A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo
Equipe Matra Sports
Matra Company's sports division under the name of Matra Sports, Equipe Matra Elf and Equipe Matra Sports was formed in 1965 and based at Champagne-sur-Seine, Romorantin-Lanthenay and Vélizy-Villacoublay. In 1979 the sports division was renamed as Automobiles Talbot. In the mid-1960s, Matra enjoyed considerable success in Formula 3 and F2 racing with the MS5 monocoque-based car, winning the French and European championships. In 1967, Jacky Ickx surprised the F1 establishment by posting the third-fastest qualifying time of 8:14" at the German Nürburgring in his 1600cc Matra MS7 F2, allowed to enter alongside the 3000cc F1 cars. In the race, he failed to finish due to a broken suspension. Matra entered Formula One in 1968 when Jackie Stewart was a serious contender, winning several Grands Prix in the Tyrrell-run Matra MS10 which competed alongside the works team; the F1 team was established at Vélizy-Villacoublay in the southwestern suburbs of France. The car's most innovative feature was the use of aviation-inspired structural fuel tanks.
These allowed the chassis to be around 15 kg lighter, while still being stronger than its competitors. The FIA considered the technology to be unsafe and decided to ban it for 1970. Matra CEO Jean-Luc Lagardère made a strategic decision for the 1969 championship: the Matra works team would not compete in Formula One. Matra would instead focus its efforts on Ken Tyrrell's team and build a new DFV powered car with structural fuel tanks though it would only be eligible for a single season; the decision was more radical given that Matra was seeking a partnership with Simca, which would preclude using Ford-branded engines for the following year. Stewart won the 1969 title with the new Cosworth-powered Matra MS80, designed by Gérard Ducarouge and Bernard Boyer, corrected most of the weaknesses of the MS10, it was a spectacular achievement from a constructor that had only entered Formula One the previous year. France became only the third country to have produced a winning constructor, Matra became the only constructor to have won the Constructors' Championship without running its own works team.
Like Cosworth, Lotus and McLaren, Matra experimented with four wheel drive during the 1969 season. Johnny Servoz-Gavin became the one and only driver to score a point with a 4WD car, finishing sixth with the Matra MS84 at the Canadian Grand Prix; the MS84, along with Brabham's BT26A, was one of the last spaceframe cars to compete in Formula One. For 1970 following the agreement with Simca, Matra asked Tyrrell to use their V12 engine rather than the Cosworth. Stewart got to test the Matra V12, but since a large part of the Tyrrell budget was provided by Ford, another significant sponsor was French state-owned petroleum company Elf, which had an agreement with Renault that precluded supporting a Simca partner, the partnership between Matra and Tyrrell ended. Matra V12 engines powered the Shadow DN7 car in two races of 1975 and the Ligier Formula 1 team from 1976–1978, again from 1981-1982; the firm was successful in endurance racing with cars powered by the V12 engine. The sportscar team was based at first at Vélizy-Villacoublay and moved to Le Castellet, near Marseille, France.
The Matra MS670 won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1972, 1973, 1974. It delivered the World Championship for Makes to Matra in both 1973 and 1974. Matra MS1 Matra MS2 Matra MS5 Matra MS6 Matra MS7 Matra MS9 Matra MS10 Matra MS11 Matra MS80 Matra MS84 Matra MS120 Matra MS120B Matra MS120C Matra MS120D Matra MS610 Matra MS620 Matra MS630 Matra-Simca MS630 Matra-Simca MS630/650 Matra MS640 Matra-Simca MS650 Matra-Simca MS660 Matra-Simca MS660C Matra-Simca MS670 Matra-Simca MS670B Matra-Simca MS670C Matra-Simca MS680 334 races, all categories, spanning 10 years 124 victories, 104 lap records 1 Formula One World Drivers' Championship 1 Formula One World Constructors' Championship 5 French Formula Two Championships 3 European Formula Two Championships 3 French Formula Three Championships 2 World Championship for Makes 3 victories at 24 Hours of Le Mans 2 victories at Tour de France Automobile 1 In the 1968 Constructors' Championship, Matra-Ford finished 3rd, Matra finished 9th http://www.matrasport.dk/ http://www.epaf.fr Restoration & rebuild of Matra competition cars
A clutch is a mechanical device which engages and disengages power transmission from driving shaft to driven shaft. In the simplest application, clutches disconnect two rotating shafts. In these devices, one shaft is attached to an engine or other power unit while the other shaft provides output power for work. While the motions involved are rotary, linear clutches are possible. In a torque-controlled drill, for instance, one shaft is driven by a motor and the other drives a drill chuck; the clutch connects the two shafts so they may be locked together and spin at the same speed, locked together but spinning at different speeds, or unlocked and spinning at different speeds. The vast majority of clutches rely on frictional forces for their operation; the purpose of friction clutches is to connect a moving member to another, moving at a different speed or stationary to synchronize the speeds, and/or to transmit power. As little slippage as possible between the two members is desired. Various materials have been used including asbestos in the past.
