A chocolate bar or candy bar is a confection in an oblong or rectangular form containing chocolate, which may contain layerings or mixtures that include nuts, caramel and wafers. A wide variety of chocolate bar brands are sold. A popular example is a Snickers bar, which consists of nougat mixed with caramel and peanuts, covered in milk chocolate; the first solid chocolate bar was produced by Fry's of Bristol, England in 1847. Fry's Chocolate Cream became the first mass-produced chocolate bar in 1866. In 1912, the Goo Goo Cluster was the first mass-produced combination bar. In some varieties of English and food labeling standards, the term chocolate bar is reserved for bars of solid chocolate, with candy bar used for products with additional ingredients. A wide selection of similar chocolate snacks or nutritional supplements are produced with added sources of protein and vitamins, including energy bars, protein bars and granola bars. In many varieties of English, chocolate bar refers to any confectionery bar.
In some dialects of American English, only bars of solid chocolate are described as chocolate bars, with the phrase candy bar used as a broader term encompassing bars of solid chocolate, bars combining chocolate with other ingredients, bars containing no chocolate at all. In Canada, while the term chocolate bar is used for bars combining chocolate with other ingredients, only bars of solid chocolate can be labelled as a chocolate bar. Up to and including the 19th century, confectionery of all sorts was sold in small pieces to be bagged and bought by weight; the introduction of chocolate as something that could be eaten as is, rather than used to make beverages or desserts, resulted in the earliest bar forms, or tablets. At some point, chocolates came to mean any chocolate-covered sweets, whether nuts, caramel candies, or others; the chocolate bar evolved from all of these in the late-19th century as a way of packaging and selling candy more conveniently for both buyer and seller. It was cheaper to buy candy loose, or in bulk.
The production of chocolate meant to be eaten in bars may predate the French Revolution. The Marquis de Sade wrote to his wife in a letter dated May 16, 1779, complaining about the quality of a care package he had received while in prison. Among the requests that he made for future deliveries were for cookies that "must smell of chocolate, as if one were biting into a chocolate bar." This phrasing is suggestive of chocolate bars being eaten by themselves and not just grated into chocolate-based drinks, as was a far more common use at this time. Such a product would predate the invention of the cocoa press by Coenraad Johannes van Houten and other innovations which made chocolate suitable for mass-production. In 1847, Joseph Fry discovered a way to mix the ingredients of cocoa powder and cocoa to manufacture a paste that could be molded into a solid chocolate bar for consumption. Inspired by Fry, John Cadbury, founder of Cadbury, introduced his brand of the chocolate bar in 1849; that same year and Cadbury chocolate bars were displayed publicly at a trade fair in Bingley Hall, Birmingham.
Fry's chocolate factory, J. S. Fry & Sons of Bristol, began mass-producing chocolate bars and they became popular. Over 220 Fry's products were introduced in the following decades, including Fry's Chocolate Cream bar in 1866, the first chocolate Easter egg in the UK in 1873, Fry's Turkish Delight in 1914. In addition to Cadbury and Fry, Rowntree's and Terry's were major British chocolate companies, as chocolate manufacturing expanded in England throughout the rest of the century. Milk chocolate was invented in Switzerland by Daniel Peter and Henri Nestlé in 1875. Rodolphe Lindt, a Swiss confectioner and inventor, began adding cocoa butter as an ingredient in 1879; the addition of cocoa butter allowed the chocolate bar to melt in the mouth. In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars in the UK. Cadbury Dairy Milk, first produced in 1905, became the company's best selling bar. In the United States, immigrants who arrived with candy-making skills drove the development of new chocolate bars.
Milton S. Hershey, a Pennsylvania caramel maker, saw a German-manufactured chocolate-making machine at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, he ordered one for his Lancaster factory and produced the first American-made milk chocolate bar. In Canada, Ganong Bros. Ltd. of St. Stephen, New Brunswick developed and began selling their version of the modern chocolate bar in 1910. Chocolate bar sales grew in the early-20th century. During World War I, the U. S. Army commissioned a number of American chocolate makers to produce 40 pound blocks of chocolate; these were shipped to Army quartermaster bases and distributed to the troops stationed throughout Europe. When the soldiers returned home, their demand for chocolate contributed to the increasing popularity of the chocolate bar; the first chocolate bars were solid chocolate followed by chocolate coating simple fillings, such as Fry's Chocolate Cream. Producers soon began combining chocolate with other ingredients such as nuts, caramel and wafers. 30,000 varieties of candy bars existed in the United States during the 1920s, most of which were produced locally.
