SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chloral hydrate

Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2. It is a colorless solid, it has limited use as a hypnotic pharmaceutical drug. It is a useful laboratory chemical reagent and precursor, it is derived from chloral by the addition of one equivalent of water. It was discovered in 1832 by Justus von Liebig in Gießen when a chlorination reaction was performed on ethanol, its sedative properties were observed by Rudolf Buchheim in 1861, but only described in detail and published by Oscar Liebreich in 1869. It was used for sedation in asylums and in general medical practice, became a popular drug of abuse in the late 19th century. One notable recreational user, for instance, was illustrator Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and ethanol forming concentrated solutions. A solution of chloral hydrate in ethanol called. More reputable uses of chloral hydrate include as a clearing agent for chitin and fibers and as a key ingredient in Hoyer's mounting medium, used to prepare permanent or semipermanent microscope slides of small organisms, histological sections, chromosome squashes.

Because of its status as a regulated substance, chloral hydrate can be difficult to obtain. This has led to chloral hydrate being replaced by alternative reagents in microscopy procedures, it is, together with chloroform, a minor side-product of the chlorination of water when organic residues such as humic acids are present. It has been detected in drinking water at concentrations of up to 100 micrograms per litre but concentrations are found to be below 10 µg/L. Levels are found to be higher in surface water than in ground water. Chloral hydrate has not been approved by the FDA in the United States or the EMA in the European Union for any medical indication and is on the FDA list of unapproved drugs that are still prescribed by clinicians. Usage of the drug as a sedative or hypnotic may carry some risk given the lack of clinical trials. However, chloral hydrate products, licensed for short-term management of severe insomnia, are available in the United Kingdom. Chloral hydrate is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia and as a sedative before minor medical or dental treatment.

It was displaced in the mid-20th century by barbiturates and subsequently by benzodiazepines. It was formerly used in veterinary medicine as a general anesthetic but is not considered acceptable for anesthesia or euthanasia of small animals due to adverse effects, it is still used as a sedative prior to EEG procedures, as it is one of the few available sedatives that does not suppress epileptiform discharges. In therapeutic doses for insomnia, chloral hydrate is effective within 20 to 60 minutes. In humans it is metabolized within 7 hours into trichloroethanol and trichloroethanol glucuronide by erythrocytes and plasma esterases and into trichloroacetic acid in 4 to 5 days, it has a narrow therapeutic window making this drug difficult to use. Higher doses can depress blood pressure. Chloral hydrate is a starting point for the synthesis of other organic compounds, it is the starting material for the production of chloral, produced by the distillation of a mixture of chloral hydrate and sulfuric acid, which serves as the desiccant.

Notably, it is used to synthesize isatin. In this synthesis, chloral hydrate reacts with aniline and hydroxylamine to give a condensation product which cyclicizes in sulfuric acid to give the target compound: Moreover, chloral hydrate is used as a reagent for the deprotection of acetals and tetrahydropyranyl ethers in organic solvents. Chloral hydrate is an ingredient used for Hoyer's solution, a mounting medium for microscopic observation of diverse plant types such as bryophytes, ferns and small arthropods. Other ingredients may include gum glycerol. An advantage of this medium includes a high refractive index and clearing properties of small specimens. Chloral hydrate is an ingredient used to make Melzer's reagent, an aqueous solution, used to identify certain species of fungi; the other ingredients are potassium iodide, iodine. Whether tissue or spores react to this reagent is vital for the correct identification of some mushrooms. Chloral hydrate was administered in gram quantities. Prolonged exposure to the vapors is unhealthy however, with a LD50 for 4-hour exposure of 440 mg/m3.

Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric discomfort and severe kidney and liver failure. Acute overdosage is characterized by nausea, confusion, convulsions and irregular breathing, cardiac arrhythmia, coma; the plasma, serum or blood concentrations of chloral hydrate and/or trichloroethanol, its major active metabolite, may be measured to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to aid in the medicolegal investigation of fatalities. Accidental overdosage of young children undergoing simple dental or surgical procedures has occurred. Hemodialysis has been used to accelerate clearance of the drug in poisoning victims, it is listed as having a "conditional risk" of causing torsades de pointes. Chloral hydrate is produced from ethanol in acidic solution. In basic conditions the haloform reaction takes place and chloral hydrate is decomposed by hydrolysis to form chloroform.