Modern clutches use a compound organic resin with copper wire facing or a ceramic material. Ceramic materials are used in heavy applications such as racing or heavy-duty hauling, though the harder ceramic materials increase flywheel and pressure plate wear. In the case of "wet" clutches, composite paper materials are common. Since these "wet" clutches use an oil bath or flow-through cooling method for keeping the disc pack lubricated and cooled little wear is seen when using composite paper materials. Friction-disc clutches are classified as push type or pull type depending on the location of the pressure plate fulcrum points. In a pull-type clutch, the action of pressing the pedal pulls the release bearing, pulling on the diaphragm spring and disengaging the vehicle drive; the opposite is true with a push type, the release bearing is pushed into the clutch disengaging the vehicle drive. In this instance, the release bearing can be known as a thrust bearing. A clutch damper is a device. In automotive applications, this is provided by a mechanism in the clutch disc centres.
In addition to the damped disc centres, which reduce driveline vibration, pre-dampers may be used to reduce gear rattle at idle by changing the natural frequency of the disc. These weaker springs are compressed by the radial vibrations of an idling engine, they are compressed and no longer in use once the main damper springs take up drive. Mercedes truck examples: A clamp load of 33 kN is normal for a single plate 430; the 400 Twin application offers a clamp load of a mere 23 kN. Bursts speeds are around 5,000 rpm with the weakest point being the facing rivet. Modern clutch development focuses its attention on the simplification of the overall assembly and/or manufacturing method. For example, drive straps are now employed to transfer torque as well as lift the pressure plate upon disengagement of vehicle drive. With regard to the manufacture of diaphragm springs, heat treatment is crucial. Laser welding is becoming more common as a method of attaching the drive plate to the disc ring with the laser being between 2-3KW and a feed rate 1m/minute.
This type of clutch has several driving members interleaved or "stacked" with several driven members. It is used in racing cars including Formula 1, IndyCar, World Rally and most club racing. Multiplate clutches see much use in drag racing, which requires the best acceleration possible, is notorious for the abuse the clutch is subjected to. Thus, they can be found in motorcycles, in automatic transmissions and in some diesel locomotives with mechanical transmissions, it is used in some electronically controlled all-wheel drive systems as well as in some transfer cases. They can be found in some heavy machinery such as tanks and AFV's and earthmoving equipment, as well as components in certain types of limited slip differentials; the benefit in the case of motorsports is that you can achieve the same total friction force with a much smaller overall diameter. In motorsports vehicles that run at high engine/drivetrain speeds, the smaller diameter reduces rotational inertia, making the drivetrain components accelerate more as well as reducing the velocity of the outer areas of the clutch unit, which could become stressed and fail at the high drivetrain rotational rates achieved in sports such as Formula 1 or drag racing.
In the case of heavy equipment, which deal with high torque forces and drivetrain loads, a single plate clutch of the necessary strength would be too large to package as a component of the driveline. Another, different theme on the multiplate clutch is the clutches used in the fastest classes of drag racing specialized, purpose-built cars such as Top Fuel dragsters or Funny Cars; these cars are so powerful that to attempt a start with a simple clutch would result in complete loss of traction. To avoid this problem, Top Fuel cars use a single, fixed gear ratio, a series of clutches that are engaged one at a time, rather than in unison, progressively allowing more power to the wheels. A single one of these clutch plates can not hold more than a fr
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Brabham is the common name for Motor Racing Developments Ltd. a British racing car manufacturer and Formula One racing team. Founded in 1960 by two Australians, driver Jack Brabham and designer Ron Tauranac, the team won four Drivers' and two Constructors' World Championships in its 30-year Formula One history. Jack Brabham's 1966 FIA Drivers' Championship remains the only such achievement using a car bearing the driver's own name. In the 1960s, Brabham was the world's largest manufacturer of open-wheel racing cars for sale to customer teams. During this period, teams using Brabham cars won championships in Formula Three. Brabham cars competed in the Indianapolis 500 and in Formula 5000 racing. In the 1970s and 1980s, Brabham introduced such innovations as in-race refuelling, carbon brakes, hydropneumatic suspension, its unique Gordon Murray-designed "fan car" won its only race before being withdrawn. The team won two more Formula One Drivers' Championships in the 1980s with Brazilian Nelson Piquet.