The term Varga in Indian astrology refers to the division of a zodiacal sign into parts. Each such fractional part of a sign, known as an aṃśa, has a source of influence associated with it, so that these sources of influence come to be associated with collections of regions around the zodiac. There are divisional, charts used in Jyotisha; these vargas form the basis of a unique system of finding the auspiciousness or inauspiciousness of planets. Hindu astrology divides the zodiac into several types of segments; the particular location of planets in the Varga charts materially influences the results of planets constituting a yoga. The two sets of vargas that are used are – a) the Shadvarga i.e. the six-fold division of sign namely, the Rasi or sign, the Hora, the Drekkena or decanate, the Navamsa, the Dwadasamsa and the Trimsamsa, b) the Saptavarga i.e. the seven-fold division, by tagging the Saptamsa to the Shadvargas. Some follow the Dasavargas or the ten-fold division, in his Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra, Parasara speaks about the Shodasvarga or the sixteen-fold division of a rasi.
Planets become more auspicious if they are in same zodiac sign in shodasa varga or 16 divisional charts. Accordingly, the status thus acquired by planets stands graded for easy identification etc; when a planet acquires two out of sixteen such vargas or divisions it is known to have gained the status called the Parijatamsa or Bhedakamsa, when three vargas are gained the Uttamamsa or Kusumamsa or Vyanjanamsa, four – the Gopuramsa or Naagpushpamsa or Kimshukamsa or Chaamaramsa, five – the Simhasanamsa or Kundakamsa or Chhatramsa, six – the Parvatamsa or Keralamsa or Kundalamsa, seven – the Devalokamsa or Kalpavrkshamsa or Mukatamsa, eight – the Kumkumamsa or Brahmalokamsa or Chandanvanamsa, nine – the Iravatamsa or Poornachandramsa, ten – the Vyshnavamsa or Shridham or Ucchaishrvamsa, eleven – the Saivamsa Dhanvantriamsa, twelve – the Bhaswadamsa or Suryakantamsa, thirteen – the Vaisheshikamsa or Vidrumamsa, fourteen – the Indrasanamsa, fifteen – the Golokamsa, sixteen – the Shrivallabhamsa.
The Bṛhat Parāśara Horāśāstra defines sixteen divisional schemes, each named according to the denominator of the fraction specific to the division. Thus, the integral fraction is division by 1, which yields, trivially, 12 regions of the zodiac corresponding to the 12 signs themselves: perforce this varga scheme is named rāśi. A divisor of 2 defines 24 regions; the divisor of 3 defining 36 regions, named drekkana, is related to the Decans of Chaldean horology. Four other vargas are attributed to Jaimini: Besides Rāshi, Drekana, Dasamsa and Sashtiamsa are considered significant divisional charts. A planet situated in any one rasi i.e. sign, by itself constitutes a yoga or an ava-yoga owing to the relationship it establishes with the rasi-lord and other bhava-lords with reference to the Lagna and each other, but its mere occupation need not produce the results assigned for its such occupation. No planet acts alone, it becomes an active participant by having established an unavoidable relationship with one or more other planets.
The failure of the yogas to give the expected results can be due to the varga-wise weak status of the dispositors of the yoga-forming planets rather than the weakness of these planets. The Sun situated in the 9th house from the lagna but not in an inimical sign or navamsa gives wealth, sons and piety though it makes one antagonistic towards father and wife and not experience happiness. However, the Sun as the lagna-lord exalted in the 9th makes the person and his father fortunate, have many brothers and friends, adept and renowned. Janardan Harji in his Mansagari states that if at the time of birth any planet occupies a friendly sign or its own sign or is in its exaltation sign in a trikonabhava that planet having gained many favourable vargas gives its assigned good results in full. One such planet makes one wealthy, two adept and renowned. In the section devoted to arishtas and arishtabhanga of Chapter IV he reiterates that if at birth a strong Mercury or Venus or Jupiter is situated in a kendrasthana from the lagna if combined with an evil planet, it will single-handedly soon destroy all arishtas, that the Moon situated in the 8th house from the lagna in a drekkena owned by Jupiter, Venus or Mercury will confer a long lease of life.
