In its governance and religious observance a collegiate church is similar to a cathedral, although a collegiate church is not the seat of a bishop and has no diocesan responsibilities. Collegiate churches were supported by extensive lands held by the church. They commonly provide distinct spaces for congregational worship and for the offices of their clerical community. In England these churches were termed minsters, from the Latin monasterium, in less affluent foundations, the pooled endowments of the community were apportioned between the canons, such canons being termed portioners. Both prebendaries and portioners tended in this period to abandon communal living, because each prebend provided a discrete source of income, in the medieval period prebendaries increasingly tended to be non-resident, paying a vicar to undertake divine service in their place. One particular development of the chantry college principle was the establishment in university cities of collegiate foundations in which the fellows were graduate academics, local parish churches were appropriated to these foundations, thereby initially acquiring collegiate status.
This has influenced the design of churches in that the singing choir is seen as representing the idea of a college. The Westminster model of parliamentary seating arrangement arose from Parliaments use of the collegiate St Stephens Chapel Westminster for its sittings, until Westminster Palace burned down in 1834. Three traditional collegiate churches have survived in England since the Middle Ages, at Westminster Abbey in London, St Georges Chapel of Windsor Castle and St Endellions Church, the idea of a collegiate church has continued to develop a contemporary equivalent. Two different examples of collegiate churches in America today are The Collegiate Church of New York City. St. Pauls Collegiate Church at Storrs features contemporary architecture reflecting traditional collegiate church architecture, unlike most historical collegiate churches, this is a non-denominational, evangelical church. According to church leaders, they chose the name collegiate to emphasize the priesthood of all believers, in the Catholic Church, most cathedrals possess a cathedral chapter and are thus collegiate churches.
The number of collegiate chapters other than those of cathedrals has been reduced compared to times past. Three of them are in Rome, the two basilicas of St. Peter and St. Mary Major, together with the Basilica St. Maria ad Martyres. Elsewhere, three can be found in Germany, to wit, St. Martins Church, Landshut and Jacob in Altötting and St. Remigius in Borken. In Portugal the one example that survives is that of the ancient Real Colegiada of Nossa Senhora da Oliveira in Guimarães, one collegiate church can be found in the Czech Republic, Sts. In pre-Reformation England there were usually a number of churches in each diocese. They were mostly abolished during the reign of Edward VI in 1547, as part of the Reformation, almost all continue to serve as parish churches with a resident rector, vicar or curate
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine. By the use of such places as a haven, by extension the term has come to be used for any place of safety. This secondary use can be categorized into human sanctuary, a place for humans, such as a political sanctuary. The meaning was extended to places of holiness or safety, a religious sanctuary may be a sacred place, or a consecrated area of a church or temple around its tabernacle or altar. Examples are St. Peters Basilica in Rome and St. Albans Cathedral in England, the place, and therefore the church built there, was considered to have been sanctified by what happened there. In modern times, the Catholic Church has continued this practice by placing in the altar of each church, when it is consecrated for use, the relics box is removed when the church is taken out of use as a church. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the antimension on the altar serves a similar function and it is a cloth icon of Christs body taken down from the cross, and typically has the relics of a saint sewn into it.
In addition, it is signed by the bishop, and represents his authorization. In many Western traditions altar rails sometimes mark the edge of the sanctuary or chancel, in many churches the architectural term chancel covers the same area as the sanctuary, and either term may be used. In some Protestant churches, the term denotes the entire worship area while the term chancel is used to refer to the area around the altar-table. In other Oriental Orthodox traditions, a curtain is used. In most modern synagogues, the room for prayer is known as the sanctuary, to contrast it with smaller rooms dedicated to various other services. When referring to prosecution of crimes, sanctuary can mean one of the following, Church sanctuary A sacred place, such as a church, in which fugitives formerly were immune to arrest. While the practice of churches offering sanctuary is still observed in the modern era, political sanctuary Immunity to arrest afforded by a sovereign authority. People seeking political sanctuary typically do so by asking a sovereign authority for asylum, many ancient peoples recognized a religious right of asylum, protecting criminals from legal action and from exile to some extent.
