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Chinese numerals

Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese. Today, speakers of Chinese use three written numeral systems: the system of Arabic numerals used worldwide, two indigenous systems; the more familiar indigenous system is based on Chinese characters that correspond to numerals in the spoken language. These are shared with other languages of the Chinese cultural sphere such as Japanese and Vietnamese. Most people and institutions in China and Taiwan use the Arabic or mixed Arabic-Chinese systems for convenience, with traditional Chinese numerals used in finance for writing amounts on checks, some ceremonial occasions, some boxes, on commercials; the other indigenous system is the Suzhou numerals, or huama, a positional system, the only surviving form of the rod numerals. These were once used by Chinese mathematicians, in Chinese markets, such as those in Hong Kong before the 1990s, but have been supplanted by Arabic numerals; the Chinese character numeral system consists of the Chinese characters used by the Chinese written language to write spoken numerals.

Similar to spelling-out numbers in English, it is not an independent system per se. Since it reflects spoken language, it does not use the positional system as in Arabic numerals, in the same way that spelling out numbers in English does not. There are characters representing the numbers zero through nine, other characters representing larger numbers such as tens, thousands and so on. There are two sets of characters for Chinese numerals: one for everyday writing, known as xiǎoxiě, one for use in commercial or financial contexts, known as dàxiě; the latter arose because the characters used for writing numerals are geometrically simple, so using those numerals cannot prevent forgeries in the same way spelling numbers out in English would. A forger could change the everyday characters 三十 to 五千 just by adding a few strokes; that would not be possible when writing using the financial characters 參拾 and 伍仟. They are referred to as "banker's numerals", "anti-fraud numerals", or "banker's anti-fraud numerals".

For the same reason, rod numerals were never used in commercial records. T denotes Traditional Chinese characters. In the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China Armed Forces of Taiwan, some numbers will have altered names when used for clearer radio communications, they are: 0: renamed 洞 lit. Hole 1: renamed 幺 lit. small 2: renamed 两 lit. Double 7: renamed 拐 lit. cane, turn 9: renamed 勾 lit. Hook For numbers larger than 10,000 to the long and short scales in the West, there have been four systems in ancient and modern usage; the original one, with unique names for all powers of ten up to the 14th, is ascribed to the Yellow Emperor in the 6th century book by Zhen Luan, Wujing suanshu. In modern Chinese only the second system is used, in which the same ancient names are used, but each represents a number 10,000 times the previous: In practice, this situation does not lead to ambiguity, with the exception of 兆, which means 1012 according to the system in common usage throughout the Chinese communities as well as in Japan and Korea, but has been used for 106 in recent years.

To avoid problems arising from the ambiguity, the PRC government never uses this character in official documents, but uses 万亿 or 太 instead. Due to this, combinations of 万 and 亿 are used instead of the larger units of the traditional system as well, for example 亿亿 instead of 京; the ROC government in Taiwan uses 兆 to mean 1012 in official documents. Numerals beyond 載 zǎi come from Buddhist texts in Sanskrit, but are found in ancient texts; some of the following words may have transferred meanings. The following are characters used to denote small order of magnitude in Chinese historically. With the introduction of SI units, some of them have been incorporated as SI prefixes, while the rest have fallen into disuse. In the People's Republic of China, the early translation for the SI prefixes in 1981 was different from those used today; the larger and smaller Chinese numerals were defined as translation for the SI prefixes as mega, tera, exa, nano, femto, resulting in the creation of yet more values for each numeral.

