Cass County, Minnesota
Cass County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 28,567, its county seat is Walker. The county was formed in 1851, was organized in 1897. Cass County is included in MN Micropolitan Statistical Area. A substantial portion of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation is in the county's northern portion. Cass County was created on September 1, 1851 by the Minnesota Territory legislature, although its government was not organized until 1897; the county was formed of areas partitioned from Dakota, Mahkatah and Wahnata Counties. It was named for a Michigan political figure of the 19th century. Before it was organized several parcels of county land were partitioned off to augment or form adjacent counties; the Crow Wing River flows east-southeast along Cass County's southern border, the Gull River flows southwest through the lower part, to discharge into the Crow Wing on the southern border. The terrain consists of wooded rolling hills dotted with lakes and ponds, slopes to the south and east.
The county has a total area of 2,414 square miles, of which 2,022 square miles is land and 393 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Walker have ranged from a low of 0 °F in January to a high of 79 °F in July, although a record low of −44 °F was recorded in February 1996 and a record high of 103 °F was recorded in August 1976. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.62 inches in February to 4.11 inches in July. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 27,150 people, 10,893 households, 7,734 families in the county; the population density was 13.4/sqmi. There were 21,286 housing units at an average density of 10.5/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 86.52% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 11.45% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. 0.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.2 % were of 6.1 % Irish and 6.1 % American ancestry. There were 10,893 households out of which 27.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.40% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.00% were non-families.
25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.90. The county population contained 25.00% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 23.00% from 25 to 44, 27.90% from 45 to 64, 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 101.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,332, the median income for a family was $40,156. Males had a median income of $30,097 versus $21,232 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,189. About 9.50% of families and 13.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.20% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. Whipholt Cass County voters tend to vote Republican. In 78% of the national elections since 1980, the county selected the Republican Party candidate.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Cass County, Minnesota Woman Lake Cass County government's website Minnesota Department of Transportation map of Cass County
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae. The genus Mustela includes the least weasels, stoats and minks. Members of this genus are active predators, with long and slender bodies and short legs; the family Mustelidae is referred to as the "weasel family". In the UK, the term "weasel" refers to the smallest species, the least weasel. Weasels vary in length from 173 to 217 mm, females being smaller than the males, have red or brown upper coats and white bellies, they have slender bodies, which enable them to follow their prey into burrows. Their tails may be from 34 to 52 mm long. Weasels feed on small mammals and have from time to time been considered vermin because some species took poultry from farms or rabbits from commercial warrens, they do, on the other hand. They can be found all across the world except for Antarctica and neighbouring islands; the English word "weasel" was applied to one species of the genus, the European form of the least weasel. This usage is retained in British English, where the name is extended to cover several other small species of the genus.
However, in technical discourse and in American usage, the term "weasel" can refer to any member of the genus, or to the genus as a whole. Of the 17 extant species classified in the genus Mustela, 10 have "weasel" in their common names. Among those that do not are the stoat, the polecats, the ferret, the European mink; the American mink and the extinct sea mink were included in this genus as Mustela vison and Mustela macrodon but in 1999 were moved to the genus Neovison. The following information is according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 1 Europe and northern Asia division excludes China. Hybrids in this genus include the polecat -- ferret the polecat -- mink hybrid. Weasels have been assigned a variety of cultural meanings. In Greek culture, a weasel near one's house is a sign of bad luck evil, "especially if there is in the household a girl about to be married", since the animal was thought to be an unhappy bride, transformed into a weasel and delights in destroying wedding dresses.
In neighboring Macedonia, weasels are seen as an omen of good fortune. In early-modern Mecklenburg, amulets from weasels were deemed to have strong magic. In Montagne Noire and the early medieval culture of the Wends, weasels were not meant to be killed. In North America, Native Americans deemed the weasel to be a bad sign. According to Daniel Defoe meeting a weasel is a bad omen. In English-speaking areas, weasel can be an insult, noun or verb, for someone regarded as sneaky, conniving or untrustworthy. "weasel words" is a critical term for words or phrasing that are vague, misleading or equivocal. In Japan, weasels were seen as yōkai. According to the encyclopedia Wakan Sansai Zue from the Edo period, a nate of weasels would cause conflagrations, the cry of a weasel was considered a harbinger of misfortune. In the Niigata Prefecture, the sound of a nate of weasels making a rustle resembled six people hulling rice, so was called the "weasel's six-person mortar", it was an omen for one's home to decline or flourish.
