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Chivalry

Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220. It was associated with the medieval Christian institution of knighthood; the ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, informed by Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written in the 1130s, which popularized the legend of King Arthur and his knights of the Round Table. All of these were taken as accurate until the beginnings of modern scholarship in the 19th century; the code of chivalry that developed in medieval Europe had its roots in earlier centuries. It arose in the Carolingian Empire from the idealisation of the cavalryman—involving military bravery, individual training, service to others—especially in Francia, among horse soldiers in Charlemagne's cavalry; the term "chivalry" derives from the Old French term chevalerie, which can be translated as "horse soldiery".

The term referred only to horse-mounted men, from the French word for horse, but it became associated with knightly ideals. Over time, its meaning in Europe has been refined to emphasise more general social and moral virtues; the code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility. In origin, the term chivalry means "horsemanship", formed in Old French, in the 11th century, from chevalier, from Medieval Latin caballārius; the French word chevalier meant "a man of aristocratic standing, of noble ancestry, capable, if called upon, of equipping himself with a war horse and the arms of heavy cavalryman and, through certain rituals that make him what he is". In English, the term appears from 1292; the meaning of the term evolved over time because in the Middle Ages the meaning of chevalier changed from the original concrete military meaning "status or fee associated with a military follower owning a war horse" or "a group of mounted knights" to the ideal of the Christian warrior ethos propagated in the romance genre, becoming popular during the 12th century, the ideal of courtly love propagated in the contemporary Minnesang and related genres.

The ideas of chivalry are summarized in three medieval works: the anonymous poem Ordene de chevalerie, which tells the story of how Hugh II of Tiberias was captured and released upon his agreement to show Saladin the ritual of Christian knighthood. None of the authors of these three texts knew the other two texts, the three combine to depict a general concept of chivalry, not in harmony with any of them. To different degrees and with different details, they speak of chivalry as a way of life in which the military, the nobility, religion combine; the "code of chivalry" is thus a product of the Late Middle Ages, evolving after the end of the crusades from an idealization of the historical knights fighting in the Holy Land and from ideals of courtly love. Gautier's Ten Commandments of chivalry, set out in the 19th century, hundreds of years after the time of medieval chivalry, are: Thou shalt believe all that the Church teaches and thou shalt observe all its directions. Thou shalt defend the Church.

Thou shalt respect all weaknesses, shalt constitute thyself the defender of them. Thou shalt love the country. Thou shalt not recoil before thine enemy. Thou shalt make war against the infidel without mercy. Thou shalt perform scrupulously thy feudal duties. Thou shalt never lie, shalt remain faithful to thy pledged word. Thou shalt be generous, give largesse to everyone. Thou shalt be everywhere and always the champion of the Right and the Good against Injustice and Evil. There is no reference to women, quests, or travel; this list would serve a soldier, or a clergyman. Fans of chivalry have assumed since the late medieval period that there was a time in the past when chivalry was a living institution, when men acted chivalrically, when chivalry was alive and not dead, the imitation of which period would much improve the present; this is the mad mission of Don Quixote, protagonist of the most chivalric novel of all time and inspirer of the chivalry of Sir Walter Scott and of the U. S. South: to restore the age of chivalry, thereby improve his country.

It is a version of the myth of the Golden Age. With the birth of modern historical and literary research, scholars have found that however far back in time "The Age of Chivalry" is searched for, it is always further in the past back to the Roman Empire. From Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi: We must not confound chivalry with the feudal system; the feudal system may be called the real life of the period of which we are treating, possessing its advantages and inconveniences, its virtues and its vices. Chivalry, on the contrary, is the ideal world, such as it existed in the imaginations of the romance writers, its essential character is devotion to honour. Sismondi alludes to the fictitious Arthurian romances about the imaginary Court of King Arthur, which were taken as factual presentations of a historical age of ch

VGN Projects Estates

VGN Projects Estates Pvt. Ltd. is an Indian real estate company headquartered in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. VGN focuses on residential projects, it engages in the development of commercial and institutional properties. VGN has its own engineering and construction division which specialises in the construction of buildings, roads and pipelines. Founded in the year 1942, VGN has developed in excess of 20 million square feet of real estate with over 50 projects in the city of Chennai. An ISO 9001:2008 certified company. V Gurusamy was the founder of VGN group. In the year 1942 he started brick kiln factory and manufactured bricks in the name of VGN, he acquired land parcels to manufacture bricks in various locations. He earned a name for VGN brand. VGN was the principal sponsor of Chennai Super Kings in the Indian Premier League Cricket 2012 – 2013. VGN has sponsored various social events including Rotary International, Round Table Conference, Vintage Car Rally and other sports and charitable events. Aircel Super Cup 2014 Chennai Super Kings Super Cup winner V Raman Memorial Cup 2017 South India’s real estate Awards - Developers of the Year 2017 Vijayavani Property Expo Awards 2015 Zenith Cultural Fest Award Lifetime Achievement Award by Sulekha Properties ICICI Bank Awards India Bulls premier League Awards 2016 Indian Express Property Expo Awards Prince of Arcot Trophy Runners Up 2013 Prince of Arcot Trophy Runners Up 2014 Maddys - Advertising club Madras Daily Thanthi – TV and Radio Awards 2017 Vintage Car Rally awards.

SAP invitational F15 Cricket Cup winner LIC HFL Ungal Illam awards 2013 LIC HFL Ungal Illam awards 2017 Economic Times Reality Convention Awards Estate South Award HDFC Preferred Developer Award

West Bromwich Central tram stop

West Bromwich Central is a tram stop in the town centre of West Bromwich in the West Midlands, England. It was opened on 31 May 1999 and is situated on Midland Metro Line 1, it occupies the site of the former West Bromwich railway station on the Great Western Railway line from Birmingham Snow Hill to Wolverhampton Low Level. The town's main shopping centres are opposite the tram stop, along with the town's main bus station and Sandwell College's main campus. In 2015/16 it was the most used intermediate stop on Line 1. Mondays to Fridays, Midland Metro services in each direction between Birmingham and Wolverhampton run at six to eight-minute intervals during the day, at fifteen-minute intervals during the evenings and on Sundays, they run at eight minute intervals on Saturdays. Article on this Metro stop from Rail Around Birmingham & the West Midlands