This principle was adopted by the early Christian church, and various rules developed for what the person had to do to qualify for protection and just how much protection it was. By Norman times, there had come to be two kinds of sanctuary, All churches had the kind, but only the churches the king licensed had the broader version. The medieval system of asylum was finally abolished entirely in England by James I in 1623, a prime example is Queen Elizabeth Woodville, consort of Edward IV of England
Cambridge Camden Society
At its peak influence in the 1840s, the society counted over 700 members in its ranks, including bishops of the Church of England, deans at Cambridge University, and Members of Parliament. The society and its publications enjoyed wide influence over the design of English churches throughout the 19th century, the society took its name from the 16th-century antiquary and historian William Camden. The group was responsible for launching some of the first earnest investigations of medieval church design, throughout its lifetime, all of the Societys actions had one goal, to return the Church and churches of England to the religious splendour it saw in the Middle Ages. The society was re-established as the St Pauls Ecclesiological Society in 1879 and that society reverted to the old name, the Ecclesiological Society, in 1937. The societys ecclesiology was an idea about both architecture and worship, inspired by the associationism of the Gothic revival and reform movements within the Anglican Church.
Beginning as far back as Horace Walpoles Strawberry Hill, Gothic architecture was used to associate a building with certain aspects of the Middle Ages. For the early revivalists, this attractiveness was the quality of the architecture. However, the Middle Ages had always had an association with religious piety. The Anglican Church of the early 19th century was a body, filled with corruption among the clergy. The Cambridge Camden Society began in May 1839 as a club for Cambridge undergraduates who shared a common interest in Gothic church design and its first activities were the collection of information about churches across the island. This handbook contained A Blank form for the Description of a Church, thus the Cambridge Camden Society amassed an enormous amount of information about medieval parish churches and came to be seen as an authority on religious architecture. The motive for these extraordinarily scrutinising investigations was the societys belief that man could regain the piety of the Middle Ages by carefully reconstructing them.
In 1841 the society published a pamphlet entitled A Few Words to Church-builders and it consisted of 32 pages with an appendix of 22 pages. The two essential parts of a church were a nave, and a well-defined chancel not less than a third of the length of the nave. Aisles were recommended, because a tripartite church symbolised the Holy Trinity, a tower could be in any position, except over the altar, but was not essential. Stone should be used, not brick, flint being perfectly acceptable, the chancel to be was strictly for the clergy, and no laity should enter. It should be raised at least two steps above the nave, and the altar should be raised and nave should be separated by a roodscreen, that most beautiful and Catholick appendage to a church. This was a radical recommendation–the pamphlet points out not one modern church had such a screen
Lincolnshire is a county in the east of England. It borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, Englands shortest county boundary, the county town is Lincoln, where the county council has its headquarters. The ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the county of Lincolnshire. Therefore, part of the county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. The county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one that is predominantly agricultural in land use, the county is fifth largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included. The county can be broken down into a number of geographical sub-regions including, Lincolnshire derived from the merging of the territory of the ancient Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the county was called Lindsey, and it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire.
A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside, and the south of the Humber was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police and are in the Yorkshire. The remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven and they are part of the East Midlands region. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton and he attended The Kings School and its library has preserved his signature, applied to a window sill when he was a teenager. Lincolnshire is an area, growing large amounts of wheat, sugar beet. In South Lincolnshire, where the soil is rich in nutrients, some of the most common crops include potatoes, cauliflowers. Most such companies are long gone, and Lincolnshire is no longer an engineering centre, however, as a result of the current economic climate some food production facilities have closed down, this has caused some reduction in the levels of migrant workers.
The large number of people from Portugal is still obvious in the town of Boston. A coalition of Conservatives, Liberal Democrats and Independents currently controls Lincolnshire County Council, the Conservative Party comfortably controlled the County Council following the 2009 local elections, in which they increased their majority to 43 seats. The Labour Party lost a total of 15 seats including 7 in Lincoln, the Lincolnshire Independents gained a total of four seats, although one of their number moved to the Conservative group during 2010, increasing the number of Conservative seats to 61
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great, known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer and his father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian, in 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. As emperor, Constantine enacted many administrative, social, the government was restructured and civil and military authority separated. A new gold coin, the solidus, was introduced to combat inflation and it would become the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, at which the Nicene Creed was adopted by Christians, in military matters, the Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions.
The age of Constantine marked an epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He built a new residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople after himself. It would become the capital of the Empire for over one thousand years and his more immediate political legacy was that, in leaving the empire to his sons, he replaced Diocletians tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and centuries after his reign, the medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, and the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity. Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Critics portrayed him as a tyrant, trends in modern and recent scholarship attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on his orders at the site of Jesus tomb in Jerusalem.