The Republic of China defined 百萬 as the translation for 兆 as the translation for tera. This translation is used in official documents, academic communities, informational industries, etc. However, the civil broadcasting industries sometimes use 兆赫 to represent "megahertz". Today, the governments of both Taiwan use phonetic transliterations for the SI prefixes. However, the governments have each chosen different Chinese characters for certain prefixes; the following table lists the two different standards together with the early translation. Multiple-digit numbers are constructed using a multiplicative principle. In Mandarin, the multiplier 兩 is used rather than 二 for all numbers 200 and greater with the "2" numeral. Use of both 兩

Biodynamic wine

Biodynamic wines are wines made employing biodynamic methods both to grow the fruit and during the post-harvest processing. Biodynamic wine production uses organic farming methods while employing soil supplements prepared according to Rudolf Steiner's formulas, following a planting calendar that depends upon astronomical configurations, treating the earth as "a living and receptive organism. Biodynamic methods are used in viticulture in a variety of countries, including France, Italy, Austria, Australia, Peru, South Africa and the United States. In 2013 over 700 vineyards worldwide comprising more than 10,000 ha/24,710 acres were certified biodynamic. A number of high-end, high-profile commercial growers have converted to biodynamic practices. According to an article in Fortune, many of the top estates in France, "including Domaine Leroy in Burgundy, Château de la Roche-aux-Moines in the Loire, Maison Chapoutier in the Rhone Valley, Domaine Zind-Humbrecht in Alsace," follow biodynamic viticulture.

For a wine to be labeled “biodynamic” it has to meet standards laid down by the Demeter Association, an internationally recognized certifying body. Biodynamic agriculture is based on the work of Rudolf Steiner, who gave Agriculture Course in 1924, predating most of the organic movement, it includes ecological principles, emphasizing mystical perspectives. Biodynamics aims at the ecological self-sufficiency of farms as cohesive, interconnected living systems; some grape growers who have adopted biodynamic methods claim to have achieved improvements in the health of their vineyards in the areas of biodiversity, soil fertility, crop nutrition, pest and disease management. For example, the late Anne-Claude Leflaive of Domaine Leflaive estate in Burgundy claimed that the use of biodynamic methods saved a badly diseased vineyard, to the point that it now produces some of her most prized wines. A long-term study of one California winery found that improved quality for both biodynamic and organic could not be explained.

This study in different vineyard blocks at a commercial vineyard in Ukiah, California found no difference between biodynamic methods with general organic farming methods with respect to soil quality, nor in the yield per vine, clusters per vine, cluster and berry weight. However, one of the authors, Leo McCloskey has made the case that consumer quality scores, 100-point scores, are expected to be higher for both biodynamic and organic over traditional farming. Biodynamic winemakers claim to have noted stronger, more vibrant tastes, as well as wines that remain drinkable longer. Biodynamic wines are more "floral", according to Spanish biodynamic vintner Pérez Palacios. Biodynamic producers claim that their methods tend to result in better balance in growth, where the sugar production in the grapes coincides with physiological ripeness, resulting in a wine with the correct balance of flavor and alcohol content with changing climate conditions. In a blind tasting of 10 pairs of biodynamic and conventionally made wines, conducted by Fortune and judged by seven wine experts including a Master of Wine and head sommeliers, nine of the biodynamic wines were judged superior to their conventional counterpart.

The biodynamic wines "were found to have better expressions of terroir, the way in which a wine can represent its specific place of origin in its aroma and texture." Critics caution that such comparisons of wines of the same type need to be controlled for differences in soil and subsoil, the farming and processing techniques used. Critics acknowledge the high quality of biodynamic wines, but question whether many of the improvements in vineyard health and wine taste would have happened anyway if organic farming were used, without the mysticism and increased effort involved in biodynamics. Other critics attribute the success of biodynamic viticulture to the winemakers' higher craftsmanship and meticulous attention to detail. Ray Isle, managing editor of Wine & Spirit magazine, says, "So what if they think burying cow horns full of manure will help them channel new life forces from the cosmos?" Nicolas Joly Lalou Bize-Leroy Arianna Occhipinti Pascal Marchand Natural wine Organic wine Nicolas Joly Wine from Sky to Earth: Growing & Appreciating Biodynamic Wine, Acres U.

