click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chocolate chip cookie

A chocolate chip cookie is a drop cookie that originated in the United States and features chocolate chips or chocolate morsels as its distinguishing ingredient. Circa 1938, Ruth Graves Wakefield added chopped up bits from a Nestlé semi-sweet chocolate bar into a cookie; the traditional recipe starts with a dough composed of butter and both brown and white sugar, semi-sweet chocolate chips and vanilla. Variations on the recipe may add other types of chocolate, as well as additional ingredients such as nuts or oatmeal. There are vegan versions with the necessary ingredient substitutions, such as vegan chocolate chips, vegan margarine, egg substitute, so forth. A chocolate chocolate chip cookie uses a dough flavored with chocolate or cocoa powder, before chocolate chips are mixed in; these variations of the recipe are referred to as ‘double’ or ‘triple’ chocolate chip cookies, depending on the combination of dough and chocolate types. The chocolate chip cookie was invented by American chefs Ruth Graves Wakefield and Sue Brides in 1938.

She invented the recipe during the period when she owned the Toll House Inn, in Whitman, Massachusetts. In this era, the Toll House Inn was a popular restaurant, it is incorrectly reported that she accidentally developed the cookie, that she expected the chocolate chunks would melt, making chocolate cookies. In fact, she stated, she said, "We had been serving a thin butterscotch nut cookie with ice cream. Everybody seemed to love it. So I came up with Toll House cookie." She added. The original recipe in Toll House Tried and True Recipes is called "Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookies". Wakefield's cookbook, Toll House Tried and True Recipes, was first published in 1936 by M. Barrows & Company, New York; the 1938 edition of the cookbook was the first to include the recipe "Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookie" which became a favorite cookie in American homes. During WWII, soldiers from Massachusetts who were stationed overseas shared the cookies they received in care packages from back home with soldiers from other parts of the United States.

Soon, hundreds of soldiers were writing home asking their families to send them some Toll House cookies, Wakefield was soon inundated with letters from around the world requesting her recipe. Thus began the nationwide craze for the chocolate chip cookie; the recipe for chocolate chip cookies was brought to the UK in 1956, with Maryland Cookies one of the UK's best selling chocolate chip cookies. Every bag of Nestlé chocolate chips sold in North America has a variation of her original recipe printed on the back; the original recipe was passed down to Peg. In a 2017 interview, she shared the original recipe: ​1 1⁄2 cups shortening ​1 1⁄8 cups sugar ​1 1⁄8 cups brown sugar 3 eggs ​1 1⁄2 teaspoon salt ​3 1⁄8 cups of flour ​1 1⁄2 teaspoon hot water ​1 1⁄2 teaspoon baking soda ​1 1⁄2 teaspoon vanilla chocolate chips Although the Nestlé's Toll House recipe is known, every brand of chocolate chips, or "semi-sweet chocolate morsels" in Nestlé parlance, sold in the U. S. and Canada bears a variant of the chocolate chip cookie recipe on its packaging.

All baking-oriented cookbooks will contain at least one type of recipe. All commercial bakeries offer their own version of the cookie in packaged baked or ready-to-bake forms. There are at least three national chains that sell freshly baked chocolate chip cookies in shopping malls and standalone retail locations. Several businesses—including Doubletree hotels—offer freshly baked cookies to their patrons to differentiate themselves from their competition. To honor the cookie's creation in the state, on July 9, 1997, Massachusetts designated the chocolate chip cookie as the Official State Cookie, after it was proposed by a third-grade class from Somerset, Massachusetts. Chocolate chip cookies are made with white sugar; some recipes include milk or nuts in the dough. Depending on the ratio of ingredients and mixing and cooking times, some recipes are optimized to produce a softer, chewy style cookie while others will produce a crunchy/crispy style. Regardless of ingredients, the procedure for making the cookie is consistent in all recipes: First, the sugars and fat are creamed with a wooden spoon or electric mixer.