It is said. They are said to shapeshift like the fox or tanuki, the nyūdō-bōzu told about in legends in the Tōhoku region and the Chūbu region are considered weasels in disguise, they are said to shapeshift into ōnyūdō and little monks. In the collection of depictions, the Gazu Hyakki Yagyō by Sekien Toriyama, they were depicted under the title 鼬, but they were read not as "itachi", but rather as "ten", "ten" were considered to be weasels that have reached one hundred years of age and became yōkai that possessed supernatural powers. Another theory is. In Japanese weasels are called iizuna or izuna and in the Tōhoku Region and Shinshu, it was believed that there were families that were able to use a certain practice to use kudagitsune as iizuna-tsukai or kitsune-mochi, it is said that Mount Iizuna, from the Nagano Prefecture, got its name due to how the gods gave people mastery of this technique from there. According to the folkloristician Mutō Tetsujō, "They are called izuna in the Senboku District, Akita Prefecture, there are the ichiko that use them."
In the Kitaakita District, they are called mōsuke, they are feared as yōkai more than foxes. In the Ainu language, ermines are called upas-čironnup or sáčiri, but since least weasels are called sáčiri, Mashio Chiri surmised that the honorary title poy-sáčiri-kamuy refers to least weasels. Kamaitachi is a phenomenon wherein one, idle is injured as if his or her skin were cut by a scythe. In the past, this was thought to be "the deed of an invisible yōkai weasel". An alternate theory, asserts that kamaitachi is derived from kamae Tachi, so were not related to weasels at all. Nowak, Ronald M. and Ernest P. Walker. Walker's Carnivores of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8018-8033-5, ISBN 0-8018-8032-7. C
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Hawks are distributed and vary in size; the subfamily Accipitrinae includes goshawks, sharp-shinned hawks and others. This subfamily are woodland birds with long tails and high visual acuity, they hunt by dashing from a concealed perch. In the Americas, members of the Buteo group are called hawks. Buteos have broad wings and sturdy builds, they are larger-winged, shorter-tailed and fly further distances in open areas than accipiters. Buteos pounce on their prey rather than hunting in a fast horizontal pursuit; the terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk are used to distinguish between the types in regions where hawk applies to both. The term "true hawk" is sometimes used for the accipitrine hawks in regions where buzzard is preferred for the buteonine hawks. All these groups are members of the Accipitridae family, which includes the hawks and buzzards as well as kites and eagles; some authors use "hawk" for any small to medium Accipitrid, not an eagle.
The common names of some birds include the term "hawk", reflecting traditional usage rather than taxonomy. For example, some people may call an osprey a "fish hawk" or a peregrine falcon a "duck hawk". Falconry was once called "hawking" and any bird used for falconry could be referred to as a hawk. Aristotle listed eleven types of ἱέρακες: aisalōn, hypotriorchēs, leios, phassophonos, pternis and triorchēs. Pliny numbered sixteen kinds of hawks, but named only aigithos, kenchrēïs, triorchēs; the accipitrine hawks hunt birds as their primary prey. They are called "hen-hawks", or "wood-hawks" because of their woodland habitat; the subfamily Accipitrinae contains Accipiter. Melierax may be given a subfamily of its own. Erythrotriorchis is traditionally included in Accipitrinae, but is a convergent genus from an unrelated group; the "Buteo group" includes genera Buteo, Parabuteo and most of Leucopternis. Members of this group have been called "hawk-buzzards". Proposed new genera Morphnarchus and Pseudastur are formed from members of Buteo and Leucopternis.
The "Buteogallus group" are called hawks, with the exception of the solitary eagles. Buteo is the type genus of the subfamily Buteoninae. Traditionally this subfamily includes eagles and sea-eagles. Lerner and Mindell proposed placing those into separate subfamilies, leaving only the buteonine hawks/buzzards in Buteoninae. In February 2005, Canadian ornithologist Louis Lefebvre announced a method of measuring avian "IQ" by measuring their innovation in feeding habits. Based on this scale, hawks were named among the most intelligent birds. Hawks have four types of colour receptors in the eye; these give hawks the ability to perceive not only the visible range but the ultraviolet part of the spectrum. Other adaptations allow for the detection of polarised magnetic fields; this is due to the large number of photoreceptors in the retina, a high number of nerves connecting these receptors to the brain, an indented fovea, which magnifies the central portion of the visual field. Hawks are known to be able hunters.