He won his first championship in 1981 in the ground effect BT49-Ford, became the first to win a Drivers' Championship with a turbocharged car, in 1983. In 1983 the Brabham BT52, driven by Piquet and Italian Riccardo Patrese, was powered by the BMW M12 straight-4 engine, powered Brabham to four of the team's 35 Grand Prix victories. British businessman Bernie Ecclestone owned Brabham during most of the 1970s and 1980s, became responsible for administering the commercial aspects of Formula One. Ecclestone sold the team in 1988, its last owner was the a Japanese engineering firm. Midway through the 1992 season, the team collapsed financially as Middlebridge was unable to make repayments against loans provided by Landhurst Leasing; the case was investigated by the United Kingdom Serious Fraud Office. In 2009, an unsuccessful attempt was made by a German organisation to enter the 2010 Formula One season using the Brabham name; the Brabham team was founded by Jack Brabham and Ron Tauranac, who met in 1951 while both were building and racing cars in their native Australia.
Brabham was the more successful driver and went to the United Kingdom in 1955 to further his racing career. There he started driving for the Cooper Car Company works team and by 1958 had progressed with them to Formula One, the highest category of open-wheel racing defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, motor sport's world governing body. In 1959 and 1960, Brabham won the Formula One World Drivers' Championship in Cooper's revolutionary mid-engined cars. Despite their innovation of putting the engine behind the driver, the Coopers and their chief designer, Owen Maddock, were resistant to developing their cars. Brabham pushed for further advances, played a significant role in developing Cooper's successful 1960 T53 "lowline" car, with input from his friend Tauranac. Brabham was confident he could do better than Cooper, in late 1959 he asked Tauranac to come to the UK and work with him producing upgrade kits for Sunbeam Rapier and Triumph Herald road cars at his car dealership, Jack Brabham Motors, but with the long-term aim of designing racing cars.
Brabham describes Tauranac as "absolutely the only bloke I'd have gone into partnership with". Brabham offered a Coventry-Climax FWE-engined version of the Herald, with 83 hp and uprated suspension to match the extra power. To meet that aim and Tauranac set up Motor Racing Developments Ltd. deliberately avoiding the use of either man's name. The new company would compete with Cooper in the market for customer racing cars; as Brabham was still employed by Cooper, Tauranac produced the first MRD car, for the entry level Formula Junior class, in secrecy. Unveiled in the summer of 1961, the "MRD" was soon renamed. Motoring journalist Jabby Crombac pointed out that " way a Frenchman pronounces those initials—written phonetically,'em air day'—sounded perilously like the French word... merde." Gavin Youl achieved a second-place finish at another at Mallory Park in the MRD-Ford. The cars were subsequently known as Brabhams, with type numbers starting with BT for "Brabham Tauranac". By the 1961 Formula One season, the Lotus and Ferrari teams had developed the mid-engined approach further than Cooper.
Brabham had a poor season, scoring only four points, and—having run his own private Coopers in non-championship events during 1961—left the company in 1962 to drive for his own team: the Brabham Racing Organisation, using cars built by Motor Racing Developments. The team was based at Chessington and held the British licence. Motor Racing Developments concentrated on making money by building cars for sale to customers in lower formulae, so the new car for the Formula One team was not ready until partway through the 1962 Formula One season; the Brabham Racing Organisation started the year fielding a customer Lotus chassis, delivered at 3:00 am in order to keep it a secret. Brabham took two points finishes in Lotuses, before the turquoise-liveried Brabham BT3 car made its debut at the 1962 German Grand Prix, it retired with a throttle problem after 9 of the 15 laps, but went on to take a pair of fourth places at the end of the season. From the 1963 season, Brabham was partnered by American driver Dan Gurney, the pair now running in Australia's racing colours of green and gold.