Next, the eggs and vanilla extract are added followed by leavening agent. Depending on the additional flavoring, its addition to the mix will be determined by the type used: peanut butter will be added with the wet ingredients while cocoa powder would be added with the dry ingredients; the titular ingredient, chocolate chips, as well as nuts are mixed in towards the end of the process to minimize breakage, just before the cookies are scooped and positioned on a cookie sheet. Most cookie dough is baked, although some eat the dough as is, or use it as an addition to vanilla ice cream to make chocolate chip cookie dough ice cream; the texture of a chocolate chip cookie is dependent on its fat composition and the type of fat used. A study done by Kansas State University showed that carbohydrate based fat-replacers were more to bind more water, leaving less wat

Stingray (film)

Stingray is a 1978 action comedy film written and directed by Richard Taylor. The film was released theatrically by Avco Embassy Pictures in August 1978; the plot concerns two buddies who buy a 1964 Corvette Stingray, unaware that it is filled with drugs and stolen money. The crooks responsible for planting it in the car soon give chase, along with a number of clueless police officers, it was filmed in Edwardsville, Illinois. Murray Lonigan, whose catchphrase is "icy calm" and Tony Agrosio are two small-time drug dealers who are set up by two crooks during a drug trade, they planted a homer inside a briefcase containing $1,000,000, after finding out, they brutally shoot both of them. Desperate, they store the money and drugs into a Corvette Stingray in a used car lot. Slim, the owner, comes out to see. With nothing or no one in sight, Slim puts a Sold sign on the Corvette's windshield. Meanwhile, at the local A&W restaurant and Tony are enjoying their food when two cops bust them and take them to the station.

The disgruntled Lieutenant Herschel is forced to let them go when the police were unable to find anything in their car, but Herschel orders his partner Sgt. Murphy to follow them, anyway. Soon after, we are introduced to Lonigan and Tony's leader Abigail Bratowski, disguised as a nun to avoid being recognized because she's wanted by the police in several states; the three head to the car lot with Murphy on their tail, but his car soon gets disabled by jumping over a steep hill. They pick up another of their cronies Rosco who has a habit of urinating multiple times in one hour, a running gag in the first half of the film. Much to their dismay, they find out that the car is being bought by two buddies Elmo; as they speed out of the car lot, the gang begins to pursue them, but Al soon gets pulled over for speeding by two cops. Both of them get killed and their car blows up when the four criminals shoot it to oblivion. Tired of distractions and complications, Lonigan decides to purchase a homer of his own so he and the gang can track them down more easily.

When they catch up with them again, along with Herschel and Murphy in a police car, they manage to disrupt a concert in the park by knocking over the stage and sound equipment and Herschel's car ends up getting disabled when a fallen ladder damages the car's radiator. The chase is once again cut short when Abigail demands Lonigan to pull over so she can change out of her nun costume, causing another delay. Thinking that they lost them, Al and Elmo pull the car into a service station to get gas and Al decides to use the phone booth to call the police to explain the situation; when Elmo uses his jacket to wipe the sweat off his face, he notices bags of heroin in the backseat. He yanks Al out of the phone booth, causing him to rip the receiver out. Though annoyed with Elmo, he manages to persuade him that they should peddle the heroin for money or end up getting killed by the cops; as they begin to leave, Lonigan spots them and Al peels out of the station, with Elmo forcing to take a shortcut by running into the woods, with Abigail and Rosco on his tail.

After destroying the roadside snack stand next to the station and Tony go after Al, thinking it will be an easier way to get rid of Abigail since the two are fed up with her. As the chase begins, it gets interrupted by two country hicks, in a delivery truck, blocking their path, Lonigan throws a grenade into the back of their truck, causing them to stop and run for their lives. Al loses them in a construction site by temporarily disabling Lonigan's car with a bulldozer. Meanwhile, in the woods, Elmo hides up in a tree to avoid being spotted by Rosco. Elmo falls to the ground, but manages to run away as the two shoot at him. Abagail accidentally kills Rosco with her machine gun after a brief scuffle. Elmo steals a motorcycle from a young, naked couple making out in the woods and Abagail steals the other one, but soon after, she ends up losing him when she crashes it during a jump and its runs out of gas, she meets up with Lonigan and Tony at the construction site, not knowing that she killed Rosco.