The Papal claim to power in the High Middle Ages was based on the supposed Donation of Constantine. He is venerated as a saint by Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholics, though Constantine has historically often been referred to as the First Christian Emperor, scholars debate his actual beliefs or even his actual comprehension of the Christian faith itself. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, and he has always been a controversial figure, the fluctuations in Constantines reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but have strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period. There are no surviving histories or biographies dealing with Constantines life, the nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesareas Vita Constantini, a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiography
Monasticism or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work. Monastic life plays an important role in many Christian churches, especially in the Catholic, similar forms of religious life exist in other faiths, most notably in Buddhism, but in Hinduism and Jainism, although the expressions differ considerably. By contrast, in other religions monasticism is criticized and not practiced, as in Islam and Zoroastrianism, or plays a marginal role, males pursuing a monastic life are generally called monks while female monastics are called nuns. Many monks and nuns live in monasteries to stay away from the secular world, the way of addressing monastics differs between the Christian traditions. As a general rule, in Roman Catholicism and nuns are called brother or sister, while in Eastern Orthodoxy, the Sangha or community of ordained Buddhist bhikkhus and original bhikkhunis was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime over 2500 years ago.
This communal monastic lifestyle grew out of the lifestyle of earlier sects of wandering ascetics and it was initially fairly eremitic or reclusive in nature. Bhikkhus and bhikkunis were expected to live with a minimum of possessions, lay followers provided the daily food that bhikkhus required, and provided shelter for bhikkhus when they needed it. After the Parinibbana of the Buddha, the Buddhist monastic order developed into a primarily cenobitic or communal movement. The practice of living communally during the rainy season, prescribed by the Buddha. The number of rules observed varies with the order, Theravada bhikkhus follow around 227 rules, there are a larger number of rules specified for bhikkhunis. The Buddhist monastic order consists of the male bhikkhu assembly and the female bhikkhuni assembly, initially consisting only of males, it grew to include females after the Buddhas stepmother, asked for and received permission to live as an ordained practitioner. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are expected to fulfill a variety of roles in the Buddhist community and foremost, they are expected to preserve the doctrine and discipline now known as Buddhism.
A bhikkhu or Bhikshu, first ordains as a Samanera, novices often ordain at a young age, but generally no younger than eight. Samaneras live according to the Ten Precepts, but are not responsible for living by the set of monastic rules. Higher ordination, conferring the status of a full Bhikkhu, is only to men who are aged 20 or older. Bhikkhunis follow a progression, but are required to live as Samaneras for longer periods of time- typically five years. The disciplinary regulations for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are intended to create a life that is simple and focused, celibacy is a fundamental part of this form of monastic discipline. Monasticism in Christianity, which provides the origins of the monk and monastery
In architecture, an apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome, known as an Exedra. Smaller apses may be in other locations, especially shrines, an apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault. Commonly, the apse of a church, cathedral or basilica is the semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or sanctuary, in relation to church architecture it is generally the name given to where the altar is placed or where the clergy are seated. An apse is occasionally found in a synagogue, e. g. Maoz Haim Synagogue, the apse is separated from the main part of the church by the transept. Smaller apses are sometimes built in other than the east end. The domed apse became a part of the church plan in the early Christian era. In the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the apse is known as diaconicon. Various ecclesiastical features of which the apse may form part are drawn here, The chancel, directly to the east beyond the choir contains the High Altar.
This area is reserved for the clergy, and was formerly called the presbytery. Hemi-cyclic choirs, first developed in the East, came to use in France in 470, famous northern French examples of chevets are in the Gothic cathedrals of Amiens and Reims. The word ambulatory refers to an aisle in the apse that passes behind the altar and choir. An ambulatory may refer to the passages that enclose a cloister in a monastery, or to other types of aisles round the edge of a church building
Palencia Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in Palencia, Spain. It is dedicated to Saint Antoninus of Pamiers, the cathedral was built from 1172 to 1504 stands over a low vaulted Visigothic crypt. Its more than 130 metres long,42 metres high and 50 metres wide at the centre, making it one of the largest cathedrals in Spain and Europe. Its exterior solid and austere does not reflect the grandeur of its interior, with more than twenty chapels of great artistic, the most recognizable on the outside, is the tower, slim but a little rough, considering your Gothic style. Recent studies and excavations show that it was a military tower, the Cathedrals museum contains a number of important works of art, including a retablo of twelve panels by Juan de Flandes, court painter to Queen Isabella I of Castile and El Grecos St. Sebastian. Diocese of Palencia Catálogo monumental de Castilla y León, junta de Castilla y León,1995. ISBN 84-7846-433-6 Martínez González, Rafael A. Catedrales de Castilla y León, ISBN 84-8012-387-7 Navascués Palacio, Sarthou Carreres, Carlos.
