Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae. This group comprises the genera Branta. Chen, a genus comprising'white geese', is sometimes used to refer to a group of species that are more placed within Anser; some other birds related to the shelducks, have "goose" as part of their names. More distantly related members of the family Anatidae are swans, most of which are larger than true geese, ducks, which are smaller; the word "goose" is a direct descendent of Proto-Indo-European root, ghans-. In Germanic languages, the root gave Old English gōs with the plural gēs and gandres, Frisian goes and guoske, New High German Gans, Gänse, Ganter, Old Norse gās; this term gave Lithuanian: žąsìs, Irish: gé, Latin: anser, Ancient Greek: χήν, Dutch: gans, Albanian: gatë, Sanskrit hamsa and hamsi, Finnish: hanhi, Avestan zāō, Polish: gęś, Romanian: gâscă / gânsac, Ukrainian: гуска / гусак, Russian: гусыня / гусь, Czech: husa, Persian: غاز. The term goose applies to the female in particular. Young birds before fledging are called goslings.
The collective noun for a group of geese on the ground is a gaggle. The three living genera of true geese are: Anser, grey geese, including the greylag goose, domestic geese. Two genera of geese are only tentatively placed in the Anserinae. Either these or, more the goose-like Coscoroba swan is the closest living relative of the true geese. Fossils of true geese are hard to assign to genus; the aptly named Anser atavus from some 12 million years ago had more plesiomorphies in common with swans. In addition, some goose-like birds are known from subfossil remains found on the Hawaiian Islands. Geese are monogamous. Paired geese are feed more, two factors that result in more young; some Southern Hemisphere birds are called "geese", most of which belong to the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae. These are: Orinoco goose, Neochen jubata Egyptian goose, Alopochen aegyptiaca The South American sheldgeese, genus Chloephaga The prehistoric Malagasy sheldgoose, Centrornis majoriOthers: The spur-winged goose, Plectropterus gambensis, is most related to the shelducks, but distinct enough to warrant its own subfamily, the Plectropterinae.
The blue-winged goose, Cyanochen cyanopterus, the Cape Barren goose, Cereopsis novaehollandiae, have disputed affinities. They belong to separate ancient lineages that may ally either to the Tadorninae, Anserinae, or closer to the dabbling ducks; the three species of small waterfowl in the genus Nettapus are named "pygmy geese". They seem to represent another ancient lineage, with possible affinities to the Cape Barren goose or the spur-winged goose. A genus of prehistorically extinct seaducks, Chendytes, is sometimes called "diving-geese" due to their large size; the unusual magpie goose is in the Anseranatidae. The northern gannet, a seabird, is known as the "Solan goose", although it is a bird unrelated to the true geese, or any other Anseriformes for that matter. Well-known sayings about geese include: To "have a gander" is to examine something in detail. "What's sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander" or "What's good for the goose is good for the gander" means that what is an appropriate treatment for one person is appropriate for someone else.
Saying that someone's "goose is cooked" means that they have suffered, or are about to suffer, a terrible setback or misfortune. The common phrase "silly goose", used when referring to someone, acting silly. "Killing the goose that lays the golden eggs," derived from an old fable, is a saying referring to any greed-motivated, unprofitable action that destroys or otherwise renders a favourable situation useless. "A wild goose chase" is a futile waste of time and effort. There is a legendary old woman called Mother Goose; the oldest collection of Medieval Icelandic laws is known as "Grágás". Various etymologies were offered for that name: The fact that the laws were written with a goose quill. Carboneras, Carles. "Family Anatidae". In del Hoyo, Josep. Handbook of Birds of the World. Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Pp. 536–629. ISBN 84-87334-10-5. Terres, John K.. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. New York: Wings Books. ISBN 0-517-03288-0. Anatidae media on the Internet Bird Collection
The swan goose is a rare large goose with a natural breeding range in inland Mongolia, northernmost China, southeastern Russia. It is migratory and winters in central and eastern China. Vagrant birds are encountered in Japan and Korea, more in Kazakhstan, coastal Siberia, Taiwan and Uzbekistan. While uncommon in the wild, this species has been domesticated. Introduced and feral populations of its domestic breeds occur in many places outside its natural range; the wild form is kept in collections, escapes are not unusual amongst feral flocks of other Anser and Branta geese. The swan goose is large and long-necked for its genus, wild birds being 81–94 cm long and weighing 2.8–3.5 kg or more. The sexes are similar, although the male is larger, with neck. Typical measurements of the wing are 45 -- 46 cm in 37.5 -- 44 cm in females. The tarsus of males measures around 8.1 cm. The wingspan of adult geese is 160–185 cm; the upperparts are greyish-brown, with thin light fringes to the larger feathers and a maroon hindneck and cap.