She manages to free the car from the bulldozer and they try to find the Corvette. As night falls, Al decides to make a stop at a neighborhood bar called Ronnie B's to relax and have a beer. Not long after, a weary and filthy-looking Elmo arrives and decides to clean up in the bathroom, but Abagail and Tony arrive thanks to the homer. Abagail instructs Tony to stand guard outside. Once in there, a bar patron tries to hit on Abagail, but she ends up setting his crotch on fire with a cigarette lighter; the pandemonium erupts in an all-out bar fight and amidst the chaos, Al and Elmo sneak out of the bathroom window and are caught by Tony, but Elmo knocks him out after he punches Al to the ground and they escape in the Corvette. At his boiling point, Lonigan lays it on the line with Tony saying he and Tony will not take the heat for this caper and decide to abandon Abagail altogether, they try to run her over in the parking lot. Shortly after and Murphy arrive in the bar with all the patrons and employees laying around in disarray after Abagail fired bullets in the air to stop the fight.

Herschel orders Murphy to put out an APB on Abagail and her cronies. The next day, Al and Elmo are seen driving back into the city, hoping to find another way out of this whole mess. Elmo picks u

Hyde Park (CDP), New York

Hyde Park is a hamlet and census-designated place in the town of Hyde Park, Dutchess County, New York, United States. Its population was 1,908 as of the 2010 census; the hamlet of Hyde Park is on the western side of the town of Hyde Park, bordered on the west by the Hudson River. The northern edge of the hamlet is a tributary of the Hudson. On the north side of the creek, just outside the hamlet, is the Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site; the Springwood Estate, preserved as the Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site, is just outside the hamlet to the south. U. S. Route 9 passes through the center of the hamlet, leading north 5 miles to Staatsburg and south 6 miles to Poughkeepsie, the county seat. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Hyde Park CDP has an area of all of it land. Contrary to popular belief, the Hyde Park CDP is not a village although many residents refer to it as such; however it is not a village in the traditional sense of the word, due to the lack of a village government

Mestre Gabriel

José Gabriel da Costa known as Mestre Gabriel, is the founder of the União do Vegetal, a Christian religious sect that considers Hoasca to be its main sacrament. This beverage is made by boiling two plants and Chacrona, both of which are found in the Amazon rainforest. Mestre Gabriel was born on February 10 in the state of Bahia, Brazil, he received minimal education and moved to Acre, Brazil becoming a rubber tapper in the Amazon region. It was through his work as a rubber tapper. After some years Mestre Gabriel left the forest and moved with his family to Porto Velho, the capital of the Guaporé territory easing access to and expansion of the UDV. There the religious institution was formally registered on November 1st, in the year of 1967. Mestre Gabriel died on September 24, 1971, in Brasília, DF. By he had prepared a group of disciples who united, carry on and distribute the spiritual knowledge taught by Mestre Gabriel. Today the UDV has spread through the Brazilian Amazon and urban areas of the country, being present in all Brazilian capitals.

The UDV is present in numerous other countries such as the USA, Spain, Switzerland and others. History of the UDV and Mestre Gabriel UDV official website

Lake McClure

Lake McClure is a reservoir in the Sierra Nevada foothills of western Mariposa County, California. It is formed by the New Exchequer Dam impounding the Merced River, a tributary of the San Joaquin River, it is about 40 miles east of Modesto. The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for Lake McClure based on levels of mercury found in fish caught from this water body The lake was first created by the original Exchequer Dam, built between 1924 and 1926, a concrete gravity arch dam. Exchequer Reservoir's original capacity was 281,000 acre⋅ft. In 1926 its name was changed to Lake McClure to honor Wilbur Fiske McClure, Head Engineers of the State of California, who helped develop and lay out the John Muir Trail in the Sierra Mountains of California. McClure and his brother, John Clarendon McClure founded the town of Hacienda Heights, California. New Exchequer Dam was built in 1967 to increase the reservoir's capacity to 1,032,000 acre⋅ft.