4 Cl2 + C2H5OH

Chase Elliott

William Clyde "Chase" Elliott II is an American professional stock car racing driver. He competes full-time in the NASCAR Cup Series, driving the No. 9 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 1LE for Hendrick Motorsports and part-time in the NASCAR Gander RV & Outdoors Truck Series, driving the No. 24 Chevrolet Silverado for GMS Racing. He is the only son of 1988, he won the 2014 NASCAR Nationwide Series championship, becoming the first rookie to win a national series championship in NASCAR. He became the youngest champion in the NASCAR Nationwide Series, he was the 2016 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Rookie of the Year. At the age of 13, Elliott was featured alongside thirteen other athletes, including future world number one golfer Jordan Spieth, as potential stars in the July 13, 2009 issue of Sports Illustrated. Elliott raced in 40 races in various series in 2010, winning twelve events over the course of the year and finishing in the top ten 38 times, it was the third season of his racing career, he won the Blizzard Series, Miller Lite and Gulf Coast championship en route to being named the Georgia Asphalt Pro Late Model Series Rookie of the Year.

He ended the season by winning the Winchester 400. Sports Illustrated named Elliott as the high school player of the week in April 2011. During the year, he competed in the Champion Racing Association, winning the series' National Super Late Model championship; that year, just after his sixteenth birthday, he won the Snowball Derby and became the race's youngest winner. He beat DJ Vanderley, by a record 0.229 seconds. In 2012, he won the Alan Turner Snowflake 100, prelude to the Snowball Derby, for the second time in three years. In November 2013, Elliott won the All American 400, becoming the first driver to win all four of the country's largest short-track races: the All American 400, the Snowball Derby, the World Crown 300 and the Winchester 400. In December, it appeared as though Elliott had become the first driver to sweep the Snowball Derby and Snowflake 100 in the same weekend. Upon post-race inspection, however, a piece of tungsten was found in Elliott's car, prohibited by the Derby rulebook.

Elliott was accordingly disqualified and the victory awarded to Erik Jones. Elliott won the Snowball Derby in 2015. Elliott signed a three-year driver development contract with Hendrick Motorsports in February 2011, he competed in the K&N Pro Series East in 2011 with number 9. Elliott returned to the K&N Pro Series East in 2012, winning his first career race in the series at Iowa Speedway in May, he finished fourth in series points. In 2011 and 2012, Elliott competed in three K&N Pro Series West races, all at Phoenix International Raceway. In his lone 2011 event, he finished third, in the 2012 races, he finished 17th and fourth. Elliott competed in six ARCA Racing Series races in 2012 and five races in 2013 with number 9, in order to gain experience at larger circuits. ARCA allows 17-year old drivers to race at Pocono Raceway and Kentucky Speedway, two circuits where NASCAR has a minimum age of 18. On June 8, 2013, Elliott became the youngest winner in ARCA superspeedway history following his Pocono victory.

In January 2013, it was announced that Elliott would compete in nine NASCAR Camping World Truck Series events for Hendrick Motorsports during the 2013 racing season, using trucks prepared by Turner Scott Motorsports. In qualifying for the UNOH 200 at Bristol Motor Speedway, Elliott won his first career NASCAR pole position with a lap speed of 125.183 mph, became the youngest pole-sitter in Truck Series history. Elliott would win his first race in the Chevrolet Silverado 250 at Canadian Tire Motorsport Park, in the first road course truck race outside the US; the win was however controversial. Dillon hit the tire barrier while Elliott went into the grass though recovered enough to be able to coast to the finish line ahead of Kyle Busch Motorsports driver Chad Hackenbracht. Dillon afterwards stated that the next time they raced each other "he won't finish the race"; the following week at Iowa Speedway, Elliott cut down a tire early in the race and crashed without involvement from Dillon. In October 2016, Elliott entered the Alpha Energy Solutions 200 at Martinsville Speedway, his first truck race since 2013, driving the No. 71 for Contreras Motorsports, leasing owners points and the truck chassis from JR Motorsports, where he led the most laps with 109 and finished 2nd.

Elliott joined GMS Racing's No. 23 entry for two races in 2017, he won at Martinsville. Three years he returned to the series and team for the Atlanta race, driving the No. 24. In January 2014, it was announced that Elliott would be competing full-time in the Nationwide Series in 2014, driving the No. 9 Chevrolet for JR Motorsports, with sponsorship from NAPA Auto Parts. On April 4, 2014, Elliott won the O'Reilly Auto Parts 300 at Texas Motor Speedway, holding Kevin Harvick and Kyle Busch off after taking the lead with 16 laps to go. On April 11, 2014, Elliott won the VFW Sport Clips Help a Hero 200 at Darlington Raceway by passing Elliott Sadler on the last la