S. A. ISBN 0911311602 Nicolas Joly, Biodynamic Wine Demystified and Bench Publishing ISBN 1934259020 Per and Britt Karlsson Biodynamic and Natural Winemaking: Sustainable Viticulture and Viniculture Floris Books ISBN 1782501134 Isabelle Legeron, Natural Wine: An introduction to organic and biodynamic wines made CICO Books, ISBN 1782494839

Pretty on the Inside Tour

The Pretty on the Inside Tour was the first international concert tour by American alternative rock band Hole in promotion of their debut album, Pretty on the Inside. The tour began in the summer of 1991, concluded in December of that year; the tour had Hole as a supporting act, with them performing as an opener for Mudhoney's European tour, as well as The Smashing Pumpkins in the United States. In anticipation of the release of Hole's debut studio album, Pretty on the Inside, the group embarked on an international concert tour in promotion of the record; the tour began in July 1991 in Los Angeles. For the first European leg of the tour, Hole was a supporting act for Mudhoney; the band returned to North America in the fall and toured in the United States and Canada before returning to Europe in November 1991. The band opened for Nirvana at several European dates, including in Ghent and Nijmegen, Netherlands. During this time, frontwoman Courtney Love became romantically involved with Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain.

The band returned to the United States in mid-December 1991, appearing as a supporting act for the West Coast tour of The Smashing Pumpkins, supporting their debut album, Gish. Sam Batra of The Guardian wrote of the band's London date in December 1991: "There's no pretending, in control; this is the sound of living on the edge and working it out in splurges of furious noise seems to be the only articulation that has any authenticity," adding that "it's as if every flurry of noise unravels itself, breaks down as it struggles within the confines of a genre, predominately male. Hole will burn themselves out. See them before they lose it willfully." Adam Sweeting, reviewing the University of London Union performance, noted that the band's songs seem to be "teetering on the edge of collapse, Love pouts and shrieks... the volume of the voice is startling." Richard Cromelin of the Los Angeles Times observed of the band's supporting performance at a Los Angeles Smashing Pumpkins concert that the crowd "didn’t take to Courtney Love’s powerful howls of anguish."

At the end of the show, Love "ordered the band to a halt and hurled her guitar to the ground," after which guitarist Eric Erlandson demolished his guitar by smashing it against the floor. Supporting Hi Dummy DragSupported Buffalo Tom Mudhoney Nirvana The Smashing Pumpkins Crawford, Anwen. Hole's Live Through This. 33 1/3. New York: Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-623-56377-6. OCLC 883749105. Prato, Greg. Grunge Is Dead: The Oral History of Seattle Rock Music. Toronto: ECW Press. ISBN 978-1-554-90347-4. True, Everett. Nirvana: The Biography. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81554-6

Emili Salut PayĆ 

Emili Salut i Payà was a Catalan trumpeter and composer. Emili Salut i Payà was born in Barcelona. Emili Salut attended the Municipal School of Barcelona, where he studied violin with the teachers Sainz de la Maza and Costa and piano with Joseph Climent, but his passion was composition. He took a great interest in the trumpet, so he started lessons with Lluís Rovira and became part of ensembles in the Avenue of Parallel until 1936, when the Spanish Civil War broke out. In 1939, he went to the USSR. Between 1940 and 1941, he was a musician of the Mijail Lipski Orchestra in Moscow. In 1941, when German troops entered Russian territories, he was locked up for eight years in prisons and concentration camps; when he was released in 1948, he continued with his music studies. He married Isida Filippova, they had two daughters and Violeta. In 1957 he was able to live in Madrid and Barcelona, he worked at the Radio Nacional de España and as a teacher at the Assimil Academy. Collection of six Cànons a 4 and 2 voices, Op. 8, for strings Guerras civiles de Granada, Op. 13, for violin and piano Solo de concierto, for voice and piano Agraint un clavell Invierno, written in the concentration camp Recuerdos, memories from the concentration camp Canone, Op. 53 Elegie, Op. 36 Estudi núm. 1: Satànic Preludio, Op. 53 Recoup, Op. 35 Romanza Sonata núm. 1 12 Valsos per a piano, Op. 15 Fugueta, d'introducció i comiat per a una cerimònia nupcial, Op. 25 Canción Yalta, Op. 9, Russian text El cargol, Op. 1 Els brivalls del barri, Op. 3, sardana for choir and cobla El cargol, Op. 3, for choir and cobla En Pere Gallarí, Op. 3, for choir and cobla Un pont de cobre l'altre, Op. 3, for choir and cobla Remei, Op. 3, for choir and cobla La vall, Op. 3, for choir and cobla Introducció i comiat per a una cerimònia nupcial, Op. 25 Kalinka, Op. 48 Retaule nadalench, Op. 39 Romanza, Op. 49 Rondó per al tema de Krasnii sarafan, Op. 47 Santa Eulària, esbós poemàtich Suite amussette, Op. 35 Suite Tártara núm. 3 Tonadilla y Copla, Op. 42, dedicated to Russian people.