The female is larger than the male. Like most birds, the hawk migrates in the spring. Different types of hawks choose separate times in each season to migrate; the autumn migrating season ends mid-December. It has been studied; the long-distance travelers tend to begin in early autumn while the short distance travelers start much later. Thus, the longer the distance the earlier the bird begins its journey. There have been studies on the speed and efficiency of the bird's migration that show that it is better for a hawk to arrive at its destination as early as possible; this is because the first bird that arrives has the first pick of mates, living area and survival necessities. The more fat a bird has when it starts its migration, the better chance it has of making the trip safely. Kerlinger states that studies have shown that a bird has more body fat when it begins its migration, before it leaves, than when has arrived at its destination. One of the most important parts of the hawk's migration is the flight direction because the direction or path the bird chooses to take could affect its migration.
The force of wind is a variable because it could either throw the bird off course or push it in the right direction, depending on the direction of the wind. To ensure a safer journey, a hawk tries to avoid any large bodies of water in the spring and fall by detouring around a lake or flying along a border. Hawkwatching is a citizen scientist activity that monitors hawk migration and provides data to the scientific community; the red-tailed hawk is the most common hawk in North America. Past observations have indicated that while hawks can adapt to any surrounding, hawks prefer a habitat, open. Hawks like to live in places like deserts and fields as it is easier to find prey; as they are able to live anywhere, they can be found in mountainous plains and tropical, moist areas. Hawks have been found in places such as Centra
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae; the Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms. The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’. Before the 19th century, pines were referred to as firs. In some European languages, Germanic cognates of the Old Norse name are still in use for pines—in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, German Föhre—but in modern English, fir is now restricted to fir and Douglas fir. Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall; the smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, the tallest is an 81.79 m tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest.
Pines are long lived and reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some more. The longest-lived is Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old; this tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old, it was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly; the branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls" a tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year; the spiral growth of branches and cone scales may be arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; these "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the vigour of the trees.
Pines have four types of leaf: Seed leaves on seedlings are borne in a whorl of 4–24. Juvenile leaves, which follow on seedlings and young plants, are 2–6 cm long, green or blue-green, arranged spirally on the shoot; these are produced for six months to five years longer. Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, are small and not photosynthetic, arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves. Needles, the adult leaves, are green and bundled in clusters called fascicles; the needles can number from one to seven per fascicle, but number from two to five. Each fascicle is produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf; these bud scales remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist depending on species. If a shoot is damaged, the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can replace the lost leaves. Pines are monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious, with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex.
The male cones are small 1–5 cm long, only present for a short period, falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long; each cone has numerous spirally. The seeds are small and winged, are anemophilous, but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, are bird-dispersed. At maturity, the cones open to release the seeds, but in some of the bird-dispersed species, the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds; the most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire. Pines are gymnosperms; the genus is divided into two subgenera, which can be distinguished by cone and leaf characters: Pinus subg. Pinus, the yellow, or hard pine group with harder wood and two or three needles per fascicle Pinus subg.
Strobus, the white, or soft pine group with softer wood and five needles per fascicle Pines are native to the Northern Hemisphere, in a few parts of the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere. Most regions of the Northern Hemisphere host some native species of pines. One species crosses the equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, various species occur in regions at latitudes from as far north as 66°N to as far south as 12°N. Pines may be found in a large variety of environments, ranging from semi-arid desert to rainforests, from sea level up to 5,200 metres, from the coldest to the hottest environments on Earth, they occur in mountainous areas with favorable soils and at least some water. Various species have been introduced to temperate and subtropical regions of both hemisp
Leech Lake is a lake located in north central Minnesota, United States. It is southeast of Bemidji, located within the Leech Lake Indian Reservation, within the Chippewa National Forest, it is used as a reservoir. The lake is the third largest in Minnesota, covering 102,947.83 acres with 195 miles of shoreline and has a maximum depth of 156 feet. Leech Lake outlets to the Leech Lake River, which flows into the Mississippi River; the sole outlet to the Leech Lake River is controlled by a dam in order to regulate water levels of the lake. Leech Lake has seven major inlets that include Portage Lake Creek, Sucker Creek, Steamboat River, Benedict River, Shingobee River, Bishop Creek, the Boy River. There are nine minor inlets that flow into Leech Lake. Leech Lake hosts eleven islands; the following list is in order from largest to smallest. Bear Island Minnesota Island Pelican Island Headquarters Bay Island Big Pipe Island Goose Island Bog Island Narrows Island Little Bear Island Little Pelican Island Gull Island Shingobee Island The long, narrow Shingobee Bay is part of Leech Lake, is located on its southern end.