Mary Lou Bruner

Mary Lou Bruner is an American retired educator and former political candidate. Bruner was a public school teacher and counselor for 36 years before retiring and becoming an activist, she attracted national attention during her 2016 campaign for the Republican nomination for an East Texas seat on the Texas State Board of Education because of her controversial and extreme views on topics including President Barack Obama, the science of evolution and homosexuality. She has expressed her belief that Obama was a gay prostitute, that Islam's goal is to conquer the USA, that pre-K programs encourage children into homosexual marriage, that being a Democrat equates to being a mass-murderer. Bruner, called the "looniest politician in Texas" has been publicly ridiculed for her views. Bruner said in an interview: "I don't know. I'm just saying what I believe."Bruner advanced to a runoff election, but lost in May 2016. Bruner has a bachelor's degree from Texas Wesleyan University and a Master of Education degree in special education from East Texas State University.

Bruner worked in Texas public schools for 36 years, including 20 as a teacher and diagnostician for learning-disabled students in Brownsboro Independent School District. She retired in 2009. Bruner began to be a vocal critic of the 15-member Texas State Board of Education, she addressed the school board in 2010 to share her concerns with the state's school textbooks. When addressing the board members, Bruner expressed alarm to Dallas Democrat Lawrence Allen, a practicing Muslim, that countries in the Middle East were "using their influence to get what they want in the textbooks" and buying Texas' school books, saying, "I think the Middle Easterners are buying the textbooks! They're buying everything else here." In 2016, Bruner ran for the seat on the Texas State Board of Education representing District 9, a district covering 180 small school districts across 31 rural counties "stretching from Rockwall County east of Dallas to the Arkansas border and from the Oklahoma state line to the middle of East Texas."

The conservative region is dominated by conservative Christians and Tea Party activists. The seat was being vacated by the moderate Thomas Ratliff, first elected in 2010 but, not seeking a 2016 reelection. Bruner's opponents in the primary election were Republican Keven Ellis of Lufkin, a chiropractor, the president of the Lufkin school board. More than 107,000 East Texas Republicans voted for Bruner in the primary election, or about 48 percent of the vote, falling short of the required 50 percent Bruner needed to win the election outright. Ellis received Hering 20 percent. Bruner and Ellis advanced to a May 24 runoff election; the SBOE sets curriculum standards for Texas public schools and exerts considerable influence over the selection and content of Texas school textbooks used by over five million K-12 students. Because of the size of Texas' textbook market, learning materials developed for Texas are used in other states as well; the SBOE has faced school textbook controversy in the past when former board members tried to inject ideologically-driven information into science and social studies textbooks that they believed was vital to be taught in Texas schools.

With Bruner on the SBOE, citizens feared the far-right conservative would have an agenda to mount a similar attack on facts. Just prior to the runoff election at a meeting of East Texas superintendents, Bruner gave a speech to the educators, during which she made inaccurate statements about Texas education that forced her audience to fact-check her on the spot. Bruner tried asserting that 50 percent of Texas students are in a special education program, that only one in six public school graduates can read with fluency and comprehension, that one school district started the year with 91 full-time substitute teachers. At each of these statements, different audience members interrupted Bruner's speech to inform her that her statements were not factual. After an audience member stood up and suggested to Bruner that she visit with superintendents in the area, to which Bruner replied that she had, the local county superintendent stood up and informed Bruner that she had never attempted to meet with her.

In the runoff election of May 24, 2016, Bruner was defeated by a wide margin by Ellis. Bruner was 68 years old at the time of her failed runoff election. Bruner has advanced a number of "extreme views on politics and education" via her personal Facebook page; the New York Times noted that Bruner's views matched an "anti-Obama and conspiracy friendly antigovernment mind-set" common in conservative East Texas. As a candidate, Bruner pushed "the boundary of the far right" as her "anti-Obama, anti-Islam, anti-evolution and anti-gay Facebook posts have generated national headlines and turned an obscure school board election into a glimpse of the outer limits of Texas politics." NBC News described Bruner's posts as ranging "from biblical to bizarre" and dating back several years. During the race for the seat on the SBOE, the nonprofit watchdog group Texas Freedom Network, which first brought Bruner's posts to public attention, warned that the SBOE has a history of mixing culture wars with public education and criticized many of Bruner's public statements prior to her primary election.

While some of Bruner's posts were deleted, TFN and journalists of numerous Texas and national publications made screen shots of the posts and began reporting on them, questioning her fitness to hold public office. When asked about her public statements, Bruner defended them, saying "I don't intend to apologize for my opinions because I still believe my statements were accurate." After Bruner's defeat, TFN president Kat