Brabham took the team's first win at the non-championship Solitude Grand Prix in 1963. Gurney took the marque's first two wins in the world championship, at the 1964 French and Mexican Grands Prix. Brabham works and customer cars took another three non-championship wins during the 1964 season; the 1965 season was less successful, with no championship wins. Brabham finis
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company
Firestone Tire and Rubber Company is an American tire company founded by Harvey Firestone in 1900 to supply solid rubber side-wire tires for fire apparatus, pneumatic tires for wagons and other forms of wheeled transportation common in the era. Firestone soon saw the huge potential for marketing tires for automobiles, the company was a pioneer in the mass production of tires. Harvey Firestone had a personal friendship with Henry Ford, used this to become the original equipment supplier of Ford Motor Company automobiles, was active in the replacement market. In 1988, the company was sold to the Japanese Bridgestone Corporation. Firestone was based in Akron, Ohio the hometown of its archrival and two other midsized competitors, General Tire and Rubber and BFGoodrich. Founded on August 3, 1900, the company initiated operations with 12 employees. Together and Goodyear were the largest suppliers of automotive tires in North America for over 75 years. In 1906, Henry Ford chose Firestone to supply tires for its car models.
In 1918, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company of Canada was incorporated in Hamilton and the first Canadian-made tire rolled off the line on September 15, 1922. During the 1920s, Firestone produced the Oldfield tire, named for racing driver Barney Oldfield. In 1926, the company opened one of the world's biggest rubber plantations in Liberia, West Africa, spanning more than one million acres; that year, the company opened its first Firestone Tire and Service Center. Firestone Complete Auto Care is the division of Firestone that offers automotive maintenance and repair, including tires. In 1927, Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone took a trip to southern California to select locations for their new factories. Friends say Ford wanted to be near the ocean and picked Long Beach and suggested Firestone go to South Gate; the tiny community southeast of downtown Los Angeles was agricultural at the time and Firestone found 40 acres of beanfield to house his new manufacturing plant. Architects Curlett and Beelman created a spectacular four-story Italianate complex, with its own power plant and gorgeous polychrome murals by Gladding, McBean depicting the tire and rubber-making process.
A year after the plant opened in 1928, it doubled in size, grew to nearly one million square feet by 1954. The town grew around Firestone, its main boulevard was named after Harvey, Los Angeles became the number one tire market in the country. By the mid-1970s, Ford and GM had massive layoffs as Firestone and other manufacturers opened new plants in non-union locales like Wilson, North Carolina. After considerable downsizing, the end at South Gate came in 1980 when 1,300 workers were laid off and the plant closed. East Los Angeles College has proposed a new satellite campus at the site. In 1928, the company built a factory in Brentford, England, a longtime Art Deco landmark on a major route into the city. In 1936, the company opened a plant in Tennessee. With a work force exceeding 3,000 employees, the Memphis plant was the largest tire manufacturer in the company's worldwide operation. On July 1, 1963, the company celebrated the production of 100 million tires in Memphis; the plant was closed in 1982.
On October 11, 1941, the Firestone Rubber and Latex plant in Fall River Mass had 5 out of 8 buildings and at least 15,000 tons of rubber destroyed by fire. The fire incurred $12 million in damage. During World War II, the company was called on by the U. S. Government to make artillery shells, aluminum kegs for food transport, rubberized military products. Barrage balloons were produced at Akron. Firestone ranked 55th among U. S. corporations in the value of wartime military production contracts. In the 1940s, Firestone was given a defense contract to produce plastic helmet liners. In 1951, Firestone was given the defense contract for the MGM-5 Corporal missile. Firestone was given a total of $6,888,796 for the first 200 units. Known as the "Embryo of the Army," it was a surface-to-surface guided missile which could deliver a high-explosive warhead up to 75 nautical miles, it was modified to be able to carry a nuclear payload for use in the event of Cold War hostilities in Eastern Europe. Built in southern California, this missile was replaced in 1962 by the MGM-29 Sergeant system.
In 1961, Firestone acquired the Dayton Tire division from the Dayco Corporation. Dayco sued both Firestone and Goodyear, alleging that the two companies conspired to monopolize the tire industry in the United States; the United States District Court dismissed the lawsuit. In late 1979, Firestone brought in John Nevin, the ex-head of Zenith Electronics, as president to save the hemorrhaging company from total collapse, it was more than a billion dollars in debt at the time, losing $250 million a year. Nevin closed nine of the company's seventeen manufacturing plants, including six in one day, relocated the company from its ancestral home in Akron to Chicago, he spun off non-tire related businesses, including the Firestone Country Club. In 1988, after discussions with Pirelli, Nevin negotiated the sale of the company to the Japanese company Bridgestone, able to buy the company for much less than it had been worth a decade and a half earlier; the combined Bridgestone / Firestone North American operations are now based in Nashville, Tennessee.