The location of this work is unknown Retaule nadalench, Op. 39 El Circo, suite for symphony orchestra Suite lirique, Op. 11 Werther, Op. 16 Jota aragonesa, of Glimka, instrumentated for band Ave Maria, of Franz Schubert, instrumentated for soloist and orchestra Abschor lied Aufwiedersehen Foxbrush, foxtrot Stormbound Foxtrot Glaspliter, intermezzo Ich will das immer Frühling sein soll A little house on Michigan Sea Mutter liebe Sombrero cordobés Love is a many-splendored thing, of Sammy Fain, arranged for trumpet La sombra de tu sonrisa, of J. Mandel i P. Webster, arranged for trumpet Blue Skies, arranged for piano Memòries, Emili Salut i Payà, Biblioteca de Catalunya. Topographics: M 4900 to M 4948

Aker Holding

Aker Holding is a holding company that owns 40.27% of Aker Solutions. It manages the ownership of four major owners in the company, through a common agreement to insure negative control over the company. Ownership: Aker ASA Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry SAAB Investor On 22 June 2007 Aker ASA and the Government of Norway announced the creation of the holding company. Aker ASA would transfer its entire ownership of the company to the holding company, sell 40% of the holding company. Aker received NOK 6.4 billion for the transaction. The purpose of creating this company is to keep Aker Solutions part of important and valuable Norwegian technology, in Norway for the next 10 years; the partners of Aker Holding can not sell their part of the holding company for at least 10 years

Grade I listed churches in Cheshire

Cheshire is a county in North West England. In 1974 parts of the historical county of Cheshire were transferred to Greater Manchester and to Merseyside, parts of the historical county of Lancashire were incorporated into Cheshire, including the towns of Widnes and Warrington; the unitary authorities of Halton and Warrington were created in 1998, in 2009 the rest of the county was divided into two further unitary authorities: Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester. The ceremonial county of Cheshire consists of those four unitary authorities. In England, buildings are given listed building status by the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport, acting on the recommendation of Historic England; this gives the structure national recognition and protection against alteration or demolition without authorisation. Grade I listed buildings are defined as being of "exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important"; this is a complete list of Grade I listed churches and chapels in Cheshire as recorded in the National Heritage List for England.

Christian churches have existed in Cheshire since the Anglo-Saxon era, but no significant Saxon features remain in its listed churches. Surviving Norman architecture is found, notably in Chester Cathedral and St John the Baptist, Chester. Most of the remaining churches in this list are in the Gothic style, dating between the 13th and the 17th centuries, predominantly in the Perpendicular style. There are some examples of Neoclassical architecture, including St Peter, Aston-by-Sutton, St Peter, Congleton; the only buildings in the list dating from a period, both from the 19th century, are Waterhouse's Eaton Chapel in French Rayonnant style, Bodley's Church of St Mary at Eccleston, in Gothic Revival style. Churches with a significant amount of timber-framing, which has in some cases been encased in brick, include St Michael, Baddiley, St Luke, Holmes Chapel, St Oswald, Lower Peover, St James and St Paul, Marton; the county town of Chester has an important Roman history, but as a result of the 1974 reorganisation the largest settlement is Warrington.

The local economy is mixed, with a agricultural heartland and industrial towns in the north involved in heavy engineering and textiles. Most of the county's bedrock is sandstone, with limestone deposits in the northeast, both of which provide the major building materials for the churches. There are a significant number of surviving timber-framed buildings in the county, some of them churches. Citations Sources