America's News Headquarters is a weekend afternoon news program broadcast on Fox News Channel. The show has been broadcast from 1-4am or 1-6am ET during nights of heavy breaking news/event coverage. During election years the program is temporarily replaced by America's Election Headquarters; the term "America's HQ" is seen on the bottom of the channel's rotating logo after the Election season. America's News HQ follows the same format as Fox News Live; the weekday edition of America's News HQ was replaced on the schedule with The Daily Briefing with Dana Perino on October 2, 2017. The former short-lived weekday 5:00 p.m. ET broadcast was hosted at various intervals by Jane Skinner, Heather Nauert, Jon Scott, Martha MacCallum, Bill Hemmer, Megyn Kelly. On January 19, 2009, Glenn Beck took over this time slot when he began hosting a self-titled show, The Glenn Beck Program. America's News HQ continued airing on the weekends. On May 2, 2009, the program broadcasting from the network's New York City studios launched in high-definition.
On October 3, 2009, the program broadcasting from the Fox News' Washington, D. C. studios launched in HD. The weekday edition was relaunched following the 2016 U. S. presidential election, taking the same 2:00 p.m. ET time slot held by America's Election HQ. Melissa Francis a semi regular co-host of Outnumbered, has become the most frequent host of the show's weekday version. Sandra Smith, now co-host of America's Newsroom, anchored both the first and last broadcasts of this version. America's News HQ airs from Noon to 3pm and 4pm to 6pm ET each Saturday. On Sunday, it airs from Noon to 2pm and 4pm to 5pm ET. Regular Ed Henry - Noon anchor Saturday and Sunday Leland Vittert - Weekend afternoons Arthel Neville – Saturday afternoon/evenings.
Frederick William Walker was an English headmaster, successively High Master of Manchester Grammar School and St Paul's School, London. Walker was born in London in 1830, the son of an Irishman and educated at St Saviour's Grammar School, Rugby School and Corpus Christi College, Oxford. After graduating in the Classics he became a Fellow and Tutor of Corpus and was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn. In 1860 he was appointed High Master of Manchester Grammar School and, as a result of his rapid success in raising the standard of teaching at the school, was obliged to introduce entrance examinations in 1862. Between and 1876 the size of the school grew from 250 pupils to 750. In 1867 fee-paying pupils were accepted, enabling the school to introduce modern subjects such as science to the curriculum. In 1877 he left to succeed Herbert Kynaston as High Master at St Paul's School, the first High Master in over a century not to be in Holy Orders. At St Paul's he oversaw the move of the school from its historic location in the City of London to a new sixteen-acre site at Hammersmith.
The site had been bought for £41,000 and architect Alfred Waterhouse created the new building of red brick and terracotta in 1884. Under Walker's headship the school grew in numbers from 211 boys in 1884 to 573 in 1888 and became the most successful school in the country in terms of gaining entrance scholarships to Oxford and Cambridge; the new site allowed the introduction of compulsory games and the reintroduction of boarding
Peter Nicolai Arbo was a Norwegian historical painter, who specialized in painting motifs from Norwegian history and images from Norse mythology. He is most noted for The Wild Hunt of Odin, a dramatic motif based on the Wild Hunt legend and Valkyrie, which depicts a female figure from Norse mythology. Peter Nicolai Arbo grew up at Gulskogen Manor in a borough in Drammen, Norway, he was his wife Marie Christiane von Rosen. His brother Carl Oscar Eugen Arbo was a military medical doctor and a pioneer in Norwegian anthropologic studies. Arbo's childhood home, was built in 1804 as a summer residence for his older cousin, lumber dealer and industrialist Peter Nicolai Arbo. Arbo started his art education with a year at the Art School operated by Frederik Ferdinand Helsted in Copenhagen. After this, he studied at the art academy in Düsseldorf. From 1853 to 1855 he studied under of Karl Ferdinand Sohn, professor of Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, from 1857 to 1858 under Emil Hünten, a battle and animal painter.
