Christopher Houston Carson, better known as Kit Carson, was an American frontiersman. He was a mountain man, wilderness guide, Indian agent, U. S. Army officer. Carson became a frontier legend in his own lifetime via biographies and news articles. Exaggerated versions of his exploits were the subject of dime novels, his understated nature belied confirmed reports of his fearlessness, combat skills and profound effect on the westward expansion of the United States. Carson left home in rural present-day Missouri at age 16 to become a mountain man and trapper in the West. In the 1830s, he accompanied Ewing Young on an expedition to Mexican California and joined fur-trapping expeditions into the Rocky Mountains, he married into the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes. In the 1840s, Carson was hired as a guide by John C. Frémont. Frémont's expeditions covered much of California and the Great Basin area. Frémont mapped and wrote reports and commentaries on the Oregon Trail to assist and encourage westward-bound American pioneers.
Carson achieved national fame through Frémont's accounts of his expeditions. Under Frémont's command, Carson participated in the conquest of Mexican California at the beginning of the Mexican–American War. In the war, Carson was a scout and courier, celebrated for his rescue mission after the Battle of San Pasqual and for his coast-to-coast journey from California to Washington, D. C. to deliver news of the conflict in California to the U. S. government. In the 1850s, he was appointed as the Indian agent to the Jicarilla Apaches. During the American Civil War, Carson led a regiment of Hispanic volunteers from New Mexico on the side of the Union at the Battle of Valverde in 1862; when the Confederate threat to New Mexico was eliminated, Carson led forces to suppress the Navajo, Mescalero Apache, the Kiowa and Comanche peoples by destroying their food sources. Carson took command of Fort Garland, Colorado, he was there only briefly: poor health forced him to retire from military life. Carson had ten children.
The Carson home was in New Mexico. Carson died at Fort Lyon, Colorado, of an aortic aneurysm on May 23, 1868, he is buried in New Mexico, next to his third wife, Josefa Jaramillo. Carson was born in Kentucky on Christmas Eve, 1809, his parents were his second wife, Rebecca Robinson. Lindsay had had five children by his first wife Lucy Bradley, ten more children by Rebecca. Kit was their sixth. Lindsay Carson had a Scots-Irish Presbyterian background, he was a farmer, a cabin builder, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. He fought Indians on the American frontier, losing two fingers on his left hand in a battle with the Fox and Sauk Indians; the Carson family moved to Boone's Lick, Howard County, when Kit was about one year old. The family settled on a tract of land owned by the sons of Daniel Boone, who had purchased the land from the Spanish; the Boone and Carson families became good friends and socializing together, intermarrying. Lindsay's oldest son William married Boone's grand-niece, Millie Boone, in 1810.
Their daughter Adaline became Kit's favorite playmate. Missouri was the frontier of American expansionism west; as men worked in the fields, sentries were posted with weapons. These men were ready to kill any Indian. Carson wrote in his Memoirs: "For two or three years after our arrival, we had to remain forted and it was necessary to have men stationed at the extremities of the fields for the protection of those that were laboring."In 1818 Lindsay Carson died when a tree limb fell on him while he was clearing a field. Kit was about 8 years old. Despite being penniless, his mother took care of her children alone for four years, she married Joseph Martin, a widower with several children. Kit did not get along with his stepfather; the decision was made to apprentice him to a saddler in Franklin, Missouri. Kit wrote in his Memoirs that Workman was "a good man, I recall the kind treatment I received."Franklin was situated at the eastern end of the Santa Fe Trail, which had opened two years earlier. Many of the customers at the saddle shop were trappers and traders, from whom Carson heard stirring tales of the West.
Carson found work in the saddlery not to his taste: he once stated "the business did not suit me, I concluded to leave". In August 1826, against his mother's wishes, Kit ran away from his apprenticeship, he went west with a caravan of fur trappers. They made their trek over the Santa Fe Trail to Santa Fe, the capital of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, reaching their destination in November 1826. Kit settled in Taos. Carson lived with Mathew Kinkead, a trapper and explorer who had served with Carson's older brothers during the War of 1812. Carson was mentored by Kinkead in learning the skills of a trapper, while learning the necessary languages for trade, he became fluent in Spanish and several Indian languages. Workman put an advertisement in a local newspaper back in Missouri, he wrote. No one claimed the reward, it was a bit of a joke. The advertisement featured the first printed description of Carson: "Christopher Carson, a boy about 16 years old, small of his age, but thick set.
Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination, distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The denomination grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the mid-19th century and it was formally established in 1863. Among its founders was Ellen G. White, whose extensive writings are still held in high regard by the church. Much of the theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church corresponds to common Protestant Christian teachings, such as the Trinity and the infallibility of Scripture. Distinctive teachings include the unconscious state of the dead and the doctrine of an investigative judgment; the church is known for its emphasis on diet and health, its "holistic" understanding of the person, its promotion of religious liberty, its conservative principles and lifestyle. The world church is governed by a General Conference, with smaller regions administered by divisions, union conferences, local conferences.
It has a worldwide baptized membership of over 20 million people, 25 million adherents. As of May 2007, it was the twelfth-largest religious body in the world, the sixth-largest international religious body, it is ethnically and culturally diverse, maintains a missionary presence in over 215 countries and territories. The church operates over 7,500 schools including over 100 post-secondary institutions, numerous hospitals, publishing houses worldwide, as well as a humanitarian aid organization known as the Adventist Development and Relief Agency; the Seventh-day Adventist Church is the largest of several Adventist groups which arose from the Millerite movement of the 1840s in upstate New York, a phase of the Second Great Awakening. William Miller predicted on the basis of Daniel 8:14–16 and the "day-year principle" that Jesus Christ would return to Earth between the spring of 1843 and the spring of 1844. In the summer of 1844, Millerites came to believe that Jesus would return on October 22, 1844, understood to be the biblical Day of Atonement for that year.
Miller's failed prediction became known as the "Great Disappointment". Hiram Edson and other Millerites came to believe that Miller's calculations were correct, but that his interpretation of Daniel 8:14 was flawed as he assumed Christ would come to cleanse the world; these Adventists came to the conviction that Daniel 8:14 foretold Christ's entrance into the Most Holy Place of the heavenly sanctuary rather than his Second Coming. Over the next few decades this understanding of a sanctuary in heaven developed into the doctrine of the investigative judgment, an eschatological process that commenced in 1844, in which every person would be judged to verify their eligibility for salvation and God's justice will be confirmed before the universe; this group of Adventists continued to believe that Christ's Second Coming would continue to be imminent, however they resisted setting further dates for the event, citing Revelation 10:6, "that there should be time no longer." As the early Adventist movement consolidated its beliefs, the question of the biblical day of rest and worship was raised.
The foremost proponent of Sabbath-keeping among early Adventists was Joseph Bates. Bates was introduced to the Sabbath doctrine through a tract written by Millerite preacher Thomas M. Preble, who in turn had been influenced by Rachel Oakes Preston, a young Seventh Day Baptist; this message was accepted and formed the topic of the first edition of the church publication The Present Truth, which appeared in July 1849. For about 20 years, the Adventist movement consisted of a small, loosely knit group of people who came from many churches and whose primary means of connection and interaction was through James White's periodical The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, they embraced the doctrines of the Sabbath, the heavenly sanctuary interpretation of Daniel 8:14, conditional immortality, the expectation of Christ's premillennial return. Among its most prominent figures were Joseph Bates, James White, Ellen G. White. Ellen White came to occupy a central role; the church was formally established in Battle Creek, Michigan, on May 21, 1863, with a membership of 3,500.
The denominational headquarters were moved from Battle Creek to Takoma Park, where they remained until 1989. The General Conference headquarters moved to its current location in Silver Spring, Maryland; the denomination in the 1870s turned to missionary work and revivals, tripling its membership to 16,000 by 1880 and establishing a presence beyond North America during the late 19th century. Rapid growth continued, with 75,000 members in 1901. By this time the denomination operated two colleges, a medical school, a dozen academies, 27 hospitals, 13 publishing houses. By 1945, the church reported 210,000 members in the US and Canada, 360,000 elsewhere; the church's beliefs and doctrines were first published in 1872 in Battle Creek Michigan as a brief statement called "A Synopsis of our Faith". The church experienced challenges as it formed its core beliefs and doctrines as a number of the early Adventist leaders came from churches that held to some form of Arianism. This, along with some of the movement's other theological views, led to a consensus among conservative evangelical Protestants to regard it as a cult.