The companies celebrated a 20-year anniversary of the merger in 2008, changed the tire division name to Bridgestone Americ
The DFV is an internal combustion engine, produced by Cosworth for Formula One motor racing. The name is an abbreviation of Double Four Valve, the engine being a V8 development of the earlier four-cylinder FVA, which had four valves per cylinder, its development in 1967 for Colin Chapman's Team Lotus was sponsored by Ford. For many years it was the dominant engine in Formula One, it was used in other categories of racing, including CART, Formula 3000 and sportscar racing; the engine is a 90°, 2,993 cc V8 with a bore and stroke of 85.67 x 64.897 mm producing over 400 bhp from the start reaching over 500 bhp by the end of its Formula 1 career. The 1983 DFY variant had a revised bore and stroke of 90 x 59 mm giving 2,993 cc and 520–530 bhp at 11,000 rpm, 280 ft⋅lbf torque at 8,500 rpm. In 1965, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, that administered Formula One racing, agreed to raise the series' maximum engine capacity from 1.5 litres to 3.0 litres from 1966. Up until that point, Colin Chapman's successful Team Lotus cars had relied on power from fast revving Coventry Climax engines, but with the change in regulations Coventry Climax decided for business reasons not to develop a large capacity engine.
Chapman approached Keith Duckworth a gearbox engineer at Lotus but now running his fledgling Cosworth company with Mike Costin, who commented that he could produce a competitive three-litre engine, given a development budget of £100,000. Chapman approached the Ford Motor Company and David Brown of Aston Martin for funding, each without initial success. Chapman approached Ford of Britain's public relations chief, former journalist Walter Hayes, with whom he had developed a close working relationship from the early 1960s. Since Hayes had joined Ford in 1962 the pair had collaborated in the production of the successful Lotus Cortina, introduced in 1963. Hayes arranged dinner for Chapman with Ford employee Harley Copp, a British-based American engineer who had backed and engineered Ford's successful entry into NASCAR in the 1950s. Hayes and Copp developed a business plan, backed by Ford UK's new chairman Stanley Gillen, approved by Ford's Detroit head office as a two-part plan: Stage one would produce a four-cylinder twin-cam engine for Formula Two Stage two would produce a V8 engine for Formula One, by May 1967 The project was revealed by Hayes in a PR launch in Detroit at the end of 1965, but the engine was not ready until the third race of the 1967 season, on the 4 June at Zandvoort.
Its debut proved successful. Graham Hill, in the team at the specific request of Ford and Hayes, put his DFV-powered Lotus 49 on pole position by half a second and led for the first 10 laps but was sidelined by a broken gear in the camshaft drive. Team-mate Jim Clark came home to win. However, this dominant performance belied a serious fault in the timing gear. Clark took three more wins that season, but reliability problems left him third in the Drivers' Championship, 10 points behind champion Denny Hulme; the progress of the engine was documented in a film produced by the Ford Motor Company's film section, entitled 9 Days in Summer. The agreement between Ford and Lotus was binding on all parties, Ford as the funder had no plans to sell or hire the DFV to any other teams. However, it occurred to Hayes that there was no competition: the Ferrari engine was underpowered. Only Brabham's Repco V8 engine provided a usable combination of power and reliability, but its age and design left little room for further improvement.
Hayes concluded that Ford's name could become tarnished if the Lotus were to continue winning against only lesser opposition, that they should agree to use the unit in other teams, hence dominate Formula One. At the end of 1967, Copp and Hayes explained to Chapman that he would no longer have monopoly use of the DFV and in August 1967 it was announced that the power unit would be available for sale, via Cosworth Engineering, to racing teams throughout the world. Hayes released the DFV to French team Matra, headed by Ken Tyrrell with Jackie Stewart as a driver. What followed was a golden age, where teams big or small could buy an engine, competitive, compact, easy to work with and cheap; the DFV replaced the Coventry Climax as the standard F1 powerplant for the private teams. Lotus, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Hesketh, Williams, Penske and Ligier are just some of the teams to have used the DFV. In 1969 and 1973 every World Championship race was won by DFV-powered cars, with the engine taking a total of 155 wins from 262 races between 1967 and 1985.
The advent of ground effect aerodynamics on the F1 scene in 1977 provided a new lease of life for the now decade-old engine. The principle relied on Venturi tunnels on the underside of the car to create low pressure regions and thus additional downforce. Teams running Ferrari and Alfa-Romeo flat-12 engines had enjoyed a handling advantage due to the low centre of gravity in such a configuration. However, for ground effect, the wide engine was the opposite of what was required as the cylinder heads protruded into the area where the Venturi tunnels should have been. In contrast, the V-configuration of the Cosworth engine angled the cylinders upwards and left ample s