Shingobee Bay, the adjacent Walker Bay, boast some of the deepest parts in the entire lake. Lythrum salicariaAlso known as purple loosestrife; this is an invasive plant that takes over lake shores and marshes, replacing cattails and other native wetland plants. Purple loosestrife doesn't provide a sufficient food source, nesting area, or cover for the native animals. One plant can produce around two million seeds annually, it spreads through aquatic systems. Typha angustifoliaBetter known as the narrow-leaf cattail, this invasive plant is able to grow in deeper water; the narrow-leaf cattail competes with the native Typha latifolia and other native plants along Leech Lake. Leech Lake is a popular sport fishing hotspot, is fished for many different types; the state record lake whitefish and pumpkinseed were both caught here in 1999. Species of fish the lake contains: Black crappie Bowfin Bluegill Brown bullhead Catfish Eelpout Hybrid sunfish Largemouth bass Muskellunge Northern pike Pumpkinseed Rock bass Smallmouth bass Tullibee Walleye White sucker Yellow bullhead Yellow perch Jackfish Wild riceGrows in the shallow depths of Leech Lake, emerging through over 4,000 acres of water.
Wild Rice is a valuable crop for the Leech Lake community. BulrushGrass like plants that grow in water, they can reach lengths of around ten feet; these plants are an important food resources for aquatic life in Leech Lake. Leech Lake and the surrounding national forest is home to a large population of bald eagles, they are known to return to their same nests. Populations have risen over the last few decades. On early maps, Leech Lake is identified in French as "lac Sangsue", translated into English to its current name. In 1855, the Leech Lake Indian Reservation was established on the south shore of Leech Lake, along with two other Indian Reservations in the area, which along with two additional Indian Reservations, the five Indian Reservations were amalgamated in 1936 to form the current "Greater" Leech Lake Indian Reservation which encompasses most all of Leech Lake. On October 5, 1898, Leech Lake was the location of a conflict between Ojibwe and Federal troops of the United States, the Battle of Sugar Point.
A firefight broke out between the 3rd U. S. Infantry Regiment and the Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe after one of the soldiers sent to retrieve a bootlegger mistakenly fired his rifle. Oscar Burkard received the Medal of Honor on August 1899 for his participation in the battle; every February, Leech Lake is home to the International Eelpout Festival. The eel pout known as the Burbot, is seen in Leech Lake, except in the winter when it is plentiful. Events include a black-tie dinner, ice bowling, a contest to see who can catch the largest eel pout. Leech Lake Township Remer Federal Dam Whipholt Walker Onigum DNR leech lake info Leech Lake Tourism Bureau Fishing leech lake
Cypripedium reginae, known as the showy lady's slipper, pink-and-white lady's-slipper, or the queen's lady's-slipper, is a rare terrestrial lady's-slipper orchid native to northern North America. Despite producing a large amount of seeds per seed pod, it reproduces by vegetative reproduction, remains restricted to the North East region of the United States and south east regions of Canada. Although never common, this rare plant has vanished from much of its historical range due to habitat loss, it has been a subject of horticultural interest for many years with Charles Darwin who, like many, was unsuccessful in cultivating the plant. It is the state flower of Minnesota, United States, the provincial flower of Prince Edward Island, Canada; the species name reginae is Latin for "of a queen". Common names include fairy queen, white wing moccasin, royal lady's slipper and silver-slipper; the plant became the state flower of Minnesota in 1902 and was protected by state law in 1925. It is illegal to uproot a showy lady's slipper flower in Minnesota.