The remiges are blackish, as are the entire underwing and the white-tipped rectrices, while the upper- and undertail coverts are white. A thin white stripe surrounds the bill base. Apart from darker streaks on the belly and flanks, the underside is pale buff, being light on the lower head and foreneck which are delimited against the maroon. In flight, the wings appear dark, with no conspicuous pattern. Uniquely among its genus, the long, heavy bill is black; the eyes' irides are maroon. Juveniles are duller than adult birds, lack the white bill base and dark streaks on the underside; the voice is ascending honking aang. As a warning call, a similar but more barking honk is given three times in short succession; the karyotype of the swan goose is 2n=80, consisting of four pairs of macrochromosomes, 35 pairs of microchromosomes, a pair of sex chromosomes. The two largest macrochromosome pairs as well as the Z chromosome are submetacentric, while the third-largest chromosome pair is acrocentric and the fourth-largest is metacentric.
The W chromosomes are acrocentric too, as are the larger microchromosomes, the smaller ones being telocentric. Compared to the greylag goose, there seems to have been some rearrangement on the fourth-largest chromosome pair, it inhabits steppe to taiga and mountain valleys near freshwater, grazing on plants such as sedges, swimming. It forms small flocks outside the breeding season. In the winter, it grazes on plains and stubble fields, sometimes far from water. Birds return from the winter quarters around April, the breeding season starts soon thereafter, it breeds as single pairs or loose groups near marshes and other wetlands, with nesting activity starting about May. The clutch is 5–6 but sometimes up to 8 eggs, which are laid in a shallow nest made from plants, placed directly on the ground on a small knoll to keep it dry; the precocial young hatch after about 28 days and become sexually mature at 2–3 years of age. Around late August/early September, the birds leave for winter quarters, where they gather in small groups to moult their worn plumage.
The swan goose was uplisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List in 1992 and further to Endangered in 2000, as its population is declining due to habitat loss and excessive hunting and egg collecting. But new research has shown it to be not as rare as it was believed, it was downlisted to Vulnerable status again in 2008. Still, less than 500 pairs might remain in Russia, while in Mongolia numbers are unknown though about 1,000 were seen at Ögii Lake in 1977. Favorite wintering locations in China are Lake Dongting, Lake Poyang, the Yancheng Coastal Wetlands and other locations around the lower Yangtze River, where some 60,000 individuals may be found each year – though this may be the entire world population; until the 1950s, the species wintered in small numbers in Japan, but habitat destruction has driven them away. Altogether, between 60,000 and 100,000 adult Swan Geese remain in the wild today. Though the majority of domestic geese are descended from the greylag goose, two breeds are direct descendants of the swan goose: the Chinese goose and the African goose.
These breeds have been domesticated since at least the mid-18th century – even since around 1000 BC. They vary from their wild parent in appearance and ability to produce meat and eggs. Charles Darwin studied goose breeds as part of his work on the theory of evolution, he noted that the external differences between Chinese geese and breeds descended from the Greylag goose belied a rather close relationship: "The hybrids from the common and Chinese geese, species which are so different that they are ranked in distinct genera, have bred in this country with either pure parent, in one single instance they have bred inter se." The species is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN based on ongoing population declines and range losses, exacerbated by recent poor
American Standard of Perfection
The American Standard of Perfection is the official breed standard for the poultry fancy in North America. First published in 1874 by the American Poultry Association, the Standard of Perfection classifies and describes the standard physical appearance and temperament for all recognized breeds of poultry, including chickens, ducks and geese; the current edition was published in 2015. The Standard is used by American Poultry Association judges at sanctioned poultry shows to judge poultry, by those who participate in the competitive showing of selectively bred birds that conform to the standard, which led to the term "standard bred" poultry; the first edition of the book listed 41 breeds, today's versions have nearly 60. There are 19 classes of poultry recognized by the American Poultry Association. Eleven of these classes are devoted to chickens, of which six are classes of large breeds and five are bantam classes. There are four classes of three classes of geese, both divided by weight. All breeds of turkeys are grouped into one class.