La Catedral de Palencia, un lecho de catedrales, la Catedral de Palencia, guía breve. ISBN 84-8012-515-2 Martínez González, Rafael A, historia y arquitectura, Palencia,1988, ISBN 84-404-1944-9 CALLE CALLE, Francisco Vicente, Las gárgolas de la Catedral de San Antolín de Palencia, www. bubok. com,2008
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. This way of life grew common in the eighth century, in the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth. Those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, in the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e. g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a Vicar Capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, however, they are ordained, that is, priests or members of the clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained almost exclusively in connection with cathedral churches, a canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, which is responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches.
The dean and chapter are the body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, however, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a largely honorary title. It is usually awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese, honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments. They are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral, in some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council, on the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, and hence is currently held by François Hollande. This applies even when the French President is not Catholic, as is the case with the atheist Hollande, the proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain, currently Felipe VI.
The rank of lay canon is especially conferred upon diocesan chancellors and it has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David’s Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception, the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David’s became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries. The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s, even as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, a canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. Historically, the chair in Greek at the university was a canon professorship and this canonry was transferred to the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in 1940
Westminster Cathedral, or the Metropolitan Cathedral of the Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in London is the mother church of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. The site on which the stands in the City of Westminster was purchased by the Diocese of Westminster in 1885. Westminster Cathedral is the largest Catholic church in England and Wales, the land was acquired in 1884 by Wisemans successor, Cardinal Manning, having previously been occupied by the second Tothill Fields Bridewell prison. The cathedral opened in 1903, a year after Bentleys death, one of the first public services in the cathedral was Cardinal Vaughans requiem, the cardinal died on 19 June 1903. For reasons of economy, the decoration of the interior had hardly been started, under the laws of the Catholic Church at the time, no place of worship could be consecrated unless free from debt and having its fabric completed. The consecration ceremony took place on 28 June 1910, although the interior was never finished, in 1977, as part of her Silver Jubilee celebrations, Queen Elizabeth II visited the cathedral.
Although there was no religious service it was symbolic as the first visit of a reigning monarch of the United Kingdom to a Catholic church in the nation since the Reformation. On 28 May 1982, the first day of his pastoral visit to the United Kingdom. On 18 September 2010, on the day of his four-day state visit to the United Kingdom. In January 2011 the cathedral was the venue for the reception and ordination of three former Anglican bishops into the newly formed Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, unlike in a Gothic cathedral, at Westminster they are limited to the interior. The main piers and transverse arches that support the domes divide the nave into three bays, each about 395 square metres, the domes rest on the arches at a height of 27 metres from the floor, the total internal height being 34 metres. In selecting the type of dome, of shallow concavity, for the main roofing, weight. The domes and pendentures are formed of concrete, and as extraneous roofs of timber were dispensed with, the concrete flat roofing around the domes is covered with asphalt.
The sanctuary is essentially Byzantine in its system of construction, the extensions that open out on all sides make the corona of the dome seem independent of support. The eastern termination of the cathedral suggests the Romanesque, or Lombardic style of Northern Italy, the large buttresses resist the pressure of a vault 14. 5-metre in span. Although the cruciform plan is not very noticeable inside the building and these with their twin gables, slated roofs, and square turrets with pyramidal stone cappings suggest a Norman prototype in striking contrast to the rest of the design. The main structural parts of the building are of brick and concrete, following Byzantine tradition, the interior was designed with a view to the application of marble and mosaic. Throughout the exterior, the introduction of white stone bands in connection with the red brickwork produces an impression quite foreign to the British eye
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, a monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. These may include a hospice, a school and a range of agricultural and manufacturing such as a barn. In English usage, the monastery is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of monks. In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics, historically, a convent denoted a house of friars, now more commonly called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in specific ways. The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, in England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community.
Most cathedrals were not monasteries, and were served by canons secular, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a time a cathedral, and was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St Georges Chapel, in most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a more specific definition of the term. Buddhist monasteries are generally called vihara, viharas may be occupied by males or females, and in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may often be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple, in Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are often called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat, in Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be an abbey, or a priory and it may be a community of men or of women.
A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order, in Eastern Christianity, a very small monastic community can be called a skete, and a very large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra. The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the life of an anchorite. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most commonly an ashram, jains use the Buddhist term vihara