The teachings and writings of White proved influential in shifting the church from semi-Arian roots tow
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Holiday Inn is a British-owned American brand of hotels, a subsidiary of InterContinental Hotels Group. Founded as a U. S. motel chain, it has grown to be one of the world's largest hotel chains, with 1,173 active hotels and over 214,000 bedrooms as of September 30, 2018. The hotel chain's headquarters are in Buckinghamshire. Kemmons Wilson, a resident of Memphis, was inspired to build his own motel after being disappointed by poor quality and inconsistent roadside accommodation during a family road trip to Washington, D. C; the name "Holiday Inn" was coined by Wilson's architect Eddie Bluestein as a joke during construction of the first hotel, in reference to the 1942 Christmas-themed, musical film Holiday Inn, starring Bing Crosby and Fred Astaire. Their first hotel/motel opened in August 1952 as "Holiday Inn Hotel Courts" at 4925 Summer Avenue in Memphis, the main highway to Nashville. In the early 1990s it was demolished. Wilson partnered with Wallace E. Johnson to build additional motels on the roads entering Memphis.
At the time Holiday Inn's corporate headquarters was in a converted plumbing shed owned by Johnson. In 1953, the company built its next three hotels which, along with their first hotel, covered the roads that led to Memphis; the second motel was built on U. S. 51 South. It was followed by two more in 1953, one on Highway 51 North, another on U. S. 61. Upon Johnson's death in 1988, Wilson was quoted as saying, "The greatest man I knew died today, he was the greatest partner a man could have." What they started together, with Wilson helming the project, became the Holiday Corporation, one of the world's largest hotel groups. By the beginning of 1956, there were 23 Holiday Inns operating with seven more due to open by the year's end. In 1957, Wilson began marketing the chain as "Holiday Inn of America", mandating its properties be standardized, predictable, family-friendly, accessible to road travelers; the chain grew as a result, with 50 locations across the country by 1958, 100 by 1959, 500 by 1964, the 1,000th Holiday Inn opening in 1968.
In 1965, the chain launched Holidex, a centralized reservation system where a visitor to any Holiday Inn could obtain reservations, by teleprinter, for any other Holiday Inn location. The only comparable systems at the time were operated by airlines. Promoting itself as "your host from coast to coast", Holiday Inn added a call center after AT&T's introduction of +1-800 toll-free telephone number service in 1967, updated its systems as desktop microcomputers, an invention of the 1970s, found their way into travel agencies. Branded as "The Nation's Innkeeper", the chain put considerable financial pressure on traditional motels and hotels, setting the standard for competitors like Ramada Inn, Quality Inn, Howard Johnson's, Best Western. By June 1972, with over 1,400 Holiday Inns worldwide, Wilson was featured on the cover of Time magazine and the franchise's motto became "The World's Innkeeper". In the 1960s, Holiday Inn began franchising and opening campgrounds under the Holiday Inn Trav-L-Park brand.
These recreational campgrounds were listed in the Holiday Inn directories. In 1963, Holiday Inn signed a long-term deal with Gulf Oil Corporation where it agreed to accept Gulf credit cards to charge food and lodging at all of its American and Canadian hotels, in return for Gulf building service stations on many Holiday Inn properties near major U. S. and Interstate highways. The arrangement was copied by competing lodging chains and major oil companies during the mid-to-late 1960s, but fell out of favor following the 1973 oil crisis; the Gulf/Holiday Inn arrangement ended around 1982. In 1971, the company constructed the Holiday Inn University and Conference Center, a teaching hotel for training new employees, in Olive Branch, Mississippi. In 1973, the company built the Olive Branch Airport north of the University as a home base for its corporate aircraft; the company branched into other enterprises, including Medi-Center nursing homes, Continental Trailways, Delta Queen, Show-Biz, Inc. a television production company that specialized in syndicated country music shows.