At Düsseldorf he was for some time a private student of the history painter Otto Mengelberg. He had contact with Adolph Tidemand and became a good friend of Hans Gude both of whom were professors at the art academy in Düsseldorf, he is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. In 1861 Arbo returned to Norway and the following year he went on a study trip together with Gude and Frederik Collett. In 1863 he painted the first version of Horse flock on the high mountains, a motif he on took up again several times; the version from 1889 is at the National Museum of Art and Design in Oslo and is considered one of the most important of his works. In 1866 he was appointed a Knight of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and the Knight of Order of Vasa, he held numerous positions, including as a juror in Stockholm in 1866 and Philadelphia in 1876, was Commissioner of the Viennese art department exhibition in 1873. He was a member of the National Gallery Company from 1875 and director of the Christiania Art Society from 1882 until his death.
Drammens Museum is located on the southern side of the Drammen River. In earlier years this was an area of elegant country houses on the magnificent landed property known as Marienlyst. Exhibits of the museum include items from the cultural background of Norway. Drammen museum consists of five departments including Gulskogen Manor, the childhood home Peder Nicolai Arbo. In the many beautiful rooms of Gulskogen Manor, one will find works by this distinguished history-painter. Paintings by Peter Nicolai Arbo Marit I. Lange and Anne Berit Skaug Peter Nicolai Arbo 1831-1892 Leif Østby and Henning Alsvik, Norges billedkunst i det nittende og tyvende århundre Page at Norwegian Wikipedia Gulskogen Manor Drammens Museum
The Greenskeeper is a 2002 horror film starring former Major League Baseball relief pitcher John Rocker as the titular character. Young Allen Anderson, a struggling scriptwriter is under pressure from his floozy girlfriend Mary Jane, due to his mediocre lifestyle and her big dream of earning his huge inheritance. While celebrating his 25th birthday, Allen is continuously haunted by strange visions of a figure engulfed in flames, a recurring theme in the film. In the day and some of Allen's friends and co-workers coax Allen to keep the family Golf Club open so they can throw a proper birthday party for him. Unsatisfied, Allen nonetheless invites the rookie employee Elena, whom he likes. Meanwhile, a patron is gruesomely murdered and Allen's uncle John orders the corrupt police officer to keep his trap shut; that night the party is in full swing with most of the group getting either high on drugs or drinking themselves stupid. When one of the guys is left alone in the pool with his eyes covered, a strange figure in a keeper uniform jumps in and murders him.
As the night progresses more people end up dead with the only remaining victims being Elena and Allen. Elena, after escaping the "Greenskeeper's" cottage in the woods, runs into Allen who knocks the assailant with a shovel; as the Greenskeeper utters Allen's name, John shoots him in the chest. Elena discovers bitemarks on the latter's wrist and it becomes clear who the real murderer is, it turns out that the real Greenskeeper is Allen's father, long thought dead after a mysterious explosion. Instead of killing him, Allen's father was mutilated and hid out in the woods never to face humanity. Knowing this, John concocted the murders of Allen's friends in order to divert attention away from him and that with Allen gone, John would become the next heir to the golf club; as John is about to shoot Allen, the Greenskeeper intervenes and the two get into a scuffle. During the fight Allen's father is stabbed with a sprinkler hose and John is decapitated with a propeller blade of a lawn mower. With his dying breath, Allen's father apologises to him for the pain he caused and passes away in Elena's arms.
With the terror of the night concluded and Allen embrace each other and along with Otis, Allen's longtime mentor leave the murder scene as the film ends. Allelon Ruggiero as Allen Anderson Bruce Taylor as John Anderson Ron Lester as Styles Steve Rickman as Chase Thomas Merdis as Otis Washington John Rocker as The Greenskeeper/George Anderson Melissa Ponzio as Elena Rodriguez Jamie Renell as Champ Allison Kulp as Mary Katherine Michael Short as Chet Christi Taylor as Mary Jane Patrick Donovan as Stu Stephanie Bingham as Mary Beth John Judy as Officer Cox Tim Frasier as Helmet Boy Larry Wachs as The Milkman Eric Von Haessler as Redneck The Greenskeeper received mixed reviews; the DVD & Video Guide by Mick Martin and Marsha Porter called the film "surprisingly entertaining" and Film Threat Magazine said it was a "worthwhile excursion" while British site Popcorn Pictures said it was "wholly unoriginal but has just enough mileage in it to see itself to the end". Despite being a B-movie filmed in the Atlanta area, it did receive some mainstream press coverage.
The film received mention in sports media because of the casting of Rocker, an All-Star Major League Baseball pitcher that had made inflammatory political comments. It featured publicity due to the involvement of former Playboy model Christi Taylor and rock musician Kip Winger who performed music for the film