Standard: American, Continental, English and All Other Standard Breeds Bantam: Single Comb Clean Legged, Rose Comb Clean Legged, All Other Comb Clean Legged, Feather Legged, Game BantamDucks: Heavy, Medium and BantamGeese: Heavy and LightTurkeys: Judged as one class. Guinea Fowl: Judged as one class. Ekarius, Carol. Storey's Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds. 210 MAS MoCA Way, North Adams MA 01247: Storey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58017-667-5. Heinricks, Christine. How To Raise Chickens. Suite 200, 380 Jackson St, St Paul MN 55101: Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-2828-6. Percy, Pam; the Complete Chicken. Suite 200, 380 Jackson St, St Paul MN 55101: Voyageur Press. ISBN 0-89658-731-2. Rossier, Jay. Living with Chickens. Guilford, Connecticut: The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-59228-013-7. Staples, Tamara; the Fairest Fowl. 85 Second Street San Francisco CA 94105: Chronicle Books LLC. ISBN 0-8118-3137-X; the American Standard of Perfection, full 1905 version from Google Books
Domestic geese are domesticated grey geese that are kept by humans as poultry for their meat and down feathers since ancient times. In Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, the original domesticated geese are derived from the greylag goose. In eastern Asia, the original domesticated geese are derived from the swan goose. Both have been introduced in more recent times, modern flocks in both areas may consist of either species or hybrids between them. Chinese geese may be distinguished from European geese by the large knob at the base of the bill, though hybrids may exhibit every degree of variation between the two species; the domestication, as Charles Darwin remarks, is of ancient date. They have been selected for larger size, with domesticated breeds weighing up to 10 kilograms, compared to the maximum of 3.5 kilograms for the wild swan goose and 4.1 kilograms for the wild greylag goose. This affects their body structure. Although their heavy weight affects their ability to fly, most breeds of domestic geese are capable of flight.
Geese have been selected for fecundity, with females laying up to 50 eggs per year, compared to 5–12 eggs for a wild goose. As most domestic geese display little sexual dimorphism, sexing is based on physical characteristics and behaviour. Males are taller and larger than females, have longer necks. In addition, males can be distinguished by the protective behaviour they exhibit towards their mates and their offspring - the male will stand between his partner and any perceived threat. Changes to the plumage are variable; the result is an animal marked, or covered in white feathers. Others retain plumage close to the natural. White geese are preferred as they look better plucked and dressed, with any small down feathers remaining being less conspicuous. From the time of the Romans, white geese have been held in great esteem. Geese produce large edible eggs, they can be used in cooking just like chicken's eggs, though they have proportionally more yolk, this cooks to a denser consistency. The taste gamier.
Like their wild ancestors, domestic geese are protective of their offspring and other members of the flock. The gander will place himself between any perceived threat and his family. Owing to their aggressive nature, loud call and sensitivity to unusual movements, geese can contribute towards the security of a property. In late 1950s South Vietnam, the VNAF used flocks of geese to guard their parked aircraft at night due to the noise they would make at intruders; because domestic geese descended from the Greylag goose are the same species as their wild ancestor, escaped individuals breed with wild populations, resulting in the offspring sometimes resembling either one of their parents, or bearing mixed plumage with patterns of grey and white feathers. When Aphrodite first came ashore she was welcomed by the Charites. There are Mother Goose tales, such as a farmwife; the geese in the temple of Juno on the Capitoline Hill were said by Livy to have saved Rome from the Gauls around 390 BC when they were disturbed in a night attack.