Wilson developed the Orange Lake Resort and Country Club near Orlando and a chain called Wilson World Hotels. The acquisition of Trailways in 1968 lasted until 1979, when Holiday Inn sold Trailways to private investor Henry Lea Hillman Sr of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In the years during which Trailways was a subsidiary of Holiday Inn, television commercials for Holiday Inn showed a Trailways bus stopping at a Holiday Inn hotel. Wilson retired from Holiday Inn in 1979; as of 2014, Wilson's family still operates hotels as part of the Kemmons Wilson Companies of Memphis. The "Great Sign" was the roadside sign used by Holiday Inn during its original era of expansion from the 1950s to 1970s, it was the company's most successful form of advertising. It was large and eye-catching, but was expensive to construct and operate; the manufacturer of the sign was Balton & Sons Sign Company, it was designed by sketch artists Gene Barber and Roland Alexander. Wilson wanted a prominent sign, desiring that it be at least 50 feet high and visible in both directions.
He wanted a changeable marquee to welcome different groups. The original sign cost $13,000, it is said. The popularity of the sign led to many imitations. In 1982, following Wilson's departure, the Holiday Inn board of directors phased out the "Great Sign" in favor of a cheaper back-lit sign; the decision signaled the end of the Wilson era
The Navajos are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States. The Navajo people are politically divided between two federally recognized tribes, the Navajo Nation and the Colorado River Indian Tribes. At more than 300,000 enrolled tribal members as of 2015, the Navajo Nation is the second-largest federally recognized tribe in the U. S. and has the largest reservation in the country. The reservation straddles the Four Corners region and covers more than 27,000 square miles of land in Arizona and New Mexico; the Navajo language is spoken throughout the region, most Navajo speak English. The states with the largest Navajo populations are New Mexico. More than three-quarters of the enrolled Navajo population resides in these two states; the Navajo are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan language. The language comprises mutually intelligible dialects; the Apache language is related to the Navajo language. Speakers of various other Athabaskan languages located in Canada may still comprehend the Navajo language despite the geographic and linguistic deviation of the languages.
Additionally, some Navajo speak Navajo Sign Language, either a dialect or daughter of Plains Sign Talk. Some speak Plains Sign Talk itself. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests the Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajo and Apache entered the Southwest around 1400 CE; the Navajo oral tradition is said to retain references to this migration. Until contact with the Pueblo and the Spanish peoples, the Navajo were hunters and gatherers; the tribe adopted crop-farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing the traditional "Three Sisters" of corn and squash. After the Spanish colonists influenced the people, the Navajo began keeping and herding livestock—sheep and goats—as a main source of trade and food. Meat became an essential component of the Navajo diet. Sheep became a form of currency and status symbols among the Navajo based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained. In addition, women began to weave wool into blankets and clothing. Oral history indicates a long relationship with Pueblo people and a willingness to incorporate Puebloan ideas and linguistic variance into their culture.
There were long-established trading practices between the groups. Spanish records from the mid-16th century recount the Pueblo exchanging maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat and stone from Athabaskans traveling to the pueblos or living in their vicinity. In the 18th century, the Spanish reported the Navajo maintaining large herds of livestock and cultivating large crop areas. Western historians believe that the Spanish before 1600 referred to the Navajo as Apaches or Quechos. Fray Geronimo de Zarate-Salmeron, in Jemez in 1622, used Apachu de Nabajo in the 1620s to refer to the people in the Chama Valley region, east of the San Juan River and northwest of present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico. Navahu comes from the Tewa language. By the 1640s, the Spanish began using the term Navajo to refer to the Diné. During the 1670s, the Spanish wrote that the Diné lived in a region known as Dinétah, about sixty miles west of the Rio Chama valley region. In the 1770s, the Spanish sent military expeditions against the Navajo in the Mount Taylor and Chuska Mountain regions of New Mexico.
The Spanish and Hopi continued to trade with each other and formed a loose alliance to fight Apache and Commanche bands for the next twenty years. During this time there were minor raids by Navajo bands and Spanish citizens against each other. In 1800 Governor Chacon led 500 men in an expedition to the Tunicha Mountains against the Navajo. Twenty Navajo chiefs asked for peace. In 1804 and 1805 the Navajo and Spanish mounted major expeditions against each other's settlements. In May 1805 another peace was established. Similar patterns of peace-making and trading among the Navajo, Apache and Hopi continued until the arrival of Americans in 1846; the Navajo encountered the United States Army in 1846, when General Stephen W. Kearny invaded Santa Fe with 1,600 men during the Mexican–American War. On November 21, 1846, following an invitation from a small party of American soldiers under the command of Captain John Reid, who journeyed deep into Navajo country and contacted him and other Navajo negotiated a treaty of peace with Colonel Alexander Doniphan at Bear Springs, Ojo del Oso.
