter of Lieutenant Manuel Canaveris and María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Calderón. He is erroneously cited as a son of Juan Angel de Michelena y Moreno, a soldier loyal to Spain who fought against the revolutionary patriotic forces, his wife was a member of the Sociedad de Beneficencia Unión y Caridad, a charitable society to assist the victims of the 1880 Revolution. This society was made up of distinguished Buenos Aires ladies, among whom were Victoria Pueyrredon de Lynch, president of the entity, Sara Carranza de Albarracin and Josefina Pelliza de Sagasta. Argentina, Capital Federal, Census, 1855 Argentina, National Census, 1869

Play'd: A Hip Hop Story

Play'd: A Hip Hop Story is 2002 television drama film starring Rashaan Nall, Faizon Love, Toni Braxton and Merlin Santana. The film was directed by Oz Scott Rashaan Nall stars as rising East Coast rap star Jaxx, who has formed a musical partnership with longtime buddy Mayhem. Enter Domino Breed, ruthless CEO of Da Block Records, a West Coast label. Filling Jaxx's head with promises of solo stardom and innumerable creature comforts, Domino lures the young performer to California; as he becomes immersed in the gangster lifestyle common to so many of Domino's disciples, Jaxx grows distant from his friends and loved ones his wife Shonda, in favor of her husband's career move. The greed-dictated rivalry between Jaxx and his former partner Mayhem culminates in tragedy. Rashaan Nall — Jaxx Toni Braxton — Shonda Faizon Love — Domino Breed SharissaYanesha Merlin Santana — Mayhem Lawrence B. Adisa — Bangs Phillip Bolden — Little Jimmy Laurence Brown — Benard DeRay Davis — Jaxx's Bodyguard Chris Pape — Bodyguard Jacory Gums — Dooz Craig Robinson — Cole Enoch Harris — singer Maurice Welch — singer Frankie Richards — singer Dex Elliot Sanders — Skeem Play'd: A Hip Hop Story on IMDb

Cowes Castle

Cowes Castle known as West Cowes Castle, is a Device Fort in Cowes on the Isle of Wight. Built by Henry VIII in 1539 to protect England against the threat of invasion from France and the Holy Roman Empire, it comprised a circular bastion, flanking wings and a keep, in 1547 it housed 17 pieces of artillery. With its companion fortification at East Cowes, the castle overlooked the entrance to the River Medina, an important anchorage; the invasion threat passed but the fortification continued in use until the middle of the 19th century briefly seeing action in 1642 during the English Civil War. Decommissioned in 1854, the castle was first leased, bought outright, by the Royal Yacht Squadron to form their new clubhouse; the Squadron employed the architect Anthony Salvin to rebuild large parts of it between 1856 and 1858. It became the headquarters for part of the D-Day invasion force during the Second World War, but has otherwise remained in use by the Squadron and is a distinctive landmark in yacht races along the Isle of Wight.

Cowes Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England and the Holy Roman Empire in the final years of the reign of King Henry VIII. Traditionally the Crown had left coastal defences to the local lords and communities, only taking a modest role in building and maintaining fortifications, while France and the Empire remained in conflict with one another, maritime raids were common but an actual invasion of England seemed unlikely. Modest defences, based around simple blockhouses and towers, existed in the south-west and along the Sussex coast, augmented by a few more impressive works in the north of England, but in general the fortifications were limited in scale. In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III to annul the long-standing marriage to his wife, Catherine of Aragon, remarry. Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, he took the annulment as a personal insult; this resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, the Pope encouraging the two countries to attack England.

An invasion of England appeared certain. In response, Henry issued an order, called a "device", in 1539, giving instructions for the "defence of the realm in time of invasion" and the construction of forts along the English coastline; the Solent, a stretch of water that gave access to the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, was considered vulnerable to attack. Two castles were built on the west and east sides of the River Medina, the entrance to the principal harbour of the adjacent Isle of Wight, were intended to attack any enemy ships that might approach; the castles took their names from the traditional term for this location, "the Cowes". Constructed in 1539, the western fortification, which became known as West Cowes Castle, had a D-shaped bastion at the front, a round, two-storey keep at the rear and two low buildings on either side, all of which mounted artillery guns; the landward side was protected by a ditch 4 metres wide and a stone wall at least 2.4 metres wide at the top. It was built from limestone ashlar stone, which may have been recycled from the demolition of nearby Beaulieu Abbey, a consequence of Henry's recent dissolution of the monasteries.

Settlements grew up around both castles on the Medina, but East Cowes Castle was abandoned and destroyed by coastal erosion. Inspections in 1547 showed that there were 17 iron and brass artillery pieces at the fort, but that nine of these were inoperable. Cowes Castle was used to house important visitors to the Isle of Wight and as a prison; when the English Civil War broke out in 1642 between the supporters of Charles I and Parliament, the castle was held for the King by its captain, Humphrey Turney. On 12 August, as tensions between the rival factions on the island increased, Turney fired one of the castle's guns at the nearby Parliamentary naval vessel Lion. An unidentified Scottish naval captain came ashore on 16 August and captured Turney, before landing more men and taking the castle for Parliament, who held it for the rest of the war. During the Interregnum, the castle continued to be used as a prison. Charles I could not be housed in the castle while en route to his imprisonment by Parliament at Carisbrooke Castle in 1647 because the facility was full, he stayed at a local alehouse instead.

The Royalist Sir William Davenant was imprisoned in Cowes during 1650, writing the poem Gondibert while incarcerated. As with East Cowes Castle, coastal erosion proved a particular problem for the fortification. An inspection in 1692 reported that the walls were cracked and at risk of collapse, the antiquarian Francis Grose observed in 1785 that the castle was "strongly fenced with piles and planks" to prevent erosion from the sea. During the course of the 18th century, Cowes became a fashionable location for visitors, with several bathhouses, one of them located beside the castle, by the early 19th century the town had become a noted resort. Cowes Castle was rebuilt in 1716 to modernise its accommodation. Most of the front of the keep was demolished and rebuilt with new windows, a turret for a spiral staircase was erected, new three- and two-storey residential wings were added, a garden was created over the landward defences. In 1795, the writer Richard Warner noted that the garrison consisted of the captain, a porter, two soldiers, a mas

The Hawk Eye

The Hawk Eye is a general-circulation newspaper based in Burlington, United States, boasts itself as "Iowa's Oldest Newspaper." The newspaper traces its roots to the Wisconsin Territorial Gazette and Burlington Advertiser, established July 10, 1837, by James Clarke and Cyrus Jacobs. Clarke and Jacobs moved to Burlington from Belmont, when the capital of the Wisconsin Territory was moved to Burlington; the pair did printing work for the territorial government, were aligned with the Democratic Party. In 1838, a separate Iowa Territory was created, Burlington was named its first capital.. In Burlington, Jacobs was killed Oct. 31, 1838, in a duel that culminated a "long-simmering" political dispute with local attorney David Rorer. Jacobs was on the verge of a prominent career in state politics. Rorer never was charged. Clarke became postmaster of Burlington and its mayor. Still Clarke was named the third and last governor of the Iowa Territory. Clarke County in southern Iowa is named in his honor. After his term as governor, Clarke returned to Burlington to run the Gazette.

He was elected as the first president of the Burlington School Board. He died July 1850, in a local cholera epidemic, he was 38. Rorer was one of the pall bearers. A rival newspaper, the Iowa Patriot, was moved in 1838 from Fort Madison to Burlington by James G. Edwards. Edwards was a supporter of the Whig Party. At Rorer's urging, Edwards changed the name of his paper to the Burlington Hawk-Eye and Iowa Patriot in tribute to Chief Black Hawk. Black Hawk was a friend of Edwards and was present when the first copies of the Fort Madison paper were printed. Rorer wrote anonymous letters to other Iowa newspapers suggesting the territory adopt "Hawkeye" as the state nickname. Iowa now is known as the Hawkeye State. According to the Iowa Journal of History, Edwards wrote, "If a division of the territory is effected, we propose that the Iowans take the cognomen of Hawk-eyes. Our etymology can be more traced than can that of the Wolverines, Gophers, etc. and we shall rescue from oblivion a memento, at least, of the name of the old chief.

Who seconds the motion?" The journal goes on to state, "'old chief' referred to was, of course, Black Hawk." Edwards published his newspaper until his death of cholera a year. He was 50. After a succession of owners, both papers, which had published separately, were sold during the Depression to Omer N. Custer In the 1920s, both newspapers built new buildings; the Gazette published from a building noted for its terra cotta tile on Washington Street across the street from the Elks Club. It, was a handsome structure, featuring Doric columns in the front. During the Depression, both papers experienced financial difficulties and were purchased by Omar N. Custer, owner of the Galesburg, Register-Mail. Custer merged the papers into The Burlington Hawk-eye Gazette; the papers moved into the Gazette's building. In 1941, Custer sold The Burlington Hawk-Eye Gazette to Kansas publishers Sidney Harris; the Harris organization owned The Hawk Eye for 75 years before selling its papers to GateHouse Media. In the 1959, the newspaper relocated to a renovated bus barn at 800 S.

Main St. where it continues to publish. At the time of the move, the paper added a Sunday edition; the newspaper plant overlooks the BNSF rail yards and is in close proximity to the Mississippi River. During the record flood of 1993, preparations were made to print the paper at Ottumwa, about 70 miles away. However, the water did not rise high enough to carry out the plan. Instead, water from the rising Des Moines River flooded the Ottumwa paper's basement where it stored its newsprint, the Courier had to be printed in Burlington. During the Flood of 2008, which eclipsed the 1993 crest, The Hawk Eye avoided high water again. After The Hawk-Eye Gazette's move to Main Street, the former building was acquired by an adjacent savings and loan and razed to create extra parking; the former Hawk Eye building still is now used as a funeral home. On Dec. 1, 2016, The Hawk Eye and five other Harris papers were sold to GateHouse Media for $20 million. Within seven months, GateHouse laid off half of the newsroom and other employees, an action seen at other Harris papers.

The group's origins trace to Ottawa, to the early years of the 20th century. In 1907, Ralph A. Harris purchased the Ottawa Herald combined it with the Ottawa Republic in 1915. Harris' two sons and Sidney, expanded the group and set its standards. Starting with The Herald as the base, they acquired another Kansas daily, the Chanute Tribune, in 1927, with John as editor; when Ralph Harris died in 1930, Sidney became The Herald's editor and publisher, a position he held until his death in 1955. In 1933, the Harrises bought The Hutchinson News; as The News' editor and publisher, John Harris became a quoted columnist and influential editorial writer. He died in 1969. In Iowa, The Hawk Eye at Burlington was brought into the fold in 1941. Full ownership of The Salina Journal was added in 1949. Other Kansas dailies in the group were the Garden City Telegram, purchased in 1953. In addition to these, a number of other dailies figure prominently in the group's history; the Harris group has previously owned The Olathe News and the Parsons Sun in Kansas.

In 1994, Harris Enterprises purchased assets of a Salina marketing firm an