The story may be an attempt to explain the origin of the sacred flock of geese at Rome. Liliane Bodson and Daniel Marcolungo, L'oie de bon aloi: Aspects de l'histoire ancienne de l'oie domestique. Vise, 1994, discusses the image and lore of domestic geese in classical antiquity, with a separate chapter on the goose in folklore. Angel Wing - A disease common in geese. Domestic duck List of goose breeds Roast goose Guard Goose Data related to Anser cygnoides chinensis at Wikispecies Article "Geese" in Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, Volume III, Animals
Egg as food
Some eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, amphibians and fish, have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell and vitellus, contained within various thin membranes; the most consumed eggs are chicken eggs. Other poultry eggs including those of duck and quail are eaten. Fish eggs are called caviar. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, are used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorized eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from cholesterol content, salmonella contamination, allergy to egg proteins. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are kept throughout the world and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of 6.4 billion hens.
There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. In 2012, the European Union banned battery husbandry of chickens. Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated; the chicken was domesticated for its eggs before 7500 BCE. Chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, the tomb of Haremhab, dating to 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods and meals started with an egg course; the Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness; the word mayonnaise was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub.
Egg scrambled. The dried egg industry developed in the nineteenth century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and egg white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process; the production of dried eggs expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies. In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper. Bird eggs are a common one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking, they are important in many branches of the modern food industry. The most used bird eggs are those from the chicken and goose eggs. Smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are used as a gourmet ingredient in Western countries. Eggs are a common everyday food in many parts of Asia, such as China and Thailand, with Asian production providing 59 percent of the world total in 2013.
The largest bird eggs, from ostriches, tend to be used only as special luxury food. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England, as well as in some Scandinavian countries in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl eggs are seen in marketplaces in the spring of each year. Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are edible, but less available, sometimes they are obtainable from farmers, poulterers, or luxury grocery stores. In many countries, wild bird eggs are protected by laws which prohibit the collecting or selling of them, or permit collection only during specific periods of the year. In 2013, world production of chicken eggs was 68.3 million tonnes. The largest four producers were China at 24.8 million of this total, the United States at 5.6 million, India at 3.8 million, Japan at 2.5 million. A typical large egg factory ships a million dozen eggs per week. For the month of January 2019, the United States produced 9.41 billion eggs, with 8.2 billion for table consumption and 1.2 billion for raising chicks.
Americans are projected to each consume 279 eggs in 2019, the highest since 1973, but less than the 405 eggs eaten per person in 1945. During production, eggs are candled to check their quality; the size of its air cell is determined, the examination reveals whether the egg was fertilized and thereby contains an embryo. Depending on local regulations, eggs may be washed before being placed in egg boxes, although washing may shorten their length of freshness; the shape of an egg resembles a prolate spheroid with one end larger than the other and has cylindrical symmetry along the long axis. An egg is surrounded by a hard shell. Thin membranes exist inside the shell; the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae. The larger end of the egg contains an air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA.
As the size of the air cell increases and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B. This provides a way of t
The African goose is a breed of domestic goose derived from the wild swan goose. Despite the name the African goose most originated in China, like the related Chinese goose. Though the African goose and Chinese goose share some characteristics, the two can be distinguished by the African's larger dewlap and different knob shape. African geese are quite a bit heavier than Chinese, are known for their docile temperament, they lay fewer eggs than Chinese geese: 25 to 40 eggs per year for the African goose against 40 to 65, or, in extreme cases, up to 200 eggs per year for Chinese goose. Two origin theories persist for the fowl: the first purporting that African is the result of crosses of swan goose and Chinese goose, while the other asserts that it is a direct derivation of the swan goose, its unique traits are the result of selective breeding. Whichever is the case, the African goose has existed as a distinct breed since the middle of the nineteenth century or before, was admitted to the American Poultry Association's Standard of Perfection in 1874.
Ganders have a higher pitched call than the geese, are taller, while the females are shorter and stockier, with larger keels or lobes. African goose occurs in three color varieties: brown and white. Browns have black bills and knobs, plumage with irregular shades, from a light to dark brown. Whites have all-white plumage and orange knobs. Ekarius, Carol. Storey's Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds. 210 MAS MoCA Way, North Adams MA 01247: Storey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58017-667-5. "Africans". Feathersite.com. Retrieved 2008-07-02. American Livestock Breed Conservation Articles: Chinese Geese.