This agreement by some New Mexicans. The Navajo raided New Mexican livestock, New Mexicans took women and livestock from the Navajo. In 1849, the military governor of New Mexico, Colonel John MacRae Washington—accompanied by John S. Calhoun, an Indian agent—led a force of 400 soldiers into Navajo country, penetrating Canyon de Chelly, he signed a treaty with two Navajo leaders: Mariano Martinez as Head Chief and Chapitone as Second Chief. The treaty acknowledged the transfer of jurisdiction from the United Mexican States to the United States; the treaty allowed forts and trading posts to be built on Navajo land. The United States, on its part, promised "such donations such other liberal and humane measures, as may deem meet and proper." While en route to this treaty signing, Narbona, a prominent Navajo peace leader
Canyon de Chelly National Monument
Canyon de Chelly National Monument was established on April 1, 1931, as a unit of the National Park Service. Located in northeastern Arizona, it is within the boundaries of the Navajo Nation and lies in the Four Corners region. Reflecting one of the longest continuously inhabited landscapes of North America, it preserves ruins of the indigenous tribes that lived in the area, from the Ancestral Puebloans to the Navajo; the monument covers 83,840 acres and encompasses the floors and rims of the three major canyons: de Chelly, del Muerto, Monument. These canyons were cut by streams with headwaters in the Chuska Mountains just to the east of the monument. None of the land is federally owned. Canyon de Chelly is one of the most visited national monuments in the United States; the name Chelly is a Spanish borrowing of the Navajo word Tséyiʼ, which means "canyon". The Navajo pronunciation is; the Spanish pronunciation of de Chelly was adapted into English through modelling after a French-like spelling pronunciation, now də-SHAY.
Canyon de Chelly long served as a home for Navajo people before it was invaded by forces led by future New Mexico governor Lt. Antonio Narbona in 1805. In 1863, Col. Kit Carson sent troops through the canyon, killing 23 Indians, seizing 200 sheep, destroying hogans, as well as peach orchards and other crops; the resulting demoralization led to the surrender of the Navajos and their removal to Bosque Redondo, New Mexico. Canyon de Chelly is owned by the Navajo Tribal Trust of the Navajo Nation, it is the only National Park Service unit, owned and cooperatively managed in this manner. About 40 Navajo families live in the park. Access to the canyon floor is restricted, visitors are allowed to travel in the canyons only when accompanied by a park ranger or an authorized Navajo guide; the only exception to this rule is the White House Ruin Trail. The park's distinctive geologic feature, Spider Rock, is a sandstone spire that rises 750 feet from the canyon floor at the junction of Canyon de Chelly and Monument Canyon.
Spider Rock can be seen from South Rim Drive. It has served as the scene of a number of television commercials. According to traditional Navajo beliefs, the taller of the two spires is the home of Spider Grandmother. Most park visitors arrive by automobile and view Canyon de Chelly from the rim, following both North Rim Drive and South Rim Drive. Ancient ruins and geologic structures are visible, but in the distance, from turnoffs on each of these routes. Deep within the park is Mummy Cave, it features structures. Private Navajo-owned companies offer tours of the canyon floor by horseback, hiking or four-wheel drive vehicle; the companies can be contacted directly for arrangements. No entrance fee is charged to enter the park, apart from any charges imposed by tour companies. Accommodations for visitors are located in the vicinity of the canyon, on the road leading to Chinle, the nearest town; the National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 25, 1970. Ancestral Puebloans Battle of Canyon de Chelly Mesa Verde National Park National Register of Historic Places listings in Apache County, Arizona Grant, Campbell.
Canyon de Chelly: Its People and Rock Art. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-0523-3. Official website "Canyon de Chelly National Monument". Geology Fieldnotes. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-13. Retrieved 2011-06-29. Historic American Buildings Survey No. AZ-157, "Antelope House Ruin, Canyon del Muerto, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-213, "Bad Trail Ruin, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-211, "Ledge Ruin, Canyon del Muerto, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-72, "Mummy Cave, Navajo Indian Reservation, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-156, "White House Ruin, Navajo Indian Reservation, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-212, "Yucca House Ruin, Canyon del Muerto, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" Canyon de Chelly Accessed 2013 January 15