Although this plant was chosen as the provincial flower for Prince Edward Island in 1947, it is so rare on the island that another lady's-slipper, C. acaule, replaced it as the province's floral emblem in 1965. Cypripedium reginae grows in wetlands such as fens and open wooded swamps that are sometimes populated by tamarack and black spruce. Cyp. reginae thrives in neutral to basic soils but can be found in acidic conditions. The plants form in clumps by branching of the underground rhizomes, its roots are within a few inches of the top of the soil. It prefers loose soils and when growing in fens it will most be found in mossy hummocks; this photo, taken in a forested, calcareous fen in Williamstown, MA, is only one of 14 occurrences documented in the state. The increasing rarity of this plant is attributable to destruction of a suitable alkaline habitat – and an exploding deer population whose browsing stunts or eliminates its growth, it prefers partial shade for some part of the day. When exposed to full sun, the flower lip is somewhat bleached and less colored.
It is eaten by white-tailed deer. Cypripedium reginae can be found in Canada from Saskatchewan east to Atlantic Canada, the eastern United States south to Arkansas and Tennessee. Cypripedium reginae is quite rare, is considered imperiled or critically imperiled in Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey and Labrador, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward Island, Tennessee and West Virginia. Additionally, it is considered vulnerable in Indiana, Manitoba, New York, Vermont, Wisconsin, Rhode Island, several areas of east Canada, it was found in Kentucky and North Carolina, but has not been found recently. The only province to rank C. reginae as secure is Ontario. The showy lady's-slipper is sensitive to hydrologic disturbances, is threatened by wetland draining, habitat destruction and horticultural collectors; the showy lady's slipper is a popular plant among orchid collectors for its structure. However, it has proven to be a difficult plant to cultivate, due to its poor seed germination and slow maturation to flowering.
This makes it more vulnerable to illegal collection. It was difficult to raise from seed, taking many months to germinate in sterile culture until progress on axenic culture from seed in the 1990s by a group of high school students in New Hampshire. Efforts at micropropagation have had marginal success. Cyp. reginae reproduces sexually and depends on insects such as syphid flies and Megachile bees for pollination. The structure of the flower creates a tight space. A pollinating insect first passes by the stigma, upon exiting the trap rubs against the anther. Pollination occurs in June and the seed pod or fruit is ripe by September and dehisces by October. Although a single seed pod can produce over 50,000 seeds, low germination and a seed-to-flowering term of about 8 years indicate that sexual reproduction is inefficient. Asexual reproduction from rhizomes in the Showy Lady's slipper is a common means of sustaining a population, it flowers in early to midsummer with 1 to 2 flowers per stalk, less 3 or 4.
Cypripedium reginae contains phenanthrene quinone or cypripedin. The plant is known to face; the first report of the allergy reaction was in 1875 by H. H. Babcock in the United States, 35 years before the term "allergy" was coined; the allergen was isolated in West Germany by Bjorn M. Hausen and associates; the Cypripedium species have been used in native remedies for dermatitis, tooth aches, headaches, as an antispasmodic and sedative. However, the preferred species for use are Cypripedium parviflorum and Cypripedium acaule, used as topical applications or tea. Gray's Manual of Botany of the Northern United States, American Book Company, 1889. Go Orchids, North American Orchid Conservation Center, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Minnesota Secretary of State: State Flower, accessed January 31, 2004 US Geological Survey: Showy Lady Slipper, accessed January 31, 2004 Showy Lady's-slipper: Queen Lady's-slipper, accessed Nov 19, 2005 Cypripedin
Cut Foot Sioux Trail
The Cut Foot Sioux Trail is a 22-mile loop trail in the Chippewa National Forest of Minnesota, United States. It follows gravel and sand forestry roads that are now used for hiking, cross-country skiing and horse back riding; the trail passes by several lakes. The trail starts at the Cut Foot Sioux Visitor Information Center on Minnesota State Highway 46 in west-central Itasca County; the Center, on the Leech Lake Indian Reservation, offers a fishing pier. From the Center the trail runs west through wooded country past several lakes, including Cut Foot Sioux Lake turns north and slopes up to Farley Tower, an old lookout. Turning east, the trail runs along the Northern Divide drops down to the Bowstring river before heading south back to the Visitor center; the trail connects with Simpson Creek Trail, a 13-mile trail system through large red pines on a peninsula that extends into Lake Winnibigoshish, passes through the Cut Foot Experimental Forest, used for studying pine forest management. Walkers may see eagles and loons on the lakes.
The Cut Foot Sioux Ranger Station, near Lake Winnibigoshish, is the oldest remaining ranger station building in the Forest Service's Eastern Region. A log cabin, it was built in 1904 and abandoned in 1918, but has been restored and is in good condition as of 2008. US Forest Service Map