It is a rock-fill dam with a reinforced concrete face, owned by the local Merced Irrigation District, which supplies northern Merced County farms with water for irrigation through its 800-mile network of canals. At the base of the dam is a hydroelectric plant with a capacity of 94.5 MW. Besides storing water for irrigation, the lake provides opportunities for recreation. Only a small amount of water from the lake is used for drinking water, human contact is allowed. Activities available include boating, water skiing and camping. There is a full service marina at the lake as well. Hang gliding is popular at Lake McClure, the site is soarable 320 days of the year. McSwain Dam, about 6 miles downstream from New Exchequer Dam, was built at the same time and creates Lake McSwain; the lake is a regulating reservoir for releases from Lake McClure. It has a capacity of 9,700 acre feet, about one percent of the capacity of Lake McClure. There is a hydroelectric plant at the dam with a capacity of 9 MW; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has issued a safe eating advisory for any fish caught in Lake McSwain due to elevated levels of mercury.

The Merced Irrigation District is exploring raising the level of the New Exchequer Dam with movable gates placed on the emergency spillway. This would improve storage by 60,000 acre feet and not negatively impact the Wild and Scenic Merced River. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of largest reservoirs of California List of largest reservoirs in the United States Horseshoe Bend, California Merced River Merced Irrigation District United States Geological Survey Information about recreation on Lake McClure "United States Bureau of Reclamation"

Bernhard Boll

Bernhard Boll was a German Roman Catholic priest, Cistercian monk and the first Archbishop of Freiburg. Born Johann Heinrich Boll, he studied theology as a Jesuit novice in Rottweil from 1772 and at the seminary in Dillingen an der Donau, he became a Cistercian monk at Salem Abbey in 1774. He was assessed as intelligent but angry and arrogant and so his probation was extended by a year, meaning he only took his perpetual vows on 13 November 1776, he developed into a devout monk and scholar and was ordained priest in 1780 becoming professor of philosophy at Salem and at Tennenbach Abbey. In 1805 he became professor of philosophy at the University of Freiburg and in 1809 a canon at Freiburg Minster. Secularization and mediatization meant that Germany's dioceses and archdioceses had to be reorganized. One of the archdioceses formed as a result was that of Freiburg, formed by merging the Diocese of Constance with parts of the Mainz, Straßburg, Worms and Würzburg dioceses, it was set up by pope Pius VII in the papal bull "Provida solersque" of 16 August 1821.

The territory of the new archdiocese of Freiburg was in the Grand Duchy of Baden and difficulties arose finding a candidate for its archbishop who would be acceptable to both the pope and to Louis I, Grand Duke of Baden. Pope Leo XII suggested Boll as a compromise candidate in 1824 after Ignaz Heinrich von Wessenberg was rejected and the second choice Ferdinand Geminian Wanker died during the negotiations. Boll was consecrated as archbishop by Ferdinand August von Spiegel, archbishop of Cologne on 21 October 1827. Boll was 71 and suffering form old age and illness, meaning his term of office was an unsuccessful one; the Grand Duchy retained the nomination of all bishops in its lands and held that state power was superior to that of the church in every respect, leaving Boll little leeway. He had to set up an administrative structure for the archdiocese from scratch, since only Hermann von Vicari was transferred to him from the former church administrations in Konstanz and Bruchsal, his cathedral chapter could not reach consensus and so had less influence on the archdiocese's spiritual and liturgical life than traditions left over from its predecessor bishoprics - for example, what had been the diocese of Konstanz was still more marked by the Age of Enlightenment whereas the northern parts of the archdiocese were more traditionalist.

Boll became aware that the work was beyond his abilities and offered the pope his resignation, but he died on 6 March 1836 before the pope could decide whether to accept it. Friedrich von Weech, "Boll, Bernhard", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 3, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 108 Christoph Schmider: Die Freiburger Bischöfe: 175 Jahre Erzbistum Freiburg. Eine Geschichte in Lebensbildern. Freiburg i. Br.: Herder Verlag, 2002. ISBN 3-451-27847-2. Bernhard Boll on catholic-hierarchy.org